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About this book

This book elaborates the science and engineering basis for energy-efficient driving in conventional and autonomous cars. After covering the physics of energy-efficient motion in conventional, hybrid, and electric powertrains, the book chiefly focuses on the energy-saving potential of connected and automated vehicles. It reveals how being connected to other vehicles and the infrastructure enables the anticipation of upcoming driving-relevant factors, e.g. hills, curves, slow traffic, state of traffic signals, and movements of nearby vehicles. In turn, automation allows vehicles to adjust their motion more precisely in anticipation of upcoming events, and to save energy. Lastly, the energy-efficient motion of connected and automated vehicles could have a harmonizing effect on mixed traffic, leading to additional energy savings for neighboring vehicles. Building on classical methods of powertrain modeling, optimization, and optimal control, the book further develops the theory of energy-efficient driving. In addition, it presents numerous theoretical and applied case studies that highlight the real-world implications of the theory developed. The book is chiefly intended for undergraduate and graduate engineering students and industry practitioners with a background in mechanical, electrical, or automotive engineering, computer science or robotics.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Energy Saving Potentials of CAVs

Abstract
The shift that we are witnessing toward vehicle connectivity and autonomy is going to be perhaps, the most disruptive since the early days of automobiles and could revolutionize movement of people and goods. According to one estimation, the number of connected cars sold globally will grow to 152 million across the globe by 2020, a sixfold increase with respect to 2015 (McCarthy, Connected cars by the numbers, 2015, [1]).
Antonio Sciarretta, Ardalan Vahidi

Chapter 2. Fundamentals of Vehicle Modeling

Abstract
At least three energy conversion steps are relevant for a comprehensive analysis of energy efficiency of passenger cars and other road vehicles. As illustrated in Fig. 2.1, in a first step (“grid-to-tank”) , energy carriers that are available at stationary distribution networks, such as gasoline, electricity, etc., are transferred to an on-board storage system. This energy is then converted by the propulsion system to mechanical energy aimed at propelling the vehicle (‘“tank-to-wheels”) . In the third energy conversion step (“wheel-to-distance”) , this mechanical energy is ultimately converted into the kinetic and potential energy required by the displacement. Unfortunately, all of these conversion processes may cause substantial energy losses.
Antonio Sciarretta, Ardalan Vahidi

Chapter 3. Perception and Control for Connected and Automated Vehicles

Abstract
In this book, by connected vehicles we are referring to vehicles that use communication technologies such as DSRC and cellular for vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication.
Antonio Sciarretta, Ardalan Vahidi

Chapter 4. Route and Traffic Description

Abstract
In order to predict and minimize the energy consumption of road vehicles, modeling the vehicle and its powertrain is not sufficient. Several quantities introduced in the previous chapter (e.g., time horizon, grade, curvature, constraints to speed, etc.) are in fact functions of the road followed, its infrastructure, and the vehicle’s traffic environment.
Antonio Sciarretta, Ardalan Vahidi

Chapter 5. Energy-Efficient Route Navigation (Eco-Routing)

Abstract
Eco-routing methods are the strategies and tools aimed at minimizing a vehicle’s energy consumption by route selection. Given some origin and destination, which are typically chosen by the driver or user, eco-routing plans an energy-minimal route.
Antonio Sciarretta, Ardalan Vahidi

Chapter 6. Energy-Efficient Speed Profiles (Eco-Driving)

Abstract
The adoption of an energy-efficient driving style is the goal of “eco-driving” techniques. Drivers that follow these techniques (often called “hypermilers”) are obviously motivated by the fuel or energy savings that can be achieved.
Antonio Sciarretta, Ardalan Vahidi

Chapter 7. Specific Scenarios and Applications

Abstract
In this chapter, the general methods for computing eco-driving strategies introduced in Chap. 6 are applied to several driving scenarios. These scenarios roughly reflect the list of Sect. 6.​1.​1 and comprise of: acceleration to a cruise speed (Sect. 7.1), deceleration to stop (Sect. 7.2), cruising with road slopes (Sect. 7.3), driving between stops with a speed limit (Sect. 7.5), approaching an intersection (Sect. 7.6), approaching a traffic light (Sect. 7.7), and car following (Sect. 7.8).
Antonio Sciarretta, Ardalan Vahidi

Chapter 8. Eco-Driving Practical Implementation

Abstract
The aim of this section is to present a few practical implementation issues of eco-driving. In Sect. 8.1 we shall discuss the various eco-driving systems that implement partly or fully the concepts described in the previous chapters. All of these systems use the localization, perception, and planning/control functions that have been treated throughout this book.
Antonio Sciarretta, Ardalan Vahidi

Chapter 9. Detailed Case Studies

Abstract
In this chapter we present a few case studies that demonstrate and possibly expand the concepts presented earlier in this book in practical applications. Each case study is often a compilation of several research papers led by the authors and is meant to highlight system integration and practical considerations.
Antonio Sciarretta, Ardalan Vahidi

Backmatter

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