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2019 | Book

Energy from Organic Materials (Biomass)

A Volume in the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, Second Edition


About this book

This comprehensive reference is a state-of-the-art survey of biomass as an energy carrier for the provision of heat, electricity, and transportation fuel, considering technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects. On a global scale, biomass contributes roughly 12 to 16 % of the energy needed to cover the overall primary energy consumption. Thus far, it is humanity’s most important source of renewable energy, used on practically all continents and growing in importance even in industrialized nations. With detailed coverage of the production of solid, gaseous and liquid fuels, as well as a final energy provision, this volume serves as an introduction for readers just entering the field, but also offers new insights, up-to-date information, as well as latest findings for advanced researchers, industry experts, and decision makers.

Table of Contents

Renewable Energy from Biomass: Introduction
Martin Kaltschmitt

Resource Side

Biomass Production: Biological Basics
Matthias Gilbert, Christian Wilhelm
Wood from Forests: Trees and Production Schemes
Michael Köhl
Short Rotation Coppice: Status and Prospects
Anne Rödl
Lignocellulosic Energy Grasses for Combustion, Production, and Provision
Yasir Iqbal, Iris Lewandowski
Biogas Substrates from Municipalities and Industries
Ulrike Seyfert, Daniela Thrän, Jasmin Kalcher
Biogas Production and Energy Cropping
Christoph Strauß, Armin Vetter, Michael Dickeduisberg, Andreas Von Felde
Algae: A New Biomass Resource
Alberta Pinnola, Cinzia Formighieri, Roberto Bassi
World Markets for Wood: Status and Prospects
Udo Mantau, Marian Mayr, Przemko Döring, Ulrike Saal, Sebastian Glasenapp, Christian Blanke
World Markets for Sugar and Starch: Status and Prospects
Verena Wolf, Marlen Haß
World Markets for Vegetable Oils: Status and Prospects
Thomas Mielke
Biomass Resources, Worldwide
André P. C. Faaij

Overview Conversion

Biomass as Renewable Source of Energy: Possible Conversion Routes
Martin Kaltschmitt

Heat and Electricity from Solid Biofuels

Thermochemical Conversion of Solid Biofuels: Processes and Techniques
Daniel Christ, Marvin Scherzinger, Ulf Neuling, Martin Kaltschmitt
Solid Biofuels and Their Characteristics
Hans Hartmann
Upgraded “New” Solid Biofuels
Marco Klemm, Ralf Schmersahl, Claudia Kirsten, Nadja Weller, Annett Pollex, Jan Hari Arti Khalsa, Thomas Zeng
Emissions from Solid Biofuel Combustion: Pollutant Formation and Control Options
Isabel Höfer, Martin Kaltschmitt, Alexander Beckendorff
Biomass Energy Heat Provision for Cooking and Heating in Developing Countries
Ralph P. Overend
Biomass Energy Heat Provision in Modern Small-Scale Systems
Hans Hartmann, Volker Lenz
Biomass Energy Heat Provision in Modern Large-Scale Systems
Ingwald Obernberger, Friedrich Biedermann, Thomas Brunner
Biomass Energy Small-Scale Combined Heat and Power Systems
Daniel Büchner, Andreas Ortwein, Ernst Höftberger, Volker Lenz
Biomass Combustion for Electricity Generation
Andreas Wiese
Co-combustion of Solid Biofuels in Coal-Fired Power Plants
Hartmut Spliethoff, Christian Wolf
Small Scale Biomass Gasification for Rural Electrification
Marco Klemm
Large Scale Biomass Gasification for Electricity and Fuels
Hermann Hofbauer

Heat and Electricity from Biogas

Anaerobic Fermentation of Organic Material: Biological Processes and Their Control Parameters
Jan Liebetrau, Sören Weinrich, Heike Sträuber, Jörg Kretzschmar
Biogas for Energy Provision from Agricultural Feedstock: Hi-Tech Applications
Frank Scholwin, Michael Nelles, Johan Grope
Biogas for Energy Provision from Organic Waste: Hi-Tech Applications
Henrik B. Møller, Alastair J. Ward

Fuel for Transportation Purpose

Conversion Pathways Toward Transportation Fuels: Identification and Comparison
Ulf Neuling, Martin Kaltschmitt
Liquid Fuels from Vegetable Oil
Ulf Neuling, Martin Kaltschmitt
Bioethanol from Sugar and Starch
Anton Friedl
Bioethanol from Sugar: The Brazilian Experience
José Goldemberg, Suani Teixeira Coelho, Patricia Guardabassi, Plinio Mário Nastari
Bioethanol from Starch: The US Experience
Dale A. Monceaux
Bioethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass
Charles E. Wyman, Charles M. Cai, Rajeev Kumar
Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels Derived from Alcohols
Jan Pechstein, Martin Kaltschmitt
Biomass to Liquid (BtL)
Hermann Hofbauer, Reinhard Rauch
Biosynthetic Natural Gas (Bio-SNG)
Tilman J. Schildhauer
Transportation Biofuels via the Pyrolysis Pathway: Status and Prospects
Javier Fermoso, Patricia Pizarro, Juan M. Coronado, David P. Serrano
Biomethane in the Transportation Sector
Sebastian Timmerberg, Christiane Dieckmann, Ralph Mackenthun, Martin Kaltschmitt
Bio-Gtl Processes
Jan Peer Gebauer, Martin Kaltschmitt
Biofuels: A Technical, Economic, and Environmental Comparison
Franziska Mueller-Langer, Stefan Majer, Anastasios Perimenis

Other Options

Plant Oil Fuels Combined Heat and Power (CHP)
Klaus Thuneke
Pyrolysis of Solid Biomass: Basics, Processes and Products

A thorough assessment has been made of the characteristics of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Fast pyrolysis uniquely gives high yields of a homogenous mobile liquid for direct use for heat and power and indirect use for biofuels and green chemicals. An improved understanding of the significance of the different aspects of quality of bio-oil helps to establish standards and key quality requirements which help to define limitations for use. An appreciation of the potential for bio-oil to meet a broad spectrum of applications in renewable energy has led to a significantly increased R&D activity in studying the science and technology of fast pyrolysis with increased emphasis on quality improvement. This increased activity is evident in North America, Europe, and Asia with many new entrants as well as expansion of existing activities. The only disappointment is the continued limited industrial development and deployment of fast pyrolysis that are necessary to provide the basic bio-oil raw material for development and exploitation of applications.

Anthony V. Bridgwater
Hydrothermal Conversion of Biomass
Frédéric Vogel

Energy System Aspects

Bioenergy within Global Energy Systems: Current and Future Contribution
Martin Kaltschmitt, Annika Magdowski
Bioenergy: Role in Balancing the Electricity Grid and as Energy Storage
David Chiaramonti, Leonardo Nibbi, Antti Arasto, Juha Kiviluoma, Eric van den Heuvel, Lars Waldheim, Kyriakos Maniatis
Biomass Provision and Use: Sustainability Aspects
Floor van der Hilst, Ric Hoefnagels, Martin Junginger, Marc Londo, Li Shen, Birka Wicke
The Biorefinery Approach
Lisa M. Schmidt, Lennart F. Andersen, Christiane Dieckmann, Anne Lamp, Martin Kaltschmitt
Innovative Options for Energy Provision
Christian Wilhelm
Energy from Organic Materials (Biomass)
Prof. Martin Kaltschmitt
Copyright Year
Springer New York
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN

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