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2024 | Book

Energy Power and Automation Engineering

Select Proceedings of the International Conference, ICEPAE 2023

Editors: Sanjay Yadav, Yogendra Arya, Nor Asiah Muhamad, Karim Sebaa

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series : Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering

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About this book

This book presents the select proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Energy Power and Automation Engineering, ICEPAE 2023. It focuses on the research of clean energy power, low-carbon technology for power generation, and energy automation technology. The book Enriches understanding by including contributions from leading experts. The book will be useful for researchers and professionals interested in the broad field of power energy.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Energy Conversion and Utilization and Thermal Power Engineering

Frontmatter
Analysis of the Thermal–Hydraulic Characteristics of Supercritical CO2/Kr Mixtures in the Straight-Channel Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger

The supercritical carbon dioxide recompression Brayton cycle (SCO2RBC) has attracted much attention as one of the most promising thermal power conversion systems. As the component with the largest volume and quantity in the cycle, the heat exchanger has a crucial impact on the cycle efficiency. Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is widely utilized as regenerator and precooler in the Brayton cycle. CO2/krypton has shown great potential for development as the working fluid of Brayton cycle. In this work, PCHE is analyzed as the high-temperature regenerator for Brayton cycle with CO2/krypton mixtures as the heat transfer fluid in both hot and cold channels. Thermal properties of CO2/Kr vary with temperature, and mass fraction of Kr is explored. The thermal–hydraulic characteristics of S-CO2/Kr mixture flow in straight-channel PCHE are investigated. The effects of krypton mass fraction, channel diameter, and Reynolds number on heat transfer and friction features are discussed via numerical analysis. The results show that the Nusselt number of cold and hot channel increases by 1.09 and 0.87% when the molar fraction of krypton varies from 0 to 0.25 while the change of Fanning friction factor can be neglected. The channel diameter and Reynolds number have important effects on the thermal–hydraulic performance of cold and hot channels. New correlations are developed for the flow and heat transfer performance of CO2/krypton (mass fraction 0.75/0.25) PCHEs with errors of less than ± 5%.

Ya-Nan Ma, Peng Hu
Hydrogen Fuel Cells Lifetime Prediction Based on Multi-layer Perceptron

Hydrogen fuel cells lifetime is essential for vehicles utilization and machines, which has been concerned by existing researchers. However, existing prediction is based on mathematical calculation and leaks the parameters of other situations including using situation and cells surroundings. This paper presents a novel approach to predict the lifetime of hydrogen fuel cells using a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) model by measuring the cell voltages. The lifetime of hydrogen fuel cells is a critical factor in their successful application and deployment. In this work, a MLP model is utilized to predict the lifetime of hydrogen fuel cells based on various input parameters including temperature, voltage and current information. The model is trained and tested on a dataset of experimental results from a laboratory-scale hydrogen fuel cell. The results demonstrate that the proposed MLP model is able to accurately predict the lifetime of hydrogen fuel cells with a mean absolute error of 0.17 years. This approach is promising for the development of hydrogen fuel cell technology and could be used to optimize the design and operation of fuel cells.

Xiaokai Zhou, Qinyu Liu
Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Droplet Growth Processes in Flow Channel of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

Liquid water transport is an important issue for water management in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with multi-relaxation time (MRT) is presented to simulate the droplet growth process in the flow channel during the operation of PEMFC. The effects of different flow channel heights, contact angles of the flow channel surface, and the size, distribution and distance of liquid pores are considered. By analyzing the droplet shape changes and the detachment time, it is found that lower flow channel height and larger contact angle are favorable for droplet detachment, and the detached droplet mass is smaller. When two liquid pores are present, the droplet interaction hinders the droplet detachment, especially when the diameter of both pores is 35 μm, a liquid film is formed on the flow channel surface, and the droplet can be detached only by increasing the distance between the two pores.

Jiadong Liao, Guogang Yang, Shian Li, Qiuwan Shen, Ziheng Jiang, Hao Wang
Deviation Control and Fast Drilling Technologies in the Carboniferous Strata of Junggar Basin

The Carboniferous strata deep in Junggar basin have great exploration potential. The previous drilling practice showed that its geological conditions are very complicated, such as poor drillability and difficult deviation control, which severely influence drilling speed and increase downhole risk, so research on deviation control and fast drilling technologies was conducted to accelerate the exploration and development of Carboniferous strata. Technical difficulties and deviation causes of Carboniferous strata in Junggar basin were analyzed and summarized. Through analyzing their technical advantages and adaptability, it was presented that gas drilling, compound drilling with impregnated diamond bit and turbodrill and automatic vertical drilling were three effective drilling technologies for deviation control and fast drilling in the Carboniferous strata. Through comparatively analyzing the deviation correction ability of tapered drill string assembly, single stabilizer pendulum assembly and double stabilizer pendulum assembly with trend angle of deviation, the deviation correction ability of three assemblies were significantly decreased along with WOB increasing, and the deviation control ability of single stabilizer pendulum assembly was best when WOB was bigger, while the deviation correction ability of double stabilizer pendulum assembly was best when WOB was smaller. All the technical solutions have important guiding for drilling in the Carboniferous strata of Junggar basin.

Hongshan Zhao, Min Zeng, Jingyang Xi
Study on Dielectric Characteristics of Composite Based on Functional Design

In recent years, with the rapid development of ultra-high-voltage AC and DC transmission technology, the problem of electric field equalization and regulation of high-voltage electrical equipment has become increasingly prominent. Due to the fact that the conductivity and dielectric constant of nonlinear insulating materials can vary with the intensity of the electric field, they have excellent effects on homogenizing the distribution of the electric field and inhibiting the accumulation of electric charges. Using them to manufacture insulation for high-voltage electrical equipment is expected to improve the reliability and structural compactness of products, ensure the stable operation of the power grid, and solve the problem of uneven voltage distribution. The purpose of this thesis is to explore a composite dielectric material with high dielectric properties and good processability. Using BaTiO3 powder as functional phases, epoxy resin (EP) as matrix phase, a solution blending method was used to prepare BaTiO3/EP composite materials to investigate for its dielectric characteristics.

Chen Chen, Hao Liao, Jiaxiao Yan, Yunjie Fang, Chenghui Lin, Wenbin Zeng
Optimal Operation of CHP Units and Thermal Storage Electric Heating Considering Wind Power Consumption

In the background of “dual carbon,” as the scale of wind turbines connected to the grid becomes larger, the grid needs to improve the capacity of wind power consumption. At the same time, considering the weak peaking capacity of combined heat and power (CHP) units during the winter heating period in northern regions due to the problem of “heat-determined electricity,” a large amount of abandoned wind is generated. In order to limit the wind abandonment and carbon emission, this paper introduces the wind abandonment penalty and carbon trading mechanism and establishes the system operation model with the optimal system operation cost.

Gaoqiang Qu, Chengchen Li, Shiqin Wang, Zhaoxi Wang, Zifa Liu, Qingping Zhang, Peng Wan
Study on the Effect of Inorganic Fiber on the Energy Storage Characteristics of Sandwich Composite Films

Polymer-based composite dielectrics are expected to be widely used as key materials for thin film capacitors in fields such as pulsed power supplies and high-power energy storage systems due to their excellent breakdown performance and excellent flexibility. This work uses PVDF polymers as a matrix and introduces PMMA to reduce dielectric loss. Inorganic fibers with different structures were designed and filled into the intermediate layer of the sandwich structure, with polymers selected as outer layers on both sides to maintain flexibility. It was found that the addition of Ag particles can effectively improve the polarization strength of the composite film, but the breakdown characteristics also deteriorate. However, the addition of the Al2O3 shell layer can effectively alleviate the problem of breakdown degradation and reduce ferroelectric losses. Finally, ABA Film has the best energy storage characteristics, with a discharge energy storage density of 5.98 J/cm2, and a charge–discharge efficiency of not less than 65.4%.

Yang Cui, Guang Liu, Chang Hai Zhang
Nonlinear Dynamic Modelling for the Novel Inverse-Pendulum Wave Energy Converter with a Constant-Pressure Hydraulic Power Take-off

Novel inverse-pendulum wave energy converter (NIPWEC) is an optional oscillating wave surge converter. It utilizes an adjustable internal mass to realize the wave–structure interaction system resonance and the efficient power generation. Several references have researched on its performance via wave flume tests or numerical simulations. However, the NIPWEC structure with a constant-pressure hydraulic power take-off (CPHPTO) has not been systematic investigated. This paper aims at the dynamic modelling and performance assessment of the NIPWEC with a CPHPTO. At first, a wave-to-wire nonlinear state space model (SSM) is constructed. Then, the SSM correctness is verified by comparing simulation results to the existing experimental/simulation data. Finally, the response curve analysis and performance assessment are implemented against different electric loads. Results show that the CPHPTO efficiency, output active power and wave-to-wire efficiency could all be weakened under the excessive resistance, vice versa. Besides, both the inductive and capacitive components possess the capability of reducing the values of the above three variables. According to the simulated efficiency values, NIPWEC can obtain the wave-to-wire efficiency of 0.4, when it is at a resonant state. In the future, we will further investigate the influence of different designed parameters on the NIPWEC operating performance based on the SSM.

Xuhui Yue, Guanchen Liu, Junjie Yang, Jiaying Liu, Qijuan Chen
Spectral Properties of GaAs Cell Under the Space Irradiation

GaAs solar cell is the most important source of energy of satellite to maintain the steady working. Irradiation of electron and ozone will affect the performance of the GaAs solar cell. This paper is focused on the variety of spectral properties of GaAs cell under space irradiation. The surface structure is constructed according to the interaction between the solar surface and irradiation electron and atomic oxygen. Then the effect of erosion of structured surface on the spectral properties of GaAs cell is discussed. The variety of the spectral with the change of parameters of rough surface is investigated, which can be a good candidate for satellite design.

Yutao Zhang, Xiaying Meng, Jian Liu, Lingxuan Zhu, Yi Liao, Yunze Gao
Control Method of High-power Flywheel Energy Storage System Based on Position Sensorless Algorithm

In this paper, a direct arcsine method based on motor-side voltage is proposed to estimate rotor position and speed. However, under high power, the inductive voltage drop of the flywheel motor is larger, and the motor-side voltage has a larger phase difference with the counter-electromotive force of the motor. By analyzing the operating state of the voltage circle during flywheel charging and discharging at high power, the angle is compensated, so that the angle can be corrected. This paper also gives the control method for charging and discharging the flywheel energy storage system based on the speed-free algorithm. Finally, experiments are carried out on real hardware to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the control method of flywheel energy storage system based on the speed sensorless algorithm.

Zeming Zeng, Congzhe Gao, Dahui Zhang
Analysis of the Effect of Pressure on the Flow Characteristics of Pulverized Coal in a Pipe Based on Surface Energy Theory

The surface energy of coal powder has a significant impact on its tribological properties. Due to the presence of surface energy, free molecules in the air will undergo physical adsorption on the surface of coal powder, resulting in changes in surface structure. Pressure has a significant impact on the physical adsorption and surface structure of coal powder, thereby altering its flow characteristics. Establish a model for pneumatic conveying in the pipeline between the outlet of the coal mill and the boiler burner, and use CFD software Fluent to numerically simulate the movement of coal powder in the pipeline. In numerical simulation, the effects of different pressure levels on the velocity of coal powder at the outlet of the pipeline were studied under the same inlet and outlet pressure difference. The simulation results showed that within the pressure level range of this study, the velocity of coal powder at the outlet of the pipeline increased as the pressure decreased. Based on the analysis of surface energy theory, it can be concluded that as the pressure level decreases, the surface energy of coal powder decreases, the adsorption capacity of coal powder decreases, the interaction force between coal powder decreases, the friction loss of coal powder in the pipeline decreases, and the flow characteristics of coal powder enhance.

Zhifeng Kang, Zhihai Cheng
Risk Assessment and Early Warning Model for Water Conservancy Projects Based on IoT and Big Data

The conventional risk assessment methods for water conservancy projects mainly rely on calculating project risk values to achieve risk assessment. However, there is usually a lack of consistency testing of risk values, resulting in poor assessment. Therefore, a water conservancy project risk assessment and warning model based on the Internet of Things and big data is proposed. Analyze project risk characteristics, extract key influencing factors, and construct a risk assessment system. Calculate the weight values of evaluation indicators through the judgment matrix and test their consistency. By using the KNN algorithm, the risk assessment level is combined with the risk assessment level to achieve the evaluation and early warning of engineering projects. The experimental results show that when this method is used for engineering project risk assessment, the error between the evaluation score and the expert score is small, and the average value of the evaluation error is below 0.5, ensuring the accuracy of the assessment.

Xiuqian Yang, Jing Zhao
Preparation and Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Connector

Lanthanum chromate (LaCrO3) is a kind of ceramic bonding material in common use at present, in order to improve the phenomenon of poor sintering activity and conductivity, this article doped lanthanum chromate (LaCrO3)-based materials with different elements and ratios to improve their performance. A series of La0.8Ca0.2Cr1−xCuxO3 (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) perovskite-type oxides were prepared by sol–gel method using LaCrO3-based materials modified by Ca–Cu doping. After doping, the material has a series of advantages, such as coefficient of thermal expansion matching with electrolyte, and good chemical compatibility with other parts of the battery, good chemical stability in the reduction atmosphere, and high conductivity in the air and the reduction atmosphere, at 800 °C, the maximum conductivity of La0.8Ca0.2Cr1−xCuxO3 is 22.1 s cm−1 in air and 12.31 s cm−1 in H2.

Xuhan Li, Kening Sun
Study of Obstruction Rate in Confined Spaces on the Behavior and Overpressure Characteristics of LPG Deflagration Flame

Experiments were conducted with a self-designed small-scale oil and gas explosion device and studied the effect of flat-type obstacles with different obstruction rates on LPG deflagration behavior and overpressure characteristics and deflagration pressure relief phenomenon in a narrow space. The results showed that the appearance of peak breaking pressure was largely independent of the arrangement of the barrier. Throughout the explosion process, the pressure at the ignition port gradually increases as the obstruction rate decreases, while the pressure at the vent decreases as the obstruction rate decreases. The peak of the negative pressure generated during the explosion similarly decreases as the obstruction rate decreases. And the arrangement with a reduced obstruction rate has a suppressive effect on flame propagation, while the arrangement with an increased obstruction rate will have an accelerating effect on flame propagation.

Jianfeng Gao, Yanan Han, Yang Wu, Xiaojun Shao, Bingjian Ai
Economic Analysis of the Energy Storage Systems for Frequency Regulation

Energy storage system is expected to be the crucial component of the future new power system. Besides the capacity service, the energy storage system can also provide frequency support to the power system with high penetration of renewable power. This paper firstly discusses the economic features for the various energy storage systems for frequency regulation. And then, based on the pros and cons of the existing energy storage systems, the paper proposes the constructure of the hybrid energy storage systems that can achieve promising frequency regulation effect.

Lidong Guo, Yi Peng, Weiwei Li, Hai Yu, Tianchen Gu, Kaiwei Wang
Construction of Heat Load Demand Quantitative Model for Clean Heating

This paper fully considers the flexible response ability of thermal load and the potential of clean energy consumption, builds a quantitative model of thermal load demand for clean energy consumption, and takes a clean heating demonstration project as an example to analyze the economy of the waste air heat storage heating system. An example shows that its economic benefits can be greatly improved under this quantitative model.

Weiqi Zhang, Baosheng Chen
Conditional Value at Risk Model of New Power System Reserve Assessment Considering Primary Energy Supply Risk

To deal with the difficulty of assessing the reserve demand of the new power system caused by the strong randomness in the new power system, a reserve assessment method of the new power system considering the primary energy supply risk is proposed. Based on conditional value at risk theory, this method constructs a reserve evaluation model by quantifying the risk of loss of load and current of renewable energy, which overrides the shortcuts of traditional statistical methods that cannot consider the coupling characteristics of time period. Based on the actual case in Guangdong, the effective management of power balance and new energy consumption risk of standby time-sharing assessment is verified, and the evaluation method for the reserve assessment of the new power system considering the risk of primary energy supply is provided with both reliability and economy.

Shuiping Zhang, Lian Tu, Qinwei Duan, Zhu Chao, Xuchen Tang, Xingxing Wanyan, Xiaoting Chen
Numerical Simulation of Coal Seam Floor Under Multi-field Coupling

This article presents a THM (Thermal–Hydrological–Mechanical) coupling model for the temperature field, seepage field, and stress field of rock masses. The study investigates the inherent effects of various structural rock masses when subjected to the coupling of tectonic stress field, rock mass temperature field, and groundwater seepage field. Firstly, the connected THM model's governing equation was formulated by integrating the equations related to solid deformation, seepage control differential, mechanics, and heat transfer. Secondly, the coupling model is built by setting boundary conditions. Finally, the model was numerically simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics. The results showed that under the coupling effect of stress seepage temperature, there is almost no effect on the geothermal in the promoting process of the production, whereas the seepage field has a great influence on the temperature distribution, and the temperature contour will move toward the seepage velocity. The faster the seepage velocity is, the greater the influence on the geothermal gradient is, and the more obvious the influence on the temperature distribution.

Hao Li, Chunhui Yang
Research on Control Technology of Ship Hybrid Propulsion System

Generally speaking, gas turbines have the advantages of light weight, small size, high power, and fast response, but also have the disadvantage of high fuel consumption, while diesel engines have the opposite. Due to the complementary characteristics of these two types of prime movers, in order to maximize the power potential of diesel engines, it is necessary to study the electromechanical compatibility of the combined propulsion system by considering the combined drive technology of diesel engines and gas turbines.

Minggang Li, Jing Chen
Optimization Methodologies for Uncertainty Characterization with Large-Scale Renewables Integration

The increasing penetration of renewable sources into the power grid brings uncertainty of active power on both the generation side and demand side also increases significantly. Power grid dispatching needs to be transformed from deterministic optimization to uncertain optimization. The scenario-based, stochastic programming, and robust optimization methods are optimization methods that can be used to characterize the uncertainty of renewable energy generation and improve power grid dispatching. This paper utilizes three methods to characterize the uncertainty of renewable output and employs a series of techniques to convert these methods into optimization that can be directly handled by existing solvers. An evaluation of each method is provided at the end.

Miao Wang, Zeke Li, Bo Sun, Haiwei Fan, Xin Hu, Linglong Ding
Quantitative Research on Energy-Saving Benefits of Different Integration Methods of Vehicle–Grid

The National High Technology Research and development Program in the “10th Five-Year Plan” 863 plan proposed a major scientific and technological project of “electric vehicles,” and the electric vehicle technology system has been continuously improved. Especially after the goal of carbon peaking and carbon neutrality is put forward, the interaction between transportation and energy is further enhanced, and the integration of electric vehicles and the power grid has become an increasingly normal state. This research focuses on the energy-saving benefits of the integrated development of electric vehicles and power grids. By constructing a quantitative model, we explore the best technical path for the synergy between the two to achieve the greatest energy-saving benefits and provide a basis for large-scale demonstration applications of vehicle–grid integration.

Jia Zhao, Peng Liu, Peng Ge, Yifang Zhu, Haifeng Fang, Shu Wang
Collaborative Optimization Method for Integrated Energy of Campus Cluster Based on Improved Particle Swarm Optimization

In order to fully adapt to the natural endowment and load distribution of the region and facilitate the overall arrangement of energy supply and consumption activities in a specific range, the integrated energy system of the park is generally established based on the differences in the construction and operation of energy supply facilities in the park. At present, many studies have been carried out on the optimal scheduling of the integrated energy system in the park. In view of the uncertain energy Internet in the park, the coupling relationship exists between the energy flow and the equipment in the park. In this paper, the particle swarm optimization is easy to fall into local optima. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is improved, and the adaptive mutation mechanism is integrated into the adaptive mutation particle swarm algorithm. The effectiveness of the new algorithm is verified by the simulation results using MATLAB software. Through the simulation analysis of the park, it can be concluded that different constraint operation strategies have a certain impact on the optimization of the park energy Internet. By improving the alternate direction of variable step, the optimal operation scheme of the system is obtained, which not only ensures the economy of the integrated energy system in the park, but also takes into account the flexible and stable operation of the distribution network.

Jie Xu, Jianli Yang
Thermal Management of Batteries with Nano Phase Change Material Emulsion as Cooling Medium

This paper mainly discusses the 5C high discharge rate, OP28E phase change emulsion was used instead of water as the cooling medium to cool the battery pack. Taking 18,650 battery as the research object, the 6s4p battery was analyzed by ANSYS FLUENT. The comparison of cooling capacity and power consumption between water and OP28E emulsion with different concentrations was analyzed, and the influence of coolant flow rate was analyzed. The results show that 10% OP28E emulsion was better than water.

Zhaoyang Deng, Xuliang Xie, Yanliang Shi, Luyang Zhang
Application of Hydrogen Reburning Technology in Low Nitrogen Combustion in 660 MW Coal-Fired Boilers

Coal-fired boilers are one of the main sources of NOx emissions, and controlling the generation and emission of nitrogen oxides is a hot issue of general concern in today’s society. Hydrogen has the characteristics of “zero pollution”, by analyzing the nature of hydrogen combustion, according to the principle of reburning, hydrogen is used as a reburning fuel in a 660 MW coal-fired boiler, and an embodiment scheme for hydrogen reburning to reduce NOx generation is proposed. Through theoretical analysis and calculation, the technical parameters of hydrogen reburning are obtained, which effectively improves the denitration efficiency, and NOx can be reduced by about 30%, which plays a positive guiding role for the application of hydrogen reburning in coal-fired boilers.

Hufei Zhou, Fangqin Li, Xiaolei Zhang, Haoyang Li, Jianxing Ren
Study on the Optimization of Grinding Efficiency in Gold Mine Concentrator

Through the investigation of the mill grading process of the concentrator, the operation concentration is determined, analyze the feeding and drainage of the ball mill, feed, overflow and sand return, and understand the problems of various operations, production status of various processes and units in the mill grading process, and evaluate the reasons of 10% of + 0.6 mm content of the selected material. Through the optimization of process parameters, adjusting the amount of grinding and grading supplement, the grinding concentration and grading concentration are reasonably controlled, and the particle size composition of operation products is optimized. Through the optimization of equipment parameters, the size of hydrocyclone overflow core and sand settling nozzle are adjusted to optimize the classification effect. Through the optimization of grinding efficiency, the content of + 0.6 mm was reduced from 10% to less than 1%, and the content of − 0.074 mm increased from 45 to 50%; the recovery rate increased from 93.17 to 93.41%, increasing by 0.24%.

Guangsheng Li, Xingfu Zhu, Xiangwei Qin, Mingming Cai, Chao Xu
Detection Method of UAV Operation in Power Transmission and Transformation Engineering Based on Thermal Radiation Technology and Temperature Standard Source

Due to the low average accuracy of drone operation detection and recognition, it is necessary to design a new operation detection method for drones in power transmission and transformation engineering based on thermal radiation technology and temperature standard sources. Utilizing thermal radiation technology and temperature standard sources to perform 3D reconstruction and dense image matching for drone operation detection, planning the path for drone operation detection in power transmission and transformation projects, and completing drone operation monitoring in power transmission and transformation projects. The experimental results show that this method has good detection effect, high average accuracy and accuracy of detection and recognition, and has certain application value, making a certain contribution to improving the safety of transmission and transformation engineering.

Bin Wang, Shengchao Jiang, Haoze Zhuo, Feifeng Wang, Yunqing Pei
Investigation on the Ablation Characteristics of Copper–Tungsten Contacts in SF6 Gas

In modern power system, SF6 circuit breaker undertakes the important tasks of short circuit protection, switching control, and power distribution, which is an important factor to maintain the safe and stable operation of the system. The ablation caused by arc will shorten the electrical life and breaking performance of the contact system. Therefore, it is necessary to study the electrode ablation characteristics in SF6 gas arc and explore the influence of different factors on the electrode ablation. In this paper, based on the new in-situ optical diagnosis platform, the ablation of copper–tungsten contacts is studied experimentally, which provides theoretical support and basic parameters for the design and optimization of SF6 circuit breaker contact system.

Xiabo Chen, Xubo He, Hao Sun, Feng Jiang, Zeyu Wang, Mingming Sun, Dongyang An
Comparative Study on International Zero-Carbon Building Certification System Under the Vision of Carbon Neutrality

Under the background of carbon neutrality and peak carbon dioxide emissions, the concept of zero-carbon building has been paid more and more attention, and the transition to low-carbon and zero-carbon has become the future development trend of China’s construction industry. In this paper, five international typical zero-carbon building certification systems with different regions and different development levels are selected as the research objects, and the basic situation of different systems is introduced, and the five zero-carbon building certification systems are compared from three aspects: certification preconditions, evaluation objects, and evaluation contents. Finally, combined with the characteristics of five typical international zero-carbon building certification systems and the current specific situation of zero-carbon building development in China, this paper puts forward suggestions for organizations and enterprises interested in applying for zero-carbon building certification to continuously improve the level of zero-carbon buildings and apply for zero-carbon building certification with different certification difficulties in stages. Relevant organizations and enterprises can give priority to the zero-carbon building certification launched by CAGBC and the building certification jointly launched by TÜV Rhineland and BRE, and then further apply for LEED Zero certification launched by USGBC and other certification systems with stricter requirements on carbon balance.

Yunbo Zhang, Keying Qian, Qiang Wang, Jie Wang, Yingang Feng, Jingjing Zhang

Mechanical Manufacturing and Electrical Automation Control

Frontmatter
Experimental Study on Transient Behavior of Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolytic Cells Under Voltage Fluctuations

The transient behavior of proton exchange membrane (PEMEC) under voltage fluctuation conditions is a research focus for hydrogen production from renewable energy sources. This paper conducts an experimental study on the transient response of PEMEC under voltage fluctuation conditions. The transient behavior of PEMEC under different voltage fluctuation conditions is explored. The experimental results show that the voltage fluctuation causes a significant current overshoot. The current overshoot amplitude increases with the voltage step amplitude. The overshoot phenomenon is more pronounced at low voltages, and the overshoot decreases with the overall voltage increase. Voltage regulation at high voltages should reduce the magnitude of voltage changes to prevent excessive transient power from damaging the electrolyzer and creating safety problems. In addition, the current overshoot is larger at the beginning of continuous voltage fluctuation. The current amplitude gradually decreases and stabilizes as the voltage fluctuation time increases. This study elucidates the transient behavior of PEMEC during voltage fluctuations. The study results are expected to provide technical support and data reference for developing control systems for renewable energy hydrogen production systems under fluctuating conditions.

Xin Su, LiJun Xu, Bin Hu, Di Zhu, LuXiang Mi, TianYi Jia
Mechanical Design of an Intelligent Grass Square Laying Vehicle

At present, desertification management mainly adopts the method of laying grass squares. However, at present, the grass square lattice mainly relies on manual completion, low efficiency, and high cost. Therefore, the author’s team has developed a kind of intelligent grass square lattice laying vehicle. The device mainly includes: grass delivery device, laying mechanism, and traveling mechanism. The design of the device realizes the horizontal and vertical simultaneous laying of grass squares, instead of manual reinforcement of grass squares, which greatly improves the working efficiency, reduces the amount of manual labor, and solves the problems existing in the traditional sand fixing vehicle. The prototype test results show that the device can complete the task with higher speed and better laying effect. The intelligent grass lattice laying vehicle proposed in this paper has high practicality and feasibility, which is of great significance to improve the efficiency and quality of grass lattice laying, and at the same time provides a new research idea for other researchers in the field of desertification management.

Xin Chen, Zige Fan, Yilan Wu, Xiao Qi, Xiaoxuan Luan, Haoyu Qin, Maotou Song, Yaxi Wang
Research on the Optimization Model of Time-of-Use Electricity Price Linkage Between Supply and Demand

After the implementation of time-of-use electricity price on both sides of supply and demand, the system benefits brought by them need to be transmitted and distributed through electricity price. Therefore, this paper uses the game signal transmission theory to construct a dynamic game linkage model of time-of-use electricity price on the supply side and the demand side, which realizes the market-oriented distribution of peak-shaving and valley-filling benefits in each link of the system through dynamic linkage and equilibrium. The simulation shows that the model can objectively distribute the peak-shaving and valley-filling benefits brought by time-of-use electricity price through electricity price signal transmission according to the market force of each link of the system.

Dandan Dai, Lili An, Donglin Xie, Jing Liao, Li Zhang
Electric Heating Load Prediction Based on TCN-LSTM Hybrid Neural Network

The traditional load prediction is based on linear modeling, which does not consider the uncertainty of load and has no small errors. Deep learning methods are used for load prediction because of their strong data feature extraction and fitting ability. From the accuracy of electric heating load prediction, an electric heating load prediction model based on TCN-LSTM hybrid neural network is proposed. Several influencing factors with the strongest correlation with electric heating load are selected as input features by Pearson correlation analysis among multiple features, and weakly correlated meteorological features are filtered out; then CEEMDAN decomposition is used to decompose the historical electric heating load time series into multiple eigenfunctions as well as a residual term to obtain the historical input feature time series corresponding to each input feature; finally, the TCN and LSTM hybrid models are finally used for electric heating load prediction. The simulation results show that the electric heating load prediction model based on the TCN-LSTM hybrid neural network can extract effective information from the historical load data, realize the dimensionality reduction processing, and improve the operation rate and accuracy of the artificial network.

Gaoqiang Qu, Zifa Liu, Bo Gao, Hongxi Zhang, Chengchen Li, Shiqin Wang, Hao Yong, Xinyi Li
Anomaly Data Mining Method of Electric Power Metering Automation System Based on Improved Threshold Algorithm

When analyzing abnormal data of electric power metering automation system, because the data itself exists in a dynamic form, the accuracy of the identification results of abnormal data is poor. Therefore, this paper proposes a research method for abnormal data mining of electric power metering automation system based on improved threshold algorithm. Considering that, when the least square method is directly used for analysis, the data of the power metering automation system is processed in a unified way, which is difficult to ensure the adaptation of the mining results to the data state of the real-time power metering automation system. When the threshold algorithm is improved, the weighted mechanism is introduced, and the weighted least square method is used to improve the threshold algorithm. In the abnormal data mining stage, the direct reconstruction method is used to analyze the relationship between the actual data and the norm, and the improved threshold function is used to analyze the difference of the reconstructed data to judge the abnormal data. In the test results, the accuracy of the design method for abnormal data identification reached 77.78%, with high accuracy.

Chao Liu, Lu Wang, Huiqiong Zhou, Lu Huan, Yong Ou
Hierarchical Control Method of AVC Reactive Power and Voltage in 110 kV Substation Based on Two-Level Reactive Power Optimization

The conventional hierarchical control architecture of AVC reactive power and voltage in 110 kV substation is generally single-layer processing, and the control efficiency is low, which leads to the expansion of the fluctuation range of the final AVC reactive power and voltage. Therefore, the design, verification, and analysis of the hierarchical control method of AVC reactive power and voltage in 110 kV substation based on two-level reactive power optimization are proposed. According to the actual control requirements and changes in standards, the voltage stability factor index is determined first. Multi objective method is adopted to improve control efficiency. Multi objective AVC reactive power and voltage hierarchical control framework is designed, and two-level reactive power optimization AVC reactive power and voltage hierarchical control model is constructed. Reactive power compensation processing is used to achieve voltage control. The final test results show that after the comparison of three hierarchical control forms, the secondary reactive power optimization P/V control method controls the fluctuation range of reactive power voltage of G110kV substation to below 40 kV, which indicates that this control method is more flexible, more targeted, and faster, with practical application value.

Yang Zhu, Qi Lin, Huiyong Qiu, Tingying Pan
Multi-source Collaborative Optimal Scheduling Platform for Flexible Interconnected AC/DC Hybrid Distribution Networks

Flexible interconnected AC/DC hybrid distribution networks have a large load capacity and cannot achieve the expected collaborative scheduling effect. In order to improve the power supply quality and stability of the distribution network, a multi-source collaborative optimal scheduling platform for flexible interconnected AC/DC hybrid distribution networks is proposed. The platform establishes a multi-objective optimization function with the goal of minimizing the total scheduling cost, power loss, and adjustment amount, and sets constraints to calculate the optimal solution of the function. Search for the optimal scheduling strategy and execute it to build a multi-source collaborative optimal scheduling platform for flexible interconnected AC/DC hybrid distribution networks. The experimental results show that the platform can effectively optimize the scheduling of AC/DC hybrid distribution networks, improve the power supply quality and stability of the distribution network, and under the application of the design method, the load volume of the distribution network is small, and the load fluctuation is relatively gentle.

Min Hang, Jiawei Xing, Yan Cheng, Peng Yu
Multi-objective Voltage Balance Control Method for Distribution Network Based on Active Tabu Search

During the implementation of voltage balance control in the distribution network, due to the lack of analysis of the relationship between parameters during the operation phase of the distribution network, the average voltage deviation is relatively large. Therefore, an active Tabu search based multi-objective voltage balance control method for distribution networks is proposed. Based on the minimization of the ratio of short-circuit voltage to the corresponding switch breaking capacity in the power grid, an objective function stage for voltage balance in the distribution network was constructed, and constraints for the objective function were set from the perspectives of radial topology and power flow. In the voltage balance control phase, the active Tabu search algorithm is introduced to set the distribution network target adjustment parameters as random initialization parameters in the solution space. Analyze the correlation of parameters at different operating stages by using the cost function values of target adjustment parameters in the neighboring distribution network. Finally, use the parameter corresponding to the minimum cost function value as the previous distribution network target adjustment parameter. Control the voltage balance of the distribution network. In the test results, the design method has good voltage control performance under dual objective, three objective, and four objective conditions, and the corresponding average voltage deviation is at a relatively low level.

Qingnan Meng, Jiazhao Zhu, Hongbo Zhu, Hongyin Ding, Yixiu Jiang
Research on the Data Monitoring System of Distribution Network Project Based on “Three Rates Combination”

In recent years, the increase in the scale of investment in distribution grid projects and the tightening of investment supervision have made the investment management of distribution grid projects more challenging. To break the traditional monitoring method of distribution network projects, this paper proposed a distribution network project data monitoring system based on “three rates combination”. Firstly, obtaining the definition and data sources of distribution network three rate indicators and construct the monitoring and analysis model of distribution network three rate indicators; secondly, formulating the early warning rules based on the distribution network three rate monitoring and analysis system and construct the digital monitoring and early warning system of three rates; finally, the data monitoring software of distribution network project based on “three rates combination” has been developed to solve the problems of distortion of distribution network project statistics, mismatch of cross-sector data and limited space for improving the investment completion rate.

Yueren Zhu, Yixing Gu, Jun Wu, Xuhui Ma, Yifan Ma, Tao Xiao
Design of Fuzzy Variable Frequency Control System for Local Ventilator

Local ventilator frequency conversion control has a certain lag. Because of the failure to control the abrupt gas emission in time, it will lead to the problem of gas exceeding the limit. If the ventilator continues to operate at full frequency, it will be in an under load state during the process of tunneling in coal mines, leading to waste of electrical energy. In response to the above issues, the principle of variable frequency energy-saving control for local ventilator is analyzed based on their ventilation characteristics. A fuzzy variable frequency control system for local ventilator is designed based on fuzzy control theory. A testing platform combining local ventilation devices and signal acquisition devices was established, and frequency conversion testing tests were conducted on the system. The experimental results show that the fuzzy variable frequency control system has certain practicality, which can timely control the real-time emission of gas, control the gas concentration within a safe range, and effectively overcome the hysteresis of ventilation system control.

Tianyi Jia, Lijun Xu, Zhifeng Chen, Luxiang Mi, Xin Su, Di Zhu
Online Compression Reconfiguration-Based Load Forecasting Method for Distribution Grid Power System

The current conventional power system load forecasting method mainly outputs forecasting results by constructing a time model, which leads to poor forecasting results due to the lack of effective extraction of feature data of load signals. In this regard, an online compression and reconstruction-based load forecasting method for distribution network power systems is proposed. By introducing the concept of particle swarm ensemble, the discrete situation of power load signal data particles is characterized, and data normalization is carried out, and the load signal data is compressed and reconstructed. The maximum information coefficient is calculated and the load data features are extracted by combining the influencing factors, and finally a hybrid prediction model is constructed and the model is solved. In the experiments, the designed method is verified for its prediction effect. The experimental results show that the designed method has a good fit between the prediction results and the actual load curve, and has a good prediction performance.

Wenqi Huang, Lingyu Liang, Shang Cao, Xiangyu Zhao, Huanming Zhang, Hanju Li
Study on Influencing Factors of Air-Conditioning Loads Participating in Frequency Modulation of Power System

Frequency is a crucial parameter to judge the power quality of power system, and also a key factor to maintain the stable operation. Air-conditioning load (ACL) can participate in frequency modulation (FM) of power system, in order to deal with the adverse effect of numbers of renewable energy input power system. Therefore, a cluster load model based on the first-order ETP is established according to the operating characteristic of air-conditioning (AC). In this paper, the influencing factors of its participation in FM are studied. This paper analyzes the influence results of many factors, especially considers the power consumption probability of ACLs under the influence of user's behavior. A power consumption probability model of ACs based on user behavior is proposed, which is incorporated into the cluster model. The validity of the proposed models, which provide a basis for the load side to participate in power system, was verified by simulation.

Meiyan Liu, Juanjuan Wang
Research on Intelligent Planning of Low-Voltage Distribution Network Based on Adaptive Particle Swarm Algorithm

The current conventional distribution network planning method mainly solves the optimal planning scheme by establishing linear objective function, which is better than the lack of construction for typical scenario set leading to poor planning effect. In this regard, an intelligent planning method of low-voltage distribution network based on adaptive particle swarm algorithm is proposed. The typical scenario dataset is obtained by sampling and extracting the data in the low-voltage distribution network operation dataset and reducing the scenario set. On this basis, the optimization function is constructed with the three parameters of operation cost, power network loss and voltage load as the target parameters, and the function is solved by particle swarm algorithm. In the experiments, the planning performance of the proposed method is verified. The experimental results show that the distribution network intelligent planning method constructed by the proposed method has a high equivalent output of the distribution network and has a better planning performance.

Min Li, Yigang Tao, Juncheng Zhang, Jing Tan, Ji Qin
Research on Control System of Three-Phase Isolated AC/DC Converter

The isolated AC/DC converter has many advantages such as the ability to convert electricity according to needs, high efficiency, small size, high power density, and the ability to act as a load or power source on demand. The corresponding modulation strategy and control strategy of the topology are analyzed in this paper. Due to the impact of the peak inductance current in its topology on system performance, this paper proposes a control strategy for minimizing the peak value of inductance current to improve system reliability and reduce on-state losses. The optimal algorithm is used to simultaneously change the modulation coefficient and external phase angle to achieve the minimum peak value of inductance current, and the experimental results verify proposed method.

Xiang Ao, Zhihao Jia
Safety and Reliability Evaluation Method for Intelligent Operation and Maintenance of Converter Station Based on Situation Awareness of Relay Protection Devices

When evaluating the operation status of converter stations, due to its dynamic development attribute, the evaluation results are quite different from the actual situation. Therefore, a study on the safety reliability evaluation method of intelligent operation and maintenance of converter stations based on situation awareness of relay protection devices is proposed. After building the converter station control structure model around the outer ring control structure, double dq-PI current control structure and synchronous rotating coordinate transformation structure, combining the dependency between the converter station protection process and the relay protection device, the domain mapping matrix is used to describe the implementation of the protection process of the relay protection device and quantify it according to the healthy state. After the node status of the converter station is divided into infection status and failure status, the safety reliability of the intelligent operation and maintenance of the converter station is evaluated according to the status transfer relationship between relay protection devices. In the test results, the design method has a high accuracy for the evaluation results of the converter station node status and the overall intelligent operation and maintenance security reliability of the converter station.

Xi Zhang, Ke Wu, Chuanming Tan, Weibiao Ye
Research on Cooperative Optimization Operation of Active Distribution Network Based on Multivariate Flexible Fusion

In order to achieve efficient and stable operation of active distribution networks, a study on load storage cooperative operation optimization of active distribution networks based on multiple flexible fusion is proposed. Firstly, according to the distributed power generation coordination control module, the AC/DC hybrid distribution network coordination control module, and the charging load guidance optimization module, the objective function of active distribution network optimization operation is determined; based on the constraints of active distribution network optimization operation, a load storage coordination optimization model of active distribution network source network is constructed. According to this model, disturbances are added to achieve the purpose of searching for optimal results in a small range, and the load storage coordination operation optimization of active distribution network source network is realized. The experimental results show that the current fluctuation can be kept at a relatively low level using the proposed method; after optimized operation, the line power variation range is close to the planned value, achieving effective load storage cooperative operation optimization.

Jiawei Xing, Yan Cheng, Shumin Sun, Peng Yu, Yuejiao Wang
Intelligent Fault Identification Method for Distribution Network Power Equipment Based on 5G Technology and Association Rules

The current conventional distribution network power equipment fault identification method mainly locates the abnormal part in the infrared image to mark the fault node, which leads to poor identification accuracy due to the low degree of image enhancement and denoising processing. In this regard, an intelligent fault identification method for distribution power equipment based on 5G technology and association rules is proposed. By calculating the confidence degree of the sample data, the classification mining process is performed on the power equipment data. The image data is enhanced and denoised by combining grayscale information method and Gaussian filtering algorithm, and the covariance matrix is constructed to analyze the extracted fault feature parameters. In the experiments, the proposed recognition method is verified. The experimental results show that the proposed method has a high recognition accuracy and ideal recognition effect for fault identification of distribution network power equipment.

Zexiong Chen, Xiaodong Liu, Lingli Peng, Ke Tian, Xudong Chen, Ganlin Mao
Rotating Machinery Fault Diagnosis Based on Residual Dense Network with Multi-branch Channel Attention Mechanism

A diagnosis model for rotating machinery faults, called RDB-MBCAM-CNN, based on a residual dense network with a multi-branch channel attention mechanism is proposed to address the poor fault recognition rate on a dataset of ten types of rolling bearing and gear vibration data due to the inability of shallow machine learning models to extract deep features from vibration signal data. This method is based on convolutional neural networks, with a lightweight multi-channel attention mechanism designed to reduce the computation parameter and increase the expression ability of key features. Additionally, it merges deep and shallow features and introduces the idea of a residual dense network by designing residual dense modules to enhance the expression ability of convolutional features. Experimental results show that compared to traditional lightweight CNN and attention mechanism CNN, this model has significantly improved fault recognition accuracy.

Shuai Wu
Automatic Generation and Audit Method of Substation Five-Prevention Logic Based on Typical Interval Graphization

The five-prevention logic is crucial for preventing misoperation in substations. The writing and audit of the existing five-prevention logic rely on manual labor, with low efficiency and security risks. Therefore, this paper proposes an automatic generation and audit method of substation five-prevention logic based on typical interval graphization. A database containing device names and circuit information is developed, and two core algorithm modules, topology analysis, and logic generation are established. Moreover, this method is integrated into the anti-misoperation system to achieve standardized and centralized management of the five-prevention ledger and logic for each substation. In addition, it also has the function of intelligent inspection and report output with five-prevention logic. The actual engineering application results show that the system has high accuracy, and the debugging time has been reduced from 6 h manually to 1 min. This method can assist in the intelligent construction of substations.

Yanan Zhang, Jie Wang, Xiong Pan, Xiaocong Kan, Shaoping Wang, Chennan Xu, Pengfei Kou
Design of a Multi-motor Control System for a Parallel Mechanism

In this paper, a motion control system has been designed. The system is used to control twelve motors which drive a parallel mechanism by adjusting pulse width modulation (PWM) with a microcontroller. The motors are selected according to the characteristics of the parallel mechanism. And the dynamic model of the motor is established. Many related control experiments are done, and the control error is analyzed. It is shown that the motion control system designed in this paper can achieve more accurate control of the parallel mechanism experimentally.

Yanchao Wang, Hongxin Zhang, Liguo Tian, Zikang Xie, Miao Sun
Research on Influencing Factors and Typical Paths of Power Grid Unsafe Behavior

As the reliability and safety of technical systems and equipment continues to improve, the reliability of human–machine systems is increasingly dependent on human reliability. The safe state of objects is affected by the escalation of unsafe human actions, reducing the protective effect of objects. It is necessary to emphasize improving the management system of people’s intrinsic safety behavior and comprehensively improve the safety level of the whole system on the basis of improving the intrinsic safety of equipment. Only then can the safety work of power enterprises reach a new level and truly eliminate any unsafe conduct. This paper selects the unsafe behaviors in power grid accidents as the research object. By studying the unsafe behaviors of people in 109 domestic and foreign power grid accidents, the semantic analysis method is used to extract and analyze the unsafe behaviors of people in power grid accidents. The influencing factors of power grid unsafe behavior are obtained, and combined with the logical relationship of the influencing factors, the generation path of power grid unsafe behavior is proposed, which provides a reference for improving the ability of power grid behavior management and control.

Xin Tian, Xinyang Han, Xiaoling Jin
An Optimal Decision Model for Electricity Markets Considering Load Characteristics and Electricity Demand

In the current electricity market optimisation decision, the analysis of load characteristics is not comprehensive enough, resulting in low economic efficiency of the optimisation decision results. To this end, an optimisation decision model for the electricity market that considers load characteristics and electricity demand is proposed. Based on the grid operation state, the load characteristics are analysed in three dimensions. Collect historical electricity consumption information and forecast electricity demand. Construct a three-layer model for power market optimisation decision-making. Experiments show that the average economic efficiency of the model's optimisation decision results reaches 95.25%. The economic efficiency of the power market optimisation decision is greatly improved, and it has high practical application value.

Guojie Li, Xing Tian, Xue Feng, Pengfei Xu, Yan Li
Simulation Analysis of Voltage Transient Stability Margins in Distribution Networks Under Large-Scale Distributed Power Supply Access Conditions

In the traditional distribution network voltage transient stability margin analysis under the conditions of large-scale distributed power supply access, the processing of the analysis index is not refined enough, resulting in large errors in the analysis results. In this regard, a simulation analysis of the voltage transient stability margin of the distribution network under the conditions of large-scale distributed power supply access is proposed. Extraction of key features. Determine the characteristic parameters of the distributed power supply. Calculation of different index units and orders of magnitude and standardisation of the margin analysis index. Output of margin simulation results. The experiments show that the method has a lower error value than traditional methods in both active and reactive margin analysis and is of high application value.

Tao Zhu, Junfu Liu, Huaipeng Zhang, Xuepeng Yang
Automatic Planning Method of Pipe-Line Systems by Petri Nets

This paper presents an automatic planning method for pipe-line systems under complex logic control rules based on Petri nets. Petri nets are usually modeled manually, which can lead to incomplete models of complex logic control systems. To address this issue, we extend the planning domain definition language (PDDL), which can be automatically translated into Petri nets. For complex logic control pipe-line systems, given a set of tasks, it is difficult to quickly formulate the process execution sequence through manual calculation. This paper designs an automatic pipe-line system planning method based on Petri nets, which can accurately generate Petri nets model and process execution sequences. The beer filtration system is taken as an example to illustrate the method.

Jiliang Luo, Zexuan Lin, Xuhang Li, Wei Liu, Chunrong Pan
Suitable for the Design of Electric Vehicle Charger LLC Half-Bridge Converter

The development of new energy vehicles is the only way for China to move from a large automobile country to an automobile power, and it is a strategic measure to address climate change and promote green development. Based on the electric vehicle charger, the design of the half-bridge LLC resonant circuit changer is carried out to improve the charging device of new energy electric vehicles, and the resonant parameter design and resonant frequency gain system design of the half-bridge LLC half-bridge converter of the electric vehicle charger LLC are studied by analyzing the working principle and working characteristics of the half-bridge LLC resonant circuit. Through MATLAB for half-bridge LLC resonant circuit and debugging, observe the waveform and data to obtain the simulation model can effectively ensure the stability of the output, in the full load and heavy load output voltage fluctuation is within the range of change, thus verifying the feasibility of the design of the electric vehicle charger LLC half-bridge resonant converter, therefore, the LLC resonant converter can improve the conversion efficiency of the DC-DC converter, so that the charging efficiency is greatly accelerated, so as to achieve fast charging. It is efficient and fast to apply to the needs of high-power power supplies, thereby promoting the development of new energy vehicles.

Bowen Hou, Guangzhui Wei, Hailong Ma
Research on Buck Converter Based on Digital Control

With the rapid development of modern power electronics, digital technology is playing an increasingly important role in buck converters. The traditional analog-integrated chip-controlled buck converter requires a large number of components and is too large to meet the needs of power conversion development. The rapid development of digital control technology has led to the development of intelligent and miniaturized power conversion devices. To meet the development needs of miniaturization, digitalization, and efficiency of buck converter, this paper designs and verifies a buck converter based on digital control through the study of digital pulse modulation, signal processing, and PID algorithm. The device is controlled using an integrated chip and can achieve a wide range input of 50 V–240 V, a digitally adjustable output of 12 V–36 V, and a maximum output power of 100 W.

Tonglin Wang, Hailong Ma, Meimei Wu
Research on Improved Droop Control Based on Virtual Impedance Compensation Strategy

With the application of new power equipment such as hydropower, photovoltaic, and wind power, as well as the promotion of the “oil to electricity” policy for large equipment such as the petroleum, mining, and automotive industries, the demand for megawatt level high-power power sources is becoming increasingly urgent. However, due to hardware limitations such as reactors, transformers, and IGBT, the development of large-capacity individual power supplies is constrained, while multiple power modules can be expanded in series and parallel according to power requirements, providing a new approach for the design of large-capacity power supplies. Focus on the problem of current inequality and bus voltage fluctuations during load disturbances in the parallel operation of high-power DC power sources, an improved droop control algorithm based on a high-pass filter virtual impedance compensation strategy was proposed. The simulation and experimental results show that the improved droop control algorithm achieves current sharing control when high-power DC power sources are operated in parallel, and effectively improves the dynamic characteristics under load disturbances.

Dong Zhao, Bing Hu, Zeyuan Li, Yuefei Xian, Zhenhua Zhao, Chunwei Shao
Investigation on Post-arc Recovery Characteristics of SF6/N2 Mixed Gas Medium

SF6 is a strong greenhouse gas with high liquefaction temperature, which limits its application in gas insulation equipment to a large extent. Therefore, the search for a replaceable gas has become a hot topic in electrical field. Although scholars have carried out a lot of research work on SF6 replacement gas, they have not yet found a gas that can completely replace SF6. At present, the most cost-effective way is to use SF6 gas mixture. Therefore, this paper mainly studies the recovery of insulation strength of SF6/N2 gas mixture with different proportions after a certain arc-burning time. In this experiment, the RC circuit is used to simulate the arc-burning condition. After the arc current transfer, the high-voltage pulse generator is used to apply pulse to the contact gap, so as to obtain the back-arc recovery characteristic curve of the gas medium, which provides data support for the research and development of the circuit breaker replacing SF6 gas, and also has important significance for the study of the breakdown problem of the replacement gas circuit breaker.

Xubo He, Xiabo Chen, Hao Sun, Jiayin Fan, Zeyu Wang, Mingming Sun, Wenzhen Liu
Design of Switching Regulated Power Supply Based on Flyback

This article presents the design of a feedback-controlled, variable direct current (DC)-regulated switch-mode power supply suitable for laboratory applications. The design includes optimization of the control loop compensation to ensure stability and responsiveness of the power supply. The hardware circuit design and implementation are described to ensure the power supply operates as intended. Experimental results demonstrate that the designed power supply functions properly within a wide input voltage range (85–265 V) and achieves adjustable DC voltage output (1–36 V). The output voltage deviation is within 1%, and the output ripple is between 1 and 2%, indicating acceptable stability and output quality of the power supply. The design meets the requirements for a variable power supply in laboratory settings, providing a new approach for DC auxiliary power supply in laboratories.

Binglong Zhu, Hailong Ma
Simulation Study of Arc Characteristics During the Breaking Process of Molded Case Circuit Breaker

With the development and promotion of arc theory and computer technology, arc simulation technology has become an important reference for product development and performance evaluation. Based on the theory of magnetohydrodynamics, an actual molded case circuit breaker model was simulated and studied. Considering the complex multi-physical field coupling characteristics of air arc plasma, ANSYS is used to calculate electromagnetic field, FLUENT to calculate air flow field and thermal field, and the interface program is used to realize data transfer and exchange during the solution process. The analysis of the arc motion during the simulation shows that the grid structure and its spatial distribution affect the arc voltage and the performance of the circuit breaker.

Mingming Sun, Xuxu Jiang, Hao Sun, Xiabo Chen, Xubo He
Research and Application of Diversified Load Access Adapting to Distribution Network Planning

The distribution network planning method mainly focuses on the division of power supply areas, without predicting the load of the distribution network, which affects the final planning effect. Therefore, this article studies the research and application of diversified load access in distribution network planning. Establish a diversified load access adaptive distribution network planning model, identify the main stakeholders in distribution network planning, and minimize the overall operating cost as the objective function to minimize the cost of distribution network planning, coordinated with its power flow distribution. Through numerical examples, it has been verified that the planning method can meet the needs of practical economic benefits and can be applied in practical life.

Jinxin Yang, Yuanping Huang, Rui Su, Guobin He
Orderly Charging and Discharging Control of Electric Vehicle Clusters Considering the Active Participation of Users

Electric vehicles are increasingly becoming an important means of transportation for people due to their clean and efficient advantages. The number of electric vehicles continues to rise. Due to the charging behavior of electric vehicle users is random in time and space, a large number of uncontrolled electric vehicle charging loads will have a great impact on the safety and economic operation of the distribution network. The technology of interaction between electric vehicles and the grid enables electric vehicles to participate in grid regulation as both load and mobile energy storage. This paper analyzes the vehicle use of residents. An orderly charging and discharging strategy is proposed that considers the owner’s response scheduling willingness and the spatial–temporal characteristics of electric vehicles. The effectiveness of the strategy in this paper is analyzed through simulation verification. The results show that the strategy realizes peak shaving and valley filling, and improves the security of power grid operation.

Hua Wang, Jing Xu, Lili Wang, Ying Zhou, Huan Yu

Mechatronics and Remote Sensing Signal Monitoring

Frontmatter
Research on Reserve Capacity Optimization of Power System

The rapid development of renewable energy increases the uncertainty in power system and requires the provision of more reserve capacity to ensure the safe operation of the system, and the study of reserve capacity optimization with comprehensive consideration of system operation reliability and economy is of great significance. Based on the analysis of conventional units participating in the provision of reserve in power system, an optimal configuration method of flexible load and energy storage participating in system reserve is proposed, and a source-load-storage multi-type reserve system is constructed to improve the system reserve capacity. The power system reserve optimization model is established and the system reserve capacity constraint based on the chance constraint is set. Finally, the calculation results prove the superiority of the reserve optimization model.

Lingyi Li, Shuqiang Zhao
Circular Arc Coil Coupling Device for Wireless Charging System of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

In order to improve the poor fault tolerance ability of coupling device of wireless charging system for autonomous underwater vehicles, a magnetic coupling device with strong fault tolerance ability, low internal electromagnetic interference, and good symmetry is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the magnetic field distribution of the proposed magnetic coupling device is studied by ANSYS Maxwell finite element analysis software. Then, using the method of parameter modeling, the coupling coefficient change of the magnetic coupling device under the dislocation state is obtained. Finally, the circuit structure of the wireless charging system using this coupling device is analyzed and calculated.

Bin Cai, Menghong Yu, Haozhou Lu
The Fault Location of Distribution Network Based on Narrowband Communication Technology

In this paper, we propose a fault location of distribution network based on narrowband communication technology, which belong to the field fault monitoring and location of distribution network. The whole system consists of master station server, light source module, EDFA optical amplifier module, optical wavelength division multiplexer, optical wave guide magnetic field sensor, photoelectric conversion module, electrical signal filtering and amplification module, analog digital conversion module, electrical signal processing module, narrowband communication module and solar cell module. The optical wave guide magnetic field sensor is installed on the cable, and the other parts are installed on the pole. The fault location system adopts narrowband wireless communication technology for data transmission, which reduces the system cost and power consumption. At the same time, the measured data and historical data are used to obtain the fault point, which improves the accuracy of fault location.

Fei Deng, Dong Li, Jing Yu, Yujiao Wang, Wenmin Lu, Yu Huang
Carbon Emission Prediction Model of Power Industry Based on CEEMD-SSA-ELM Method

When forecasting the carbon emissions of the power industry, due to the lack of analysis on the comprehensive effect of different influencing factors, there is a large deviation between the prediction results and the actual situation. Therefore, a research on the carbon emissions prediction model of the power industry based on CEEMD-SSA-ELM method is proposed. The logarithmic average Dixon index method is used to analyze the factors affecting carbon emissions in the thermal power industry. From the perspective of production and consumption, the composition of specific factors affecting carbon emissions is comprehensively analyzed. With the help of kaya identity, the first decomposition model of carbon emissions is constructed to achieve a comprehensive analysis of the factors affecting carbon emissions in the thermal power industry. In the stage of building the prediction model, CEEMD was used to decompose the original carbon emission influencing factor data, and SSA was used to comprehensively calculate the action intensity of each influencing factor of carbon emissions. Finally, ELM was used to calculate the comprehensive value of carbon emissions. In the test results, the prediction results of the design model for carbon emissions under the baseline scenario, low-carbon scenario and enhanced low-carbon scenario are highly consistent with the measured values, and there is no significant error.

Ling Zhou, Xiong Li, Yuan Ji, Wei Wei, Fangquan Wu
Design of Regional Carbon Emission Monitoring Platform Based on Cloud Edge Collaboration

Most conventional regional carbon emission monitoring platforms use the NB-IoT principle to upload monitoring data, which is slow, affecting the monitoring efficiency of the monitoring platform, and the accuracy of carbon emissions calculation results is low, leading to a large deviation between the platform monitoring results and the actual carbon emissions. Based on this, a new regional carbon emission monitoring platform is proposed by introducing cloud edge collaboration. On the basis of the completion of the hardware design of the platform, a comprehensive design of the platform software is made. Firstly, based on the sampling control logic, the regional carbon emissions are sampled, monitored and pretreated. Secondly, the emission factor method is used to calculate the regional carbon emissions based on the fuel end. On this basis, the cloud edge collaboration method is used to upload carbon emission monitoring data to improve the efficiency of platform monitoring. The platform test results show that the new platform can significantly improve the accuracy of monitoring results, the carbon emissions monitoring value is closer to the actual value, the deviation of monitoring results is small, and more accurate regional carbon emissions data can be monitored in real time.

Zeqi Zhang, Zhe Chen, Yingjie Li
Communication Enhancement Techniques for Intelligent Maintenance and Inspection Devices of Power Systems Based on RIS

Intelligent maintenance and inspection devices are critical for ensuring the safe and reliable operation of power systems. However, these devices require reliable and high-bandwidth communication channels, which can be challenging to achieve in the harsh and dynamic environment of power systems. In this paper, we propose the use of Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RIS) as a potential solution for communication enhancement in power systems. RIS is a promising technology that can improve communication reliability, reduce interference, and cut power consumption through intelligent reflection and refraction of radio signals. We start from the discussion about the specific communication requirements of intelligent maintenance and inspection devices in power systems, which is followed by the introduction of RIS technology and its benefits for enhancing communication in power systems. Some case studies are also represented in this work to demonstrate the effectiveness of using RIS for communication enhancement in power systems.

Jian Fang, Xiang Lin, Fengxiang Zhou, Yan Tian, Min Zhang, Yingjie Huang
Photovoltaic Access Capability Evaluation Algorithm Under Source Load Coordinated Operation of Power Supply and Consumption System

Currently, the evaluation of photovoltaic access capacity is mostly based on single-layer processing, resulting in a decrease in evaluation efficiency. Therefore, the design and validation analysis of the photovoltaic access capability evaluation algorithm under the coordinated operation of source and load in the supply and demand system have been proposed. Construct a multi scenario photovoltaic access capacity evaluation and calculation structure, and use fitting processing to design capacity evaluation algorithms under the coordinated operation of source and load in the supply and demand system. The final test results indicate that the difference between the fitted mean values is well controlled 0.5, highly targeted, more accurate and reliable, with controllable errors, and has practical application value.

Zhicai Xiang, Sitong Li, Xiaolin Li, Zichao Zhou, Xiaohua An, Yueming Ding
Mobile Platform Design for Intelligent Maintenance and Inspection of Power Systems Based on Human-Vehicle-Internet Coordination

Recently, there has been a growing focus on the integration of human, vehicle, and internet components to achieve a more streamlined and intelligent approach to power system maintenance and inspection. Within this context, our paper introduces a novel system framework consisting of three essential layers: the terminal layer, network layer, and platform layer. This framework serves as the foundation for effectively coordinating the interactions between human, vehicle, and internet components. While each layer plays a vital role, the significance of the platform layer cannot be overstated. We delve into the intricate specifics of the platform layer, offering comprehensive insights into their roles and interconnections. Furthermore, our research presents practical implementations and detailed experiments that substantiate the efficacy of our proposed design. Through these empirical validations, we establish the tangible benefits of our approach. Our contribution enhances the comprehension of intelligent power system maintenance and inspection driven by the harmonious coordination of human, vehicle, and internet elements.

Jian Fang, Xiang Lin, Fengxiang Zhou, Yan Tian, Min Zhang, Te Ao
Bypassed On-Chaining: A Highly Secure and Loosely Coupled Data On-Chaining Solution for Electricity Demand Response Systems

Using blockchain technology to improve data security, correctness, and trustworthiness of electricity demand response systems is currently a research hotspot in the field of energy IoT. However, the on-chaining process in existing blockchain-based electricity demand response systems often causes problems like poor data correctness and long transaction response time. This paper proposes a novel, secure, and loosely coupled data on-chaining solution called bypassed on-chaining. First, the events occurring in each system terminal are logged into a local database. Subsequently, the independent on-chaining module of each terminal continuously reads the local database to obtain operational data, constructs transactions, and sends them to blockchain nodes. Each terminal only sends requests to the backend services and does not send requests to the blockchain directly, which decouples system operation from the blockchain. The experimental results from our case study show that bypassed on-chaining can ensure the correctness of both system operation data and on-chain data regardless of whether the user client is running normally or not, meanwhile maintaining fast transaction response times, thus significantly improving system reliability and user experience.

Wenqian Jiang, Xiaoming Lin, Kun Zhang, Jianlin Tang, Keying Huang, Mi Zhou, Yuzhou Zhao
Design of Off-Grid Wind-Solar Complementary Power Generation System for Alpine Weather Station

Wind power generation and photovoltaic power generation are one of the most mature ways in respect of the wind and solar energy development and utilization, wind and solar complementary power generation can effectively use space and time. The two forms of power generation can play their respective advantages, replenish each other, and improve the comprehensive utilization of energy through coordination and cooperation, so as to effectively solve the power supply problem of remote areas. This paper describes the design of an off-grid wind-solar complementary power generation system of a 1500m high mountain weather station in Yunhe County, Lishui City. By analyzing the meteorological data and electricity usage of the station, the power of the two independent power generation systems, the number of photovoltaic modules, and the capacity of batteries and inverters are calculated, and a reasonable photovoltaic array is designed and the complementary control module is configured. The system can meet the electricity demand of weather station to the greatest extent, and the output power is stable, the power quality is good, and the structure is reasonable.

Guang-Qing Lin, Xianfeng Yu, Yunxia Luo, Shubin Yan
Experimental Study on the Performance of Distributors Applied in Flat-Plate Quick-Freezing Machines

Uneven distribution of the two-phase refrigerant mass flow in the tube-evaporators in flat-plate quick-freezing (FPQF) leads to non-uniform temperature distribution and decreased heat transfer performance. Propose the diversion concept of “Transformed into annular flow pattern + Critical diversion,” and a rectifying nozzle type distributor was designed. The distribution performance of the Rectifying nozzle-type critical distributor (RNCD) and the liquid storage distributor (LSD) in the freezer was studied by experiment. The results showed that at an evaporation temperature between − 31 and − 35 °C, the unevenness of the RNCD was lower than that of the LSD. The refrigerating capacity and COP of the freezer were both significantly improved. The maximum increase in refrigerating capacity and COP was 3 and 6.26%, respectively. This study provides basic data for the application of distributors in FPQF.

Feng Jiao, Jintao Li, Di Liang, Wanfei Cheng, Lin Lou, Hui Jin, Chao Zhang, Chunqiang Si, Enyuan Gao
Organic Rankine Cycle System Variable Condition Analysis

Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power generation systems are one of the most efficient technological means of converting low and medium quality energy sources into mechanical energy at this stage. In this paper, the ORC power generation system is modeled using GREATLAB simulation software, the system input parameters are varied, and the system performance indicators are compared by sensitivity analysis to determine the parameters that have a significant impact on the organic Rankine cycle system.

Weiting Jiang, Danyang Song, Hongpeng Jing, Weiguo Pan
Mechanisms of Air Cathode Pore Structure Parameters and Discharge Regimes on the Performance of Lithium–Air Batteries

As the society pays more attention to energy, various kinds of new energy batteries are coming out. Lithium–air battery is a new energy battery that uses lithium metal as the anode and oxygen in air as the positive reactant. Because of its specific energy comparable to that of fuel cells, lithium–air batteries are the most popular research in the direction of new energy batteries in the past few years. However, there are still some disadvantages of Li–air batteries that prevent them from being commercialized well, such as the accumulation of discharge products in the pores of the cathode, which leads to premature termination of the discharge reaction. Therefore, it is necessary to simulate the battery to investigate the existing problems. In this paper, we focus on the effects of lithium-air battery cathode porosity and discharge current density on battery performance and propose certain optimization strategies to address these problems.

Junlong Chen, Biyi Huang, Li Yang, Shan Gu, Zhenzhen Shi, Ru Yang, Xianfeng Yu
Real-Time Acquisition Method of Weak Signal of Distribution Network Terminal Equipment Operation Based on LMS Algorithm

The current distribution network weak signal real-time acquisition node is multiset as the target form, and the acquisition range is greatly limited, resulting in the increase of the final acquisition single point error. Therefore, this paper proposes the design and verification analysis of the LMS algorithm-based distribution network terminal equipment operation weak signal real-time acquisition method. According to the signal acquisition requirements and standards, extract the initial characteristics of signal acquisition, expand the signal acquisition range in the form of multi-target, set multi-target acquisition nodes, and establish a single-end device signal acquisition matrix. Based on this, build a real-time acquisition model for LMS accounting weak signals, and complete real-time acquisition by using compressed signal sensing processing. The final test results show that through three measurements, the single point error of the real-time signal acquisition of the distribution network equipment is better controlled below 0.2, indicating that this method has better signal acquisition speed and efficiency, larger acquisition range, more rigorous comparison, and more controllable error, which has practical application value.

Mingming Zhang, Jin Hu, Hongwei Guo
Application Research of New Remote Sensing Technology in Tree Obstruction Detection of Power Patrol Line

The inspection of transmission line corridor is an important part of power inspection and operation and maintenance, and relying on manual on-site investigation can no longer meet the development needs of modern power grid. This paper mainly studied the airborne LiDAR point cloud technology, drone tilt photography technology in the practice of distance diagnosis, in the analysis of two kinds of new remote sensing technology in the power patrol, and the working principle and process of tree inspection operation, combined with the Hunan transmission maintenance company ± 800 kV Fufeng line, ± 800 kV Jin Su line remote sensing inspection project practical application research. The experimental results show that the application of two remote sensing technologies in the inspection of transmission line trees is effective, and the accuracy of airborne LiDAR point cloud technology is better than that of UAV tilt photography.

Lan Lan Liu, Mei Qiu Luo, Jie Huang, Chang Yi Wu, Wen Luo, Xin Chao Liu, Ming Yu Cao, Pan Liu
LCC S2C and Buck–Boost C2C Topology Complementary Method for Hierarchical Battery Energy System

The series connection of batteries is widely used in various scenarios. However, due to the influence of battery imbalance, the performance of the battery pack will be degraded, scrapped in advance, and even cause safety problems. At present, cell-to-cell (C2C) and series-to-cell (S2C) topologies methods have been proposed for hierarchical battery energy system. To combine the advantages of various methods for lower control complexity, high circuit scalability, and high equalization efficiency, a hybrid hierarchical equalizer based on LCC resonant converter and buck–boost unit equalizer is proposed in this paper. This topology applies LCC resonant converter to serial-to-module (S2M) equalization, selects energy transmission path through multiplexing network, and adopts buck–boost equalizer in each module. The simulation results show that the equalizer can reduce the voltage difference of unbalanced batteries by 99.5% within 1 s and that indicates the feasibility of the equalizer. Compared with the existing equalizer, the equalizer proposed in this paper has higher efficiency and lower control complexity. This paper can provide theoretical guidance for the design of new battery equalizer and its application in high efficiency battery equalizer.

Yihan Liu
Study on the Influence of Multiple Faults on the Stability of High and Steep Slopes in Open-Pit Mines

To study the combined influence of multiple faults on the stability of high and steep slopes in open-pit mines, the finite difference software FLAC3D was applied to analyze the stability of high and steep slopes under the combined influence of four faults in the Tang Ya limestone mine of Gezhouba Xing Shan Cement Co. Combining the current fault development status and the slope instability damage characteristics under the subsequent deep extension mining conditions, the stability of the Tang Ya limestone mine under the combined effect of multiple faults is revealed. The results show that (i) the presence of faults controls the form of slope damage in the Tang Ya open-pit mine, which in turn affects the stability of the slope; (ii) the mechanical cause of slope damage is the fault cutting through the rock mass, resulting in relative slip and extrusion damage due to discontinuous stress transfer between the rock masses; (iii) the impact of mining disturbance on slope damage is small, with the maximum displacement value only increasing from 50.7 to 52 mm, and the plastic zone is never penetrated The maximum displacement value only increased from 50.7 to 52 mm, and the plastic zone was never penetrated.

Shuaichuan Rong, Jing Wang
Application of Edge Computing in S7-1200 Data Acquisition System

Through the industrial gateway, real-time collection of analog data humidity and temperature data in S7-1200PLC. First, analyze the requirements according to the needs of the industrial site, then configure the networking mode and IP of the gateway, and perform data filtering and edge computing on the collected data to determine whether there is any abnormality in the equipment. The experimental results show that the edge computing algorithm set in this paper can effectively determine the operating status of the equipment and improve the operating efficiency of the equipment.

Ji Jun, Hai-Jun Zhou, Fei-Fei Xing, Guan-Hong Cheng
Intelligent Perception and Anomaly Information Processing of Power Engineering Smart Construction Site Platform Based on 3DGIS + BIM: A Case Study of Chongming Yangtze River Crossing Project

In order to improve the information management level and platform operation load rate of tower construction in power engineering, it is necessary to introduce a GIS + BIM engine based on B/S architecture to develop a smart construction site platform for power engineering tower construction. The power engineering smart construction site platform based on 3DGIS + BIM integrates 3D geographic information data, oblique photography data, BIM model data flow, and dual-arm monitoring data flow of the tower construction site, realizing real-time monitoring, personnel positioning, and intelligent electronic fence warning, which can improve the level of personnel operation risk control. By introducing an instance database, collecting data information, screening abnormal information, and preprocessing the information before information management through clustering analysis, and the smart construction site platform achieves intelligent processing and clustering of anomalous information in power engineering. Based on the Internet of things and the collaborative mechanism of power engineering projects, a management decision model based on the browser and server is constructed to achieve intelligent decision-making and digital management of risk information in smart construction sites. Comparative experiments demonstrate that the smart construction site platform designed in this paper can avoid platform operation load caused by excessively large data and improve the efficiency and comprehensive management level of platform information management.

Binai Li, Fei Lu, Keke Zhang, Hongliang Shi, Jin Wei
Effect of Planar and Cylindrical Coil Structure Parameters on Transmission Efficiency of Magnetic Resonance Wireless Energy Transmission System

The shape and structural parameters of the coil determine the transmission efficiency of the wireless energy transmission system, and it is an important prerequisite to select the best design scheme to clarify the influencing factors of the transmission efficiency of planar and cylindrical coils. This paper compares and analyzes the influence of coil structural parameters on transmission efficiency, such as coil inner radius, coil turns, transmission distance, and coil offset, when the magnetic resonance wireless energy transfer system of cylindrical coil and planar coil is always in a resonant state. Firstly, the Maxwell simulation software is used to calculate the self-inductance and mutual inductance of the coil, and then the compensation capacitor size is determined by HFSS, the resonant frequency of the coil is adjusted to 350 kHz, and finally the transmission efficiency of the wireless energy transmission system is simulated and calculated when the load is 10 Ω. The results show that when the radius in the coil is large and the transmission distance is close, the transmission efficiency of the cylindrical coil is higher than that of the planar coil system. When the inner radius is small or the inner radius is large but the transmission distance is far, the transmission efficiency of the planar coil is higher than that of the cylindrical coil system; cylindrical coil systems are more resistant to deflection than planar coil systems. The results of this paper can provide theoretical support for the design scheme of coil selection.

Qingyang Chen, Tingrong Zhang, Yanwen Hu
Techno-economic Analysis of Supercritical Coal-Fired Power Plant Coupled with Biomass Pyrolysis System

An efficient strategy to increase the volume of biomass treatment, reduce coal consumption, and lower carbon dioxide emissions is to co-fire biomass and coal. In this paper, a system model that a 600 MW supercritical coal-fired power plant coupled with biomass fast pyrolysis is established and simulated, using process simulation software. According to the results of process simulation, the energy efficiency, fixed capital investment, internal rate of return, payback period are calculated, which aimed to analyze the thermodynamic and economic performance of the coupling system. The results show that while the coupling technical retrofitting of the system reduces energy efficiency and worsens economic performance, the decrease of energy efficiency is not significant. Additionally, the internal rate of return is higher than the discount rate, and the investment can be returned during the project’s life. These findings indicate that the pyrolysis-based co-firing system is technically feasible and economically viable.

Huiyang Shi, Rui Zhang, Dong Liu
Research and Development of Mobile Unlocking System Based on IoT for Intelligent Substation

The effective management of five prevention intelligent keys is vital for the smooth operation of intelligent substations. Addressing the issue of lax key management in substations, this paper proposes a mobile unlocking management system for smart substations based on IoT technology. The system employs a station-side five prevention host, QR codes, and a mobile app to enable remote management and security control of intelligent keys. Leveraging smartphones as mobile carriers, the system grants authorization through RFID technology and QR code scanning. It records information such as the applicant, authorized personnel, time, and reason for access via a cloud server. Moreover, the system offers operation record tracking and traceability functions and can monitor key usage as well as unlocking information in real time. Test results from substations in Guangdong demonstrate that our system effectively controls key access, contributing to the enhanced digitization and intelligence of intelligent substations.

Xiong Pan, Jie Wang, Yanan Zhang, Jian Fu, Peng Wu, Kaitao Huang, Zhaoxiao Wu, Hong Wen
Research on Range of Inertia Simulation and Distribution Ratio of Inertia of Train Braking Test Bench

This paper analyzes the simulation range and inertia distribution ratio of the inertia simulation braking test bench. Perform force analysis of the brake test table built with inertia simulation scheme. Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of different inertia simulation solutions based on the principle of inertia simulation. Propose a suitable simulation solution for rail transit trains. According to the actual vehicle parameters, the parameters of the test bench and the range of inertia simulation are composed. The simulation effect of different inertia simulation distribution ratios is analyzed. The effects of different distribution ratios on inertia simulation and the result of braking test are analyzed. Propose a suitable inertia distribution ratio for rail transit trains.

Yizhou Liu, Jianyong Zuo, Jingtai Hu
Probabilistic Optimal Energy Flow of Urban Integrated Electrical Systems Considering Low Carbon Operation

The transition from coal to gas is a key aspect of the current energy structure adjustment, aimed at mitigating environmental pollution. The introduction of the “energy internet” has further strengthened the interconnection between natural gas networks and power systems. In this context, the authors propose a joint optimal energy flow model that considers the constraints of the natural gas network on power system operation, as well as their impact on the overall operational costs of the interconnected system. The model accounts for the uncertainty of input variables such as wind power output, electrical load, and gas load, and employs Latin hypercube sampling for probabilistic optimal energy flow calculation, enabling low-carbon operation of the electrical-gas interconnection system with wind power generation. The proposed model is evaluated through case studies on the improved IEEE 9-bus system and an 8-node natural gas network, assessing the impacts of different fluctuation levels on system operating characteristics.

Zhongxi Ou, Yuanyuan Lou, Sui Peng, Kun Yang, Xiaoyan Zhao, Yede Chen
Multi-Step Wind Power Prediction Method Based on Bi-GRU and Spatial Attention

Aiming at the prevailing problems in the wind power industry, such as the volatility of wind power and the stability of the power grid system. This paper effectively combines the BI-GRU (Bidirectional Gated Recurrent Unit) algorithm with spatial attention and proposes a multi-step wind power prediction network structure independent of meteorological data. Through the analysis of a large number of experimental data of this model, it is proved that the accuracy of wind power prediction is greatly improved and the response speed is faster, which provides a strong support for the reliability analysis of wind power prediction in actual scenarios.

Yiwen Cheng, Jing Xu
Capacity Detection Method of Uninterrupted Special Transformer Based on Big Data and Pattern Recognition

In order to ensure the normal operation of uninterruptible special transformers and reduce the heavy losses caused by faults, a capacity detection method of uninterruptible special transformers based on big data and pattern recognition is proposed. Under the big data and pattern recognition, the optimal membership degree of capacity detection of uninterruptible special transformer is obtained, and the characteristic parameters of transformer operation state are extracted according to the results. Thus the load model of uninterruptible special transformer is constructed, and the capacity detection of uninterruptible special transformer is realized. The experimental results show that the proposed method can directly reflect the internal operation of the special transformer and detect the capacity problem of the special transformer without power outage.

Wei Cui, Wei Ge, Peng Li, Xun Ma, Yong Wang
Entropy Weight Detection Technology of Special Transformer Capacity Under Complex Working Conditions Without Power Failure

The capacity detection of special transformer under complex working conditions is easily affected by random noise on site, which leads to poor detection effect. In order to solve this problem, the entropy weight method is proposed to detect the capacity of special transformers under complex working conditions without power failure. Constrained variational model is constructed to obtain fault detection information. Detect the connection of transformer winding wires, calculate the power supply voltage on the loop, and detect the defects of transformer insulation winding. By calculating the contact point temperature between the bushing lead and the inner conduit, the defects of transformer insulation bushing are analyzed, and the capacity entropy weight method for special transformer under complex working conditions is realized. The experimental results show that the proposed technology can accurately detect the turn-to-turn short circuit fault of special transformer, and the fitness curve approaches the optimal value with iteration.

Zhibo Wang, Guanghua Wu, Anlei Liu, Shujun Ji, Shifang Hao
Research on Vehicle-To-Grid Interaction Architecture and Typical Patterns Based on Cloud-Net-Edge-End

There are many factors that influence vehicle-to-network interaction, and their interrelationships are complex. In order to systematically analyze the interactions between various stakeholders in the process of electric vehicle and grid interaction under different interaction modes, this article establishes typical architecture patterns based on cloud-edge and different interaction modes and operating scenarios. This provides an effective method for the evolutionary analysis of vehicle-to-network interaction and enables a targeted approach to developing effective interaction strategies based on a clear understanding of the mechanism of the interaction process.

Qing Shi, Weizheng Kong, Hongcai Dai, Zhiqiang Zhang, Siyu Zhang, Chunming Wang, Xiaoyu Wu, Dian Wang
Research on Drag Reduction Optimization of Offshore Wind Power Installation Vessel Based on Approximate Model

The conventional optimization method for drag reduction of offshore wind power installation ships mainly focuses on the optimization of scouring intensity at the bottom. Although the problem of energy consumption has been reduced to a certain extent, the pressure of power load has been increased, which affects the optimization effect of drag reduction. Therefore, an optimization method for drag reduction of offshore wind power installation vessel based on approximate model is designed. Optimize the drag reduction profile parameters of offshore wind power installation ship, and use the cross section area curve instead of the waterline surface curve to constrain the displacement of the wind power installation ship. Based on the approximate model, the drag reduction calculation domain of the wind power installation vessel is established, and the drag reduction conditions are divided to optimize the viscous resistance of the wind power installation vessel and achieve the purpose of drag reduction optimization. The comparison experiment verifies that the optimization effect of the drag reduction optimization method is better and can be applied to real life.

Liu Jie
Feature Extraction and Source Identification for Complex Voltage Sag Based on SAE and Softmax Classifier

With the development of power quality monitoring system, the voltage sag monitoring data is becoming larger and larger, which often exist some problems such as incomplete monitoring information and interference signals. This paper proposes an automatic feature extraction and source identification method of complex voltage sag source based on sparse self-encoder (SAE) and softmax classifier. Firstly, the causes of voltage sag are analyzed and summarized. Then the SAE is used to extract the feature of different voltage sag sources, and the depth feature is automatically gotten with the hidden layer of SAE. Finally, the encoder with the softmax classifier and the fine-tune the stacked network outputs the source classification result. The example results show that the proposed method can accurately identify the complex voltage sag source and has good generalization performance and robustness.

Mingming Shi, Xiaodong Yuan, Xian Zheng, Juntao Fei, Jianhua Zhou
Short-Term Prediction of Wind Power Based on NWP Error Correction with TimeGAN and LSTM-TCN

The data quality of numerical weather prediction has a great influence on the accuracy of wind power prediction technology. In order to improve the short-term forecasting effect of wind power, we proposed a combined LSTM-TCN forecasting model based on NWP error correction model with TimeGAN. First, minimal redundancy maximal relevance (mRMR) algorithm is used to extract original NWP features and measured meteorological features, respectively. Then, TimeGAN is used to correct initial NWP data according to the internal hidden associations with the measured weather features. After that, the corrected NWP features combined with historical wind power are applied to establish a wind power short-term prediction hybrid model based on LSTM and TCN network. Finally, the performance of the hybrid model is tested by a wind farm dataset in China, which verified effectiveness of this method.

Shuona Li, Wei Ma, Zhao Liu, Yuge Duan, Chengwei Tian
Frequency Converter Topology Research in Flexible Low-Frequency AC Transmission System Applied to Offshore Wind Power Transmission

Flexible low-frequency AC transmission (LFAC) technology can be used for offshore wind power transmission. Compared with high-voltage alternating current (HVAC) transmission and high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission technology solutions, LFAC has its unique advantages. This paper studies three topologies for LFAC inverters, namely BTB-MMC, M3C, and DRU-MMC. And compared and analyzed, M3C is recommended as the topology of the frequency converter in the offshore wind power transmission scene at the present stage. This paper also gives the topology scheme of the transmission system for offshore wind transmission and access to the power grid under the LFAC technology, which provides a reference for subsequent engineering implementation.

Wei Ding, Yang Huang, Qingjian Wang
Metadata
Title
Energy Power and Automation Engineering
Editors
Sanjay Yadav
Yogendra Arya
Nor Asiah Muhamad
Karim Sebaa
Copyright Year
2024
Publisher
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-9988-78-5
Print ISBN
978-981-9988-77-8
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-8878-5