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About this book

This book provides a comprehensive and contemporary overview of advances in energy and energy storage technologies. Although the coverage is varied and diverse, the book also addresses unifying patterns and trends in order to enrich readers’ understanding of energy and energy storage systems, particularly hydrogen energy storage, including e.g. their morphology, porosity and material structure. Readers will also gain insights into the hydrogen storage performance landscape, based on data released by the US Department of Energy (DOE), providing a basis for understanding real-world applications. The book also discusses the superior hydrogen storage performance of solid-state materials and explores the physical and chemical properties that can potentially affect their performance.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

1. Overview of Energy, Society, and Environment Towards Sustainable and Development

Abstract
Energy acts as the heart of the world and drives both natural and artificial mechanisms within it. Thus, it demands and causes significant impacts on our environment. Inappropriate energy use and production lead to main environmental problems, which are climate change and energy scarcity as well as a series of impacts. Hence, energy is an essential component of sustainable development. Due to this fact, the established sustainable development goals are in accordance with the energy system for holistic sustainable development actions. Therefore, this chapter reviews the energy and sustainable development. The relationship between energy and sustainable development was illustrated and discussed with the reference to the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. In short, energy and sustainable development must be studied and developed simultaneously in an integrated and comprehensive way to ensure the sustainability and wellness of our world.
Ali Salehabadi, Mardiana Idayu Ahmad, Norli Ismail, Norhashimah Morad, Morteza Enhessari

2. Overview of Energy

Abstract
Energy conversion is the key input for any proper consideration in energy production and consumption. The primary energy sources such as coal, natural gas, nuclear energy, petroleum, and renewable energy sources are used to generate secondary sources of energy like hydrogen. The secondary energy source made from primary energy sources. Our need for energy to create order in the world stems from 1850, when Rudolf Clausius and William Thomson (Kelvin) stated the second law of thermodynamics. To order the disorderness and randomness of the natural tendency of matter and energy, a constant flow of quality energy through the system should be created. This orderness could be generated by nature and human society on Earth via their potency to structure and acquire energy. This chapter will cover these fundamental principles in detail.
Ali Salehabadi, Mardiana Idayu Ahmad, Norli Ismail, Norhashimah Morad, Morteza Enhessari

3. Energy Storage Systems

Abstract
Various types of storage technologies have been created so that the grid can achieve daily energy requirements. Ever since electricity was discovered, mankind has constantly searched for effective ways to store energy so that it can be used instantly when required. For the past century, technological advancement and shifting energy requirements have forced the energy storage industry to adapt and evolve. This chapter discusses an overview and types of energy storage systems.
Ali Salehabadi, Mardiana Idayu Ahmad, Norli Ismail, Norhashimah Morad, Morteza Enhessari

4. Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Materials

Abstract
Hydrogen is an ideal candidate to fuel as “future energy needs”. Hydrogen is a light (Mw = 2.016 g mol−1), abundant, and nonpolluting gas. Hydrogen as a fuel can be a promising alternative to fossil fuels; i.e., it enables energy security and takes cares of climate change issue. Hydrogen has a low density of around 0.0899 kg m−3 at normal temperature, and pressure (~7% of the density of air), which is the main challenge in its real applications. It means, for example, 1 kg of hydrogen requires an extremely high volume of around 11 m3. In order to solve this limitation of hydrogen, solid-state hydrogen storage materials are used to store hydrogen efficiently and effectively. In this chapter, an attempt has been developed to provide a comprehensive overview of the recent advances in hydrogen storage materials in terms of capacity, content, efficiency, and mechanism of storage.
Ali Salehabadi, Mardiana Idayu Ahmad, Norli Ismail, Norhashimah Morad, Morteza Enhessari

5. Essential Parameters Identification of Hydrogen Storage Materials

Abstract
In this chapter, a brief description of the requirements of a hydrogen storage system is given. The weak interaction of hydrogen within pores (sites) needs to be understood in order to design and develop porous materials for hydrogen sorption. The measurements are based on the amount of hydrogen adsorbed as a function of pressure, temperature, the enthalpies of adsorption, and the adsorption/desorption characteristics (Thomas in Hydrogen adsorption and storage on porous materials. Catal. Today 120:389–398, 2007).
Ali Salehabadi, Mardiana Idayu Ahmad, Norli Ismail, Norhashimah Morad, Morteza Enhessari

6. Boosting Hydrogen Storage Performances of Solid-State Materials

Abstract
The term “energetic materials” are a class of material, which can release stored molecular chemical energy via external stimulations or internal modifications. We aim to take advantage of these opportunities by bringing some logical ideas onto/into the surface of hydrogen storage materials. In addition, hydrogen energy storage systems provide multiple opportunities to enhance flexibility and improve the economics of energy supply systems in the electric grid, gas pipeline systems, and transportation fuels; therefore, it is critical to boost hydrogen storage performance of the materials. The high mobility of the hydrogen and their variable compositions can be enhanced by improving the properties of the host media. In this chapter, the most important factors, which can affect the hydrogen storage performance of the solid-state materials, will be discussed.
Ali Salehabadi, Mardiana Idayu Ahmad, Norli Ismail, Norhashimah Morad, Morteza Enhessari

Backmatter

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