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2023 | Book

Energy Technology 2023

Carbon Dioxide Management and Other Technologies

Editors: Shafiq Alam, Donna Post Guillen, Fiseha Tesfaye, Lei Zhang, Susanna A.C. Hockaday, Neale R. Neelameggham, Hong Peng, Nawshad Haque, Yan Liu

Publisher: Springer Nature Switzerland

Book Series : The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series


About this book

Clean and sustainable energy is of paramount importance for industrial activities, economic development, environment, and public welfare. Aiming to reach NetZero, researchers in both academia and industry as well as policymakers are now putting tremendous efforts into the generation, storage, and applications of clean energy. This collection focuses on new and efficient energy technologies including innovative ore beneficiation, smelting technologies, recycling and waste heat recovery, and emerging novel energy solutions. The volume also covers a broad range of mature and new technological aspects of sustainable energy ecosystems, processes that improve energy efficiency, reduce thermal intensity and pollutants, and reduce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse emissions. Topics include, but are not limited to:• Energy efficient technologies for minerals, metals & materials processing

• Clean energy technologies, such as biomass, solar, wind, geothermal, nuclear including SMRs, hydrogen, etc.

• Renewable energy resources to reduce the consumption of traditional fossil fuels

• Emerging technologies for renewable energy harvesting, conversion, and storage

• New concepts or devices for energy generation, conversion, and distribution

• Waste heat recovery and other industrial energy efficient technologies

• Energy education and energy regulation

• Scale-up, stability, and life-cycle analysis of energy technologies and improvement of existing energy-intensive processes

• Theory and simulation in energy harvesting, conversion, and storage

• Design, operation, and optimization of processes for energy generation (e.g., carbon capture) and conversion of energy carriers

• Energy efficiency improvement in process engineering (e.g., for biomass conversion and improved combustion) and electrical engineering (e.g., for power conversion and developing smart grids)

• Thermo-electric/electrolysis/photo-electrolysis/fundamentals of PV

• Emission control, CO2 capture, and conversion

• Carbon sequestration techniques

• CO2 and other greenhouse gas reduction metallurgy in ferrous (iron & steel making and forming), non-ferrous and reactive metals including critical rare-earth metals

• Sustainability and life cycle assessment of energy systems

• Thermodynamics and modelling for sustainable metallurgical processes

• 'Smart cool materials' for urban heat island mitigation (such as cool roof infrared reflecting material, and low-temperature heat absorbers for use in air conditioner condensers - like 'endothermic materials')

• Methodologies for reducing the cost of energy materials production

• Circular economy and developing resource efficiency model for cutting down the transport from remote places

• Materials extraction and processing steps for enhancing energy efficiencies in batteries, supercapacitors, and energy efficient cells

• Foundational industry (metals-alloys, chemicals, refractories, cement) and energy economy and role of mineral extraction

Table of Contents


Renewable Energy and Combustion Technologies

Analysis of Environmental Impact of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Using Circular Economy Approach
The need for energy is constantly growing due to economic, population growth, and technological advancement. In India, coal is the largest contributor with about 75% in electricity generation in 2019, but coal combustion produces higher emissions among the fossil fuels and other non-renewable energy sources. Thus, the contribution of renewables (especially wind) is gaining importance in recent years due to its easy availability and low carbon emission. The wind turbine does not impact the environment in its operational phase; however, raw material extraction, production, transportation, and decommissioning affect the environment through harmful emissions. This study aims to integrate the circular economy in the life cycle of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). The study presents the assessment of environmental impact for baseline case and circular economy scenario (recycling) of materials used in VAWT production. The result suggests that aluminium has a higher contribution to environmental impact for each impact category CO2, NOx, SO2, and PM2.5. Among different impact categories, global warming potential highly impacts the environment. The capacity factor is a key parameter in reducing the impact on the environment using a VAWT. The recycling scenario of 50% and 90% reduces the environmental impact by 25.7% and 46.3%, respectively. Thus, the integration of circular economy with VAWT is likely to be a sustainable transition with reduced emissions.
Satyendra Dayalu, Shalini Verma, Akshoy Ranjan Paul, Nawshad Haque
Corrosion and Erosion Protection to Accelerate Deployment of Sustainable Biomass
Thermochemical processing of sustainable biomass paired with carbon capture and storage has the potential to provide 1/7th of the emission mitigations necessary for the world to meet net-zero targets by 2050 while also providing carbon-negative fuel, electricity, and economic development. This work has developed coating solutions to mitigate the hot corrosion that occurs when biomass is processed in boilers, gasifiers, and other thermal conversion equipment, in addition to coating solutions to mitigate solid particle erosion that occurs when steam turbines are used for aggressive load following. Analysis of 66 hot corrosion coatings and 75 solid particle erosion coatings reveals unique mechanisms that enable significantly improved performance relative to conventional coatings used today without increasing material cost. Implications of this work to fuel flexibility, process efficiency, and lessons learned utilizing ICME will also be discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FE0031911.
Patrick Shower, Scott Weaver, Voramon Dheeradhada, Aida Amroussia, Michael Pagan, Patrick Brennan, Martin Morra, Bruce Pint, Suresh Babu, Phil Gilston, Steve Lombardo, Tamara Russell, Anteneh Kebbede
Development of Indium-Tin Oxide Thin Films on PAMAM Dendrimer Layers for Perovskite Solar Cells Application
Despite the dramatic progress that has been made in the power-conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells (PVSCs), there are still many obstacles to be overcome before these devices can be economically competitive in the photovoltaics market. One of the major hurdles in the commercialization of PVSCs is low stability, which severely limits the effective lifetime of the devices. One of the approaches to achieving higher stability and lifetime of PVSCs is improvement of PVSC film quality. In this paper, we have employed a PAMAM dendrimer layer to reduce the surface roughness of sputter-deposited indium-tin oxide (ITO) films, which were then used in the fabrication of PVSCs. A PAMAM-8 dendrimer layer was deposited by dip-coating the substrates in 25 mL of a 1 μM PAMAM-8 ethanol solution before ITO deposition. X-ray refractivity (XRR) was used to verify the PAMAM layer on the substrate. ITO films of 150 nm thickness were then deposited onto the PAMAM layer using DC magnetron reactive sputtering. The surface roughness, sheet resistance, and transmissivity of the ITO films were optimized by varying the parameters of the sputtering process. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to measure the surface roughness of the ITO films with and without PAMAM dendrimer layer. A root-mean-square (RMS) film roughness of 1.6 nm, sheet resistance of 21 Ω/Υ, and transmissivity of > 91% at a wavelength of 400–700 nm were obtained after optimization.
Firdos Ali, Alecsander D. Mshar, Ka Ming Law, Xiao Li, A. J. Hauser, Shanlin Pan, Dawen Li, Subhadra Gupta
DFT Study of CuS-ZnS Heterostructures
Heterostructure and solid solution formation provide new approaches to tuning the optoelectronic properties of semiconductor materials. In this work, density functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to systematically study the structural and optoelectronic properties of CuS–ZnS heterostructures as a function of ZnS layer thickness. The results show that varying the thickness of ZnS influences the gap between the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO) of the structure. Also, the electronic properties of the CuS–ZnS heterostructures are sensitive to changes in the bonding environment at the interface, with particular thicknesses of ZnS corresponding to interfacial arrangements that give lower formation energies and HOMO-LUMO gaps than other structures. Based on the results, CuS–ZnS heterostructures can be expected to have tunable optoelectronic properties with HOMO-LUMO gaps in the energy range of visible light.
Louis Oppong-Antwi, Judy N. Hart
Effect of H2 Enrichment on CO/N2/H2-air Turbulence Partial Premixed Flame Combustion Characteristics
To investigate the effect of H2 enrichment on the combustion characteristics of H2/CO/N2 partial premixed flames, experiments were conducted using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) and an infrared gas analyzer. The changes in the H2 content (contents of 0, 16, 32, 48, and 65%) on the flame structure, flame temperature, and concentration of gases (CO, CO2) in the flame at a fixed air–fuel ratio of 3.2 were investigated. As the H2 content increased, the flame length decreased, high-temperature zone moved forward, temperature increased, CO2 content first increased and then decreased, and CO content decreased. The addition of H2 facilitated the formation of OH radicals, causing the oxidation reaction of CO to proceed faster than in the presence of only O2 and O.
Fan Yang, Qingguo Xue, Haibin Zuo, Binbin Lv, Yu Liu, Jingsong Wang

Energy Efficiency, Decarbonization and CO2 Management

CO2 Mineralization and Critical Battery Metals Recovery from Olivine and Nickel Laterites
The global clean energy transition requires CO2 emission reduction with a concurrent increase in the global supply of critical battery metals. A process has been developed at the lab scale. The hydrometallurgical process achieves CO2 mineralization and selective battery metal recovery from olivine and laterites. The natural minerals are processed at a modest temperature with a carbon dioxide pressure in a sodium bicarbonate solution containing soluble ligands enabling nickel and cobalt extraction. Iron and magnesium react with CO2 gas to form stable mineral carbonates for carbon dioxide sequestration. The leached nickel and cobalt are recovered by sulfide precipitation as high-value sulfides. The corresponding barren solution is recycled with no decrease in performance. The process consumes carbon dioxide and a source of sulfide. No additional acid or base is consumed in this novel process. Therefore, this work can potentially make significant contributions to the enhanced production of critical battery metals with enhanced CO2 storage and to the clean energy transition.
Fei Wang, David Dreisinger
Decarbonization Pathways for an Aluminum Rolling Mill and Downstream Processes
In this work the corporate carbon footprint (CCF) of Constantia Teich, the biggest plant for aluminum-based flexible packaging in Europe, was analyzed. Based on the CCF together with an in-depth analysis of processes the product carbon footprint (PCF) was calculated. Based on the CCF and PCF calculations a strategy for net zero CO2 emissions in 2040 was developed.
Alexander Wimmer
Rethinking the Decomposition of Refractory Lithium Aluminosilicates: Opportunities for Energy-Efficient Li Recovery from LCT Pegmatites
Extracting lithium from Li–Cs–Ta (LCT) pegmatites is highly energy-intensive, involving an initial heat treatment at temperatures exceeding 1000 °C (decrepitation) to induce a transition in the refractory aluminosilicate carrier minerals (α-spodumene, petalite) to a more reactive phase (β-spodumene), allowing the breakdown of the crystalline structure and lithium release in a subsequent acid baking stage (~250–300 °C). This study focuses on investigating alternative, energy-efficient approaches to lithium recovery from LCT pegmatites. Our results indicate that there exist optimal conditions that induce effective alkali exchange directly from the primary phases, attainable at temperatures < 450 °C in under 30 min, creating opportunities for a viable single-stage mineral decomposition process without the need for a decrepitation step. The nature of the reactive process will be discussed, where exchanged alkali and other impurities are partitioned in stable solid phases, allowing improved purity of the pregnant leach solution, therefore minimizing downstream challenges associated with battery precursor production (Li2CO3, LiOH·H2O).
Joanne Gamage McEvoy, Yves Thibault, Nail R. Zagrtdenov, Dominique Duguay
Energy-Saving Green Technologies in the Mining and Mineral Processing Industry
Pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy are the two main processes to recover valuable metals from ore and secondary resources. While pyrometallurgy uses high temperatures to extract metals, in hydrometallurgy, an aqueous solution is used to extract metals from mineral resources. As a result, hydrometallurgical techniques are considered to be energy-saving technologies in the mining and mineral processing industry. This paper will address how energy can be reduced to extract metals in the mining and mineral processing industries with an emphasis on the extraction of base metals such as zinc and copper. Our novel techniques can even reduce more energy than what is currently consumed in the conventional hydrometallurgical copper electrowinning processes. Those energy-saving and sustainable green technologies would help meet the NetZero target in the mining and mineral processing industries.
Shafiq Alam
Extraction of Valuable Metals from Luanshya Copper Smelting Slag with Minimal Waste Generation
An efficient method of separating valuable elements (copper, cobalt, chromium, and sulphur) from copper smelting slag of Luanshya district of the Copperbelt province in Zambia has been developed. The as-received slag material was characterised via scanning electron microscope. The valuable elements were separated through a combination of magnetic separation, flotation, and gravity separation steps. Magnetic separation of the as-received material separates cobalt/iron and copper/sulphur/chromium rich fractions due to differences in magnetic properties. Residual copper in the magnetic fraction was upgraded to more 25 weight% via flotation. By comparison, flotation of the non-magnetic fraction yielded low grade copper concentrate due to high presence of sulphur. Chromium was upgraded by a factor of more than 5 when the non-magnetic fraction was subjected to gravity concentration. The effect of particle size was studied during magnetic separation of feed material.
Yaki Chiyokoma Namiluko, Yotamu Rainford Stephen Hara, Agabu Shane, Makwenda Thelma Ngomba, Ireen Musukwa, Alexander Old, Ronald Hara, Rainford Hara, Stephen Parirenyatwa
Carbon Footprint Assessment of Waste PCB Recycling Through Black Copper Smelting in Australia
Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Australia. The high potential value of precious metals in e-waste is a factor in the development of an e-waste recycling process facility in Australia. Preliminary environmental impact analysis using net carbon footprint as an indicator for developing comprehensive waste PCB processing facilities in Australia has been carried out and presented in this paper. The paper analyses the current situation of e-waste management (focused on waste PCB) based on three different scenarios: (1) recycling of waste PCB in a small-scale facility, (2) recycling of waste PCB integrated with industry, and (3) recycling of waste PCB in a centralized and large recycling facility. The total carbon footprints of these scenarios were estimated to be in the range of 1.96–3.76 (kg CO2-eq/kg Cu). The transport of key materials to the plant was found to only contribute a little to the overall carbon emission. Reduction of carbon emission by 18–31% was estimated when renewable energy sources were used for supplying the electricity for the process.
A. Q. Mairizal, A. Y. Sembada, K. M. Tse, N. Haque, M. A. Rhamdhani
Screening High-Entropy Alloys for Carbon Dioxide Reduction Reaction Using Alchemical Perturbation Density Functional Theory
The carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO\(_2\)-RR) has the potential to transform the production of carbon-based fuels to a closed carbon cycle with no net carbon emission. Recently, high-entropy alloys (HEAs) have shown remarkable catalytic performance for CO\(_2\)-RR. The most challenging aspect about investigating HEA for CO\(_2\)-RR stems from its inherent surface complexity. To tackle this issue, robust approaches to efficiently screen the configurational space of catalytic HEA materials need to be developed along with an efficient method to navigate the configuration space of HEA alchemical perturbation density functional theory (APDFT). A key advantage of APDFT is that a single density functional theory (DFT) calculation of the adsorbate’s binding energy (BE) can be used to predict many hypothetical catalysts surface structures’ BE at a negligible additional computational cost. This characteristic makes APDFT an appealing technique to explore the configurational space of catalytic HEAs at significantly less computational cost compared to conventional DFT. Here we investigate the accuracy of using APDFT to screen HEAs for catalytic applications.
Mohamed Hendy, Okan K. Orhan, Homin Shin, Ali Malek, Mauricio Ponga

Thermal Management, Environmental and Energy Technologies

Novel Thermal Conductivity Measurement Technique Utilizing a Transient Multilayer Analytical Model of a Line Heat Source Probe for Extreme Environments
Advancements in thermal properties analysis are crucial for continual improvement of existing and next generation reactors, space exploration, and environmental safety. Extreme environments pose a great hurdle for instrumentation to measure real time thermal properties due to the extreme temperatures, high radiation, and variable electromagnetic environments. Nevertheless, measurement systems are tremendously important for the design, performance, and safety considerations of nuclear fuels, spacecraft, and deep sea/deep earth drilling. Thermal properties may change significantly in these environments creating challenging problems for temperature and thermal conductivity measurement systems. A recent focus has surrounded improvements in such systems for accurate determination of temperature and thermal properties to increase efficiencies, reduce costs, calibrate models, and tackle problems previously unfulfilled. Here we report on the thermal quadrupoles method to develop analytical models, which have been verified using multiphysics finite element analysis, for thermal conductivity measurements conducted with a line heat source probe. A novel measurement technique was developed to monitor the temperature rise of the sample via the temperature dependent resistance of the probe’s heater wire. This innovative approach provides a feasible method for extracting thermal conductivity in extreme environments.
Katelyn Wada, Austin Fleming, David Estrada
The Effect of Reduced Flue Gas Suctioning on Superstructure and Gas Temperatures
Reducing CO2 emissions from aluminum smelters is of great interest to reach the goal of carbon neutrality. One possible approach is to implement carbon capture and sequestration techniques (CCS). This is already being done within the geothermal sector in Iceland, where captured CO2 is sequestered through the Carbfix method of mineralization. Under the current smelter operation, the CO2 concentration in the exhaust gas is below 1%, which is too low for conventional up-concentration technology, but by adjusting the draft rate, the concentration can increase to the required 4% or higher. In order to determine the feasibility of retrofitting this method into existing smelters, a CFD model has been developed to predict the effects that the draft rate modifications would cause within the system. In this paper, the results from CFD modeling of the flue gas and superstructure of the cell are used to predict changes in flow and thermal conditions. Outlet temperature values are determined for the air passing through the system as well as the surface temperatures of the anode cover material (ACM), hood cover, and anode rods.
Brandon Velasquez, Sarah DiBenedetto, Yonatan A. Tesfahunegn, Maria Gudjonsdottir, Gudrun Saevarsdottir
Assessing the Environmental Footprints of Gold Production in Nevada
Gold has always been regarded as a valuable commodity in high demand throughout history. Nevada is the leading producer of gold in the United States, and gold mining contributes to a significant part of Nevada’s economy. Depending on the types of gold ore and its mineralogical characteristics, several beneficiation and extraction methods are available for gold. Gold can be beneficiated by heap leaching, flotation, roasting, autoclave, or a combination of these techniques. Regardless of the rigorous environmental management standards, different gold processing routes can impact the ecosystem and human health since gold mining is a significant source of hazardous chemicals. In this study, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to evaluate the environmental performance of four main processes. Using the TRACI method, categories of ozone depletion, global warming, smog, acidification, eutrophication, carcinogenics, non-carcinogenics, respiratory effects, ecotoxicity, and fossil fuel depletion were evaluated for the processes that occurred for gold recovery.
Saeede Kadivar, Ehsan Vahidi
Polymeric Composite Dense Membranes Applied for the Flue Gas Treatment
Control and reduction of the amount of carbon-dioxide have emerged as one of the main tasks and problems in various fields of industry and production. Therefore, various techniques for treatment of waste gases have been developed. Membrane technology for flue gas treatment emerged as one of the most promising processes for this purpose. Membrane procedures with different types of membranes have huge advantages in comparison with conventional methods. Treatment of gases with various amounts of carbon-dioxides was tested. Different types of membranes are discussed in this paper, their advantages and disadvantages are described, and some basic properties and mechanism of work are presented. Basic types of membranes (polymeric, carbon, and inorganic) were described. Within each category, properties can be bit fine-tuned by using two different materials of the same type for the synthesis. As a separate category, mixed matrix membrane that combines good properties of polymer matrix and inorganic dispersed phase have shown better properties in comparison to any other category of membrane is described. Main disadvantages of any type of membranes are sensitivity to heating and cooling cycles and fouling by condensable components, mainly water.
Dragutin Nedeljkovic
Molten Salt Mg-Air Battery Improvement and Recharging
Decarbonization of the shipping industry along with other long-haul transportation is among the toughest and most important challenges to resolve toward greenhouse emission elimination. A molten salt magnesium-air battery shows promise toward meeting this challenge. This work presents the improvement achieved in long-run battery performance through solidifying the MgO reaction product from the molten salt electrolyte by using a cold finger. Moreover, preliminary result on Mg reduction at the battery anode is discussed which leads to the recharging of these batteries. Finally, a battery design in a 20-foot shipping container could deliver 60–90 MWh of energy, which is 15–22 times the energy of containerized lithium-ion batteries, at a fraction of the cost. Disadvantages include the inability to scale down due to high-temperature operation, and lower round-trip efficiency than Li-ion batteries.
Mahya Shahabi, Nicholas Masse, Amanda Lota, Lucien Wallace, Heath Bastow, Adam Powell
Superconductor Busbar Systems in the Light of Increased Energy Costs
The Russian invasion of Ukraine led to a shortage of commodities and increased energy costs. In this situation, it is important to realize that every MWh saved does not need to be generated. Direct current transmission with superconductors takes place without electrical resistance and without line losses. The potential use cases in the aluminum industry presented during TMS 2021 will be highlighted and re-evaluated with current energy costs. The relation between conventional and the innovative superconductor technology is changing. Technologies previously considered unfeasible gain importance. In this paper, different variants of superconductors and refrigeration technologies are presented with respect to investment and operating costs. Alternative variants are described technically and evaluated economically. Investment costs are indicated as well as costs for maintenance, operation, and total cost of ownership for various timelines. A special chapter will describe the advantages of a combined pipeline for the transfer of liquid hydrogen and superconductor electricity.
Wolfgang Reiser, Till Reek, Claus Hanebeck, Peter Abrell
Critical Metals for Clean Energy: Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Coal Ash
As the global community strives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to combat climate change, green technologies are becoming a top priority, in turn increasing the demand for rare earth elements (REEs) as they are crucial in the production of clean energy. This increase in demand has led to the search for alternative sources of REEs, hence the recovery from fly and bottom ash, a waste product from the burning of coal for energy. This paper will discuss the extraction of REEs from the coal ash of SaskPower's Poplar River Thermal Power Plants.
Sara Penney, Shafiq Alam

Energy Technologies

Investigation of Slag and Condensate from the Charge Top in a FeSi75 Furnace
Metallurgical silicon/ferrosilicon is produced industrially in submerged arc furnaces by carbothermic reduction of quartz. In addition to raw materials, oxide impurities are present in the furnace. Accumulated slag is typically found along the furnace walls towards the charge top, as well as the furnace bottom and taphole. During optimal tapping, the slag will follow the alloy. Accumulated slag in the furnace will affect the furnace operation. Large amounts of accumulated slag will have a negative effect on the operation and lead to more CO2 emissions. A partly melted charge at the surface from a FeSi75 furnace has been collected and analyzed. All samples contained slag and/or condensate, carbon, and/or unreacted SiO2. The slag samples contained SiO2, in addition to oxides of Fe, Na, K, Mg, Al, and Ca. Slag at the charge surface may be due to sufficiently high temperature to produce slag, which again can affect how the materials distribute in the furnace.
M. B. Folstad, K. F. Jusnes, M. Tangstad
Lithium Extraction from Natural Resources to Meet the High Demand in EV and Energy Storage
Electrification of vehicles will increase lithium demand drastically in the next decades, as the demand increases the supply remains constant. Lithium is mainly produced from hard rock spodumene mining and high concentration brines in South America but most of the lithium reserves are in the low lithium concentration continental brine. The exploitation of this reserve would make the industry easily meet the demand. But current technology has limitations to extract lithium from low-concentration brine. This paper describes most of the applicable methods alongside with mass balance sheet for concentrating lithium from the brine into lithium chloride solution, then purifying and crystallization of lithium solution to lithium carbonate salt.
Valan Namq, Shafiq Alam

Poster Session

Hydrogen Storage Properties of Graphitic Carbon Nitride Nanotube Synthesized by Mix-Grind Technique
Hydrogen has been touted as the fuel to potentially replace fossils; however, the bottleneck towards its acceptance is its storage and transportation in a manner considered practical and safe. For mobile applications, hydrogen has the potential to be used in fuel cell powered cars as a clean fuel; however, its realization rests on its efficient mode of storage. Presently, the technique of storing hydrogen in pressurized tanks at 700 bar has safety concerns. In this work, we report a mix-grind technique of synthesizing graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanotubes as hydrogen storage materials. The morphology, crystal structure, surface, and hydrogen storage properties of the samples were analyzed. Results showed that nanotubes of high specific surface area of about 114.21 m2/g can be produced. The measured hydrogen storage capacity of the nanotubes was around 0.67 wt.% at 37 bar, at room temperature. The hydrogen storage capacity is predicted to reach 3.3 wt.% at 100 bar pressure, at room temperature. This study provides a facile approach in producing large scale g-C3N4 nanotubes for applications such as hydrogen storage, photocatalysis, electrochemical systems, and metal free catalyst used to produce hydrogen via water splitting.
Barton Arkhurst, Ruiran Guo, Ghazaleh Bahman Rokh, Sammy Lap Ip Chan
Study on Preparation and Electrocatalytic Performance of Self-supported Carbon Transition Metal Catalysts
Ni/CP and FeO/CP oxygen evolution electrocatalysts were prepared by one-step electrodeposition on carbon paper (CP). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of catalysts. Compared with CP before deposition, CP was completely covered by Ni and FeO. The electrochemical performances of Ni/CP and FeO/CP were measured by cyclic voltammetric curves (CV), anodic polarization curve, and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). The results show that the overpotential of CP, Ni/CP, and FeO/CP was 776 mV, 854 mV and 788 mV respectively at the current density of 50 mA cm−2, and the double layer capacitors were 43.30 mF cm−2, 55.65 mF cm−2, and 99.20 mF cm−2, respectively. Ni/CP and FeO/CP can carry more charge and have better electrocatalytic performance of oxygen evolution; consequently they have the potential to be used as new zinc electrowinning anode materials.
Ze Yang, Yanfang Huang, Guihong Han, Bingbing Liu, Shengpeng Su
Modification and Evaluation of Energy Saving and Consumption for Reduction Technology of 500 t/d Beckenbach Annular Lime Kiln
The ejector system of annular lime kiln was modified for energy saving and pollution reduction. Under the principle of high air pressure and speed, the driving air flow and movement system was improved to achieve high ejector pressure and strong siphon effect. The technical transformation has broken the traditional cognition that two driving fans must be applied at full load in the industry. A single fan can meet the full production. The power and fuel consumption potentially reduced, and the output of quicklime increased. After renovation works, about 125 m3/h of coke oven gas and 250 m3/h of converter gases were saved. The temperature of the combustion chamber increased for 20 °C after modification.
Yapeng Zhang, Wen Pan, Zhenping Miao, Jianbo Zhu, Shaoguo Chen, Huaiying Ma, Zhixing Zhao
Research on the Gasification Characteristic of Cokes of BIOC-HPC Extracted from the Mixture of Low-Rank Coal and Biomass
The aim of this paper is to provide theoretical guidelines for biomass and low-rank coal in coking and promoting the development of low carbon ironmaking; the modified coal (BIOC-HPC) was produced, and its performance as an additional component in coking process was also investigated through co-thermal extraction method. The effect of the addition amount of BIOC-HPC extracted from 80 wt.% low-rank coal and 20 wt.% biomass on the gasification performance of BIOC-HPC coke was investigated. The results showed that with the increase of BIOC-HPC content, the coking yield decreased after high-temperature carbonization, from 70.45 to 68.42 wt.%, while the ash content of coke is decreased from 11.82 to 10.05 wt%. The gasification reaction rate of BIOC-HPC coke gradually increases with the increase of BIOC-HPC ratio and the gasification temperature. The optimal ratio of BIOC-HPC in coking is in the range of 10–20 wt.%; the pore size is relatively uniform, about 10–19 nm.
Jun Zhao, Xueya Wang
Thermodynamic Examination of Selected Phases in the Ag–Co–Sn–S System at T < 600 K by the Solid-State EMF Method
Phase equilibria in the part SnS–SnS2–CoS2–CoS–Ag2CoS2–SnS of the Ag–Co–Sn–S system at T < 600 K were investigated by the modified solid-state electromotive force (EMF) method. The position of established phase regions vs point of Ag was used to express the overall potential-forming reactions. The reactions were performed in the positive electrodes of the electrochemical cells (ECCs). The positive electrodes of ECCs were prepared from carefully mixed non-equilibrium powder mixtures of Ag, Ag2S, CoS2, Co3S4, Co9S8, SnS2, Sn2S3, and SnS. Synthesis of the equilibrium set of phases in the positive electrodes of the ECCs was facilitated by Ag+ ions that shifted from the left electrode and acted as the small nucleation centers of formation of the compounds. Linear dependences of the EMF of the ECCs on temperature were used for calculating standard Gibbs energies, enthalpies, and entropies of formations of the compounds CoS, AgCoS2, Ag2CoS2, Ag2CoSnS4, and Ag2CoSn3S8. The thermodynamic data obtained in the present study were compared and analyzed in detail.
Mykola Moroz, Fiseha Tesfaye, Pavlo Demchenko, Myroslava Prokhorenko, Oksana Mysina, Lyudmyla Soliak, Daniel Lindberg, Oleksandr Reshetnyak, Leena Hupa
Energy Technology 2023
Shafiq Alam
Donna Post Guillen
Fiseha Tesfaye
Lei Zhang
Susanna A.C. Hockaday
Neale R. Neelameggham
Hong Peng
Nawshad Haque
Yan Liu
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