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24-11-2022 | Engine Technology | News | Article

Heavy-duty sector focuses on alternative fuels and H2

Authors: Christiane Köllner, Patrick Schäfer

7 min reading time

Editor's note: This article is an automated translation. You can find the original text in German here.

The 17th MTZ conference "Heavy-Duty, On- and Off-Highway Engines" took place as a hybrid event. We have compiled selected content from the conference on optimized, more sustainable commercial vehicle drive systems here. 

The hybrid conference Heavy-Duty, On- and Off-Highway Engines 2022 will highlight the current status of the energy turnaround in the heavy-duty sector. ATZlive invites you to Donaueschingen on November 16 and 17, 2022. The 17th International MTZ Conference on Large Engines offers engine developers and designers of commercial vehicles, mobile machinery, marine and stationary equipment a platform to find out about and exchange information on the latest developments in new power units and alternative energy sources. The Wiesbaden-based online team Springer Professional bundles selected content of the Heavy-Duty, On- and Off-Highway Engines 2022 in the article.

Day 2

Fuel cell system development for commercial vehicles

Dr. Stephan Schnorpfeil, Technology Leader, Segula Technologies GmbH, described in his presentation Fuel Cell System Development for Commercial Vehicles the fundamental aspects and processes for defining the layout of a fuel cell system with all its subcomponents. In the development of fuel cell systems, the simulation of the system in advance is a decisive step. This is where the basic components would be defined. The requirements for the individual components can be derived from the vehicle data and the driving cycle. All operating states of the fuel cell system could also be simulated and the functionality of the components checked. (chk) 

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2022 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

Fuel Cell System Integration for Heavy-Duty Applications

A concept for converting conventional diesel-powered long-haul trucks to a combined battery and hydrogen fuel cell powertrain is presented. The development of the concept is outlined whereas the focus is on the operational strategy, the thermal design, the spatial constraints, FEM strength simulations and safety aspects. Based on a costumer drive cycle the battery capacity as well as the fuel cell power output is determined with the help of a 1D-Matlab/Simulink model. Beside this the thermal system and especially the low temperature and high temperature circuit requirements are defined by system simulation. The results of these simulations were implemented in the design concept of the fuel cell heavy duty tractor (“HyBatt truck”) and are validated by the testing results of the first prototype.

CO2 impact of commercial vehicle drive systems

Well-to-Wheel CO2 Balancing of Future Commercial Vehicle Drive Concepts in Representative Driving Scenarios is the title of the presentation by Nicolas Hummel. He is a research associate at the Institute for Combustion Engines and Powertrain Systems (VKM) at Darmstadt Technical University. His focus is on the investigation of different drive systems in commercial vehicles. In addition to the standard diesel drive, the well-to-wheel CO2 emissions of a natural gas vehicle, a battery-electric vehicle and a hydrogen combustion engine, among others, are being investigated in various applications. The load profiles range from highly specific refuse collection operations to the delivery of goods over long distances. Payload and topography also play an important role. In his method, a route recorded in the real vehicle is transferred to the IPG-Truckmaker virtual environment. The model of the real reference vehicle is then created and the generated simulation environment is validated by comparing real and simulated fuel consumption. From now on, the validated reference vehicle will serve as the basis for building the commercial vehicles with alternative drives. This enables the consumption of the different drive systems in the selected applications to be compared. 

Together with the well-to-wheel emissions determined for the energy storage systems under consideration, the application-specific CO2 impact of the individual drive systems is finally evaluated. For example, the use of local excess capacities of renewable, electrical energy could already lead to H2/E-fuels with a low COimpact. In addition, available biogenic fuels such as HVO could already reduce CO2 emissions from a standard diesel truck. In addition, H2 can further reduce the CO2 impact of ICE trucks, although the infrastructure here has yet to be built. In addition, it is important to consider the energy system when comparing the CO2 emissions of different propulsion systems, he said. In order to achieve the climate targets, all types of drive would ultimately have to be used. (ps+chk) 

Day 1

MTZ conference on large engines opens

Dr. Alexander Heintzel, Editor-in-Chief of ATZ | MTZ Group, opens the conference with 180 participants from 13 countries. It is supported by the cooperation partner KST-Motorenversuch and the sponsor SEM. ACTech, Emissions Analytics, KST-Motorenversuch, Liebherr-Components Deggendorf, Mahle, Parker Hannifin, Poppe + Potthoff, Rotera, SEM, Sonplas and UT99 will be represented in the accompanying trade exhibition. (chk) 

Hydrogen and its derivatives as energy carriers of the future

In the keynote presentation The Power of Water – with Hydrogen to a CO2-neutral Commercial Vehicle Industry, Dr. Marco Warth, Head of Development Engine Systems and Components at Mahle, explains why hydrogen is seen as a solution for decarbonizing energy-intensive processes and heavy on- and off-road applications with high autonomy requirements, especially in the transport and industrial sectors. On the one hand, as increasingly stringent regulations for on-road applications are to be expected, for example due to the CO2 sector targets set at European level ("Fit for 55"). Furthermore, the first CO2 limits for off-road applications are only a matter of time. In the transport sector for heavy-duty applications, cost parity between hydrogen and fossil fuels can be achieved even sooner than in the industrial sector. Due to the often given proximity between industry and transport/construction, additional synergies would arise here. According to Warth, the first hydrogen-powered drive solutions (fuel cell and hydrogen engine) currently being developed and already in use should demonstrate the high potential and feasibility of hydrogen for establishing a CO2-neutral commercial vehicle industry. (chk) 

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01-02-2022 | Cover Story

H2 Engine and Fuel Cell in Heavy Commercial Vehicles

AVL and the Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research Baden-Württemberg (ZSW) in this article provide excerpts from the study "System Comparison between Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine and Fuel Cell in Heavy Commercial Vehicles." The aim is to evaluate the two powertrains to assess the advantages and disadvantages for the mentioned application.

Hydrogen future starts now

The second keynote will be given by Robert Szolak, Head of the Department of Thermochemical Processes, Hydrogen Technologies Division at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE). His presentation, The Role of Hydrogen and Derivatives in the Energy System and for Future Non-Road Applications, will provide an outlook on the challenges of a global H2 economy. Szolak emphasizes that the transformation of energy systems needs to be faster with respect to CO2 targets. Hydrogen and its derivatives would have the important role of storing green-produced energy, such as from photovoltaics or wind turbines. Szolak presents various global projects for the production of hydrogen. Szolak sees the use cases primarily in industry, but hydrogen could also be used in the mobility sector. For example, the use of Fischer-Tropsch diesel could enable a 95 % reduction in CO2 in commercial vehicles in the future. A Fraunhofer simulation sees Saudi Arabia, for example, as a favorable location for P2X applications. Szolak emphasizes that global H2 ecosystems need to be established now and calls for clear framework conditions from policymakers. (ps) 

The internal combustion engine is also a green technology

Dr. Markus Münz, Deputy Managing Director Engines and Systems at VDMA, explains in his keynote speech Green Molecules – Saving the Combustion Engine or Saving the Climate? that we can only save the climate if we use all the green technologies that are available, which also includes the combustion engine. In a world open to technology, the market or the price will decide whether a technology is used. Saving the climate is a task of global proportions, for which it is imperative to find global solutions. Without global business models, there can be no global climate protection, Münz said. (chk) 

TCG 7.8 H2 goes into series production in 2024

Dr. Georg Töpfer, Coordinator of Advanced Engineering at Deutz, described the potential of hydrogen internal combustion engines (HICE) for offhighway applications in his presentation TCG 7.8 H2 - Development Steps for Realizing a CO2-free Powertrain for NRMM. Deutz is currently developing a HICE with a displacement of 7.8 l, the TCG 7.8 H2, which has a maximum power output of 220 kW, he said. It is envisaged that this new engine type will go into series production in 2024, he said. The TCG 7.8 H2 is based on the Deutz 7.8 TCD diesel engine and has been adapted for H2 combustion. The H2 injection system and T/C technology are challenges in hydrogen engine development, he said. Studies have shown that HICE have several advantages in non-road machinery and equipment (NRMM) applications, he said. (chk) 

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01-06-2020 | Development

Engine Adaptation from Diesel to H2 HP-EGR Lean Combustion Concept

The hydrogen combustion engine for heavy-duty traffic is a zero-emission solution in parallel with H2 fuel cell electric and battery electric vehicles. With an approach presented by Keyou, conventional basic engines, such as diesel engines, can be adapted into engines with H2 lean-burn combustion concept with high rates of exhaust gas recirculation.

Mahle unveils H2 test engine

Dr. Simon Schneider is a project manager at Mahle's Group Advanced Mechatronics. In his presentation H2-ICE-DI multicylinder engine tests for thermodynamics and component development, he presents a Mahle H2 research engine that uses direct injection (H2 ICE DI). The PFI and DI injection strategies are used in the tests. The results show the advantages and disadvantages of these strategies and potentials of the DI combustion system in terms of engine load and efficiency, which can be as high as 44 %. Nitrogen oxide emissions remain very low in both modes. The boundary condition is the realization on a typical commercial vehicle engine and the use of components developed for a future series application of hydrogen combustion engines. In DI mode, better homogenization could be achieved by optimizing the injection course. The focus of the Mahle tests on the full engine is on testing and developing components. (ps) 

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01-11-2022 | Cover Story

Direct Injection for Hydrogen Combustion Engines

The direct injection of hydrogen into the combustion chamber of internal combustion engines requires specially designed injectors and concepts due to the material properties of the gas. ITAZ illustrates the potential of an injector tailor-made for hydrogen in combination with a medium-pressure design with up to 50 bar.

System approach for hydrogen injection

Mario D'Onofrio, Head of Department, system validation and application at Liebherr-Machines Bulle SA, explained Liebherr's System Approach to Hydrogen Injection in his presentation. He said Liebherr has developed a complete system that includes all components necessary for pressure control and fuel metering. Throughout development, real-world load cycles of heavy-duty mobile machinery were considered to properly design the system and its components. D'Onofrio provides detailed insight into the system's design, construction and functionality. Liebherr is developing injector solutions for both injection strategies, PFI and DI, he says. The Liebherr approach to hydrogen injection is not limited to heavy-duty commercial vehicle engines, he said. Components for large engines would also be considered as part of the overall concept. (chk)

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01-09-2022 | Development

H2 Injection System for Heavy-duty Applications

Mobile construction machinery and heavy trucks are powered almost completely by internal combustion engines these days. The hydrogen combustion engine enables a CO2-free powertrain solution that requires no adaptation of the vehicle concept. For mobile construction machinery in particular, it offers a fast and economic way to meet the existing requirements for dynamics and robustness without CO2 emissions. To achieve this, Liebherr develops H2 injection systems for heavy-duty engines.

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