Skip to main content
Top
Published in: Journal of Chinese Political Science 3/2023

28-02-2023 | Research Article

Environmental Civil Society Organizations and the State in China: Institutional Analysis of the Dynamics, 1980s-2010s

Authors: Kyoung Shin, Tingting Zhu

Published in: Journal of Chinese Political Science | Issue 3/2023

Log in

Activate our intelligent search to find suitable subject content or patents.

search-config
loading …

Abstract

The answer to the oft-asked question of state-civil society relations and the latter’s role in environmental governance in China seems to be “in the eyes of the beholder.” A number of discrepant accounts, narratives, and theories continue to be offered by China scholars and experts, largely due to methodological reliance on a snapshot of a given space and time. This article takes a different approach. Based on a more nuanced longitudinal analysis, we show that there have been at least three kinds of relationship between the Chinese state and environmental civil society in the last few decades, each defined by a distinct institutional field. The dynamics of these institutional changes have been anything but linear or predetermined. This article contributes to the existing debate by offering a more systematic and analytical account of the nature of state-society relations in China’s environmental governance. Findings also point to the need for more dynamic and evolutionary, rather than static, analyses in future scholarship.

Dont have a licence yet? Then find out more about our products and how to get one now:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 102.000 Bücher
  • über 537 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 340 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Versicherung + Risiko




Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Appendix
Available only for authorised users
Footnotes
1
For maximum protection of the research subjects, all interviews were recorded using alphanumeric codes only. We disclose the names of the interviewees or their affiliations only when permissions were attained or when the information is gathered from—and thus readily available in—the public domain. Each interview is given a unique code using month, day, and year. When more than one interview was conducted on a given date, the year is followed by an alphabet letter (e.g., a, b, c) to assign a unique identification. Therefore, it is possible to ascertain whether the interviews quoted in this article are from the same source or different sources.
 
2
In this article, we use such terms as “non-governmental organizations” (NGOs), “civil society organizations” (CSOs), and “non-state organizations” (NSOs) interchangeably. Although there may be important conceptual differences between them, such an issue is outside the scope of this paper. Technically, there is no authentic NGO in China, and debates over definitional issues have not led to much advancement in our understanding.
 
3
See, e.g., O’Rourke [77] in the case of Vietnam.
 
4
Autonomy and capacity may be two analytically distinct variables. Indeed, their definitions and relationships remain contested in the literature [e.g., [95]. Notwithstanding its importance, this issue is not critical to our analysis. Hence, we choose to liberally use these two concepts.
 
5
See, e.g., Immergut [50] for an overview of different schools of institutionalism.
 
6
This is one of the main differences between traditional social protest theories such as “political opportunity structure” [54] and new institutional theories. The former generally follows the traditional structural determinism.
 
7
See Arthur [1] for a theoretical discussion of the role of historical accidents in path dependence.
 
9
For instance, its illegal scaling of Mount Rushmore in July 2009 ahead of the G8 summit.
 
10
For instance, compare this incident to the case of the same organization’s behavior in the 2010s detailed below in Section VII.
 
11
China, however, did create new entities in the 2000s such as the Energy Bureau and State Energy Administration underneath NDRC.
 
12
Lack of reliable data makes it difficult to say with complete certainty.
 
13
Some of them had existed before but without much influence, and some of them were new entrants [91].
 
14
When it felt challenged, the Chinese state was ruthless in penalizing, especially against Chinese citizens. For instance, in 2005, the Chinese authorities honored Wu Lihong as one of the top environmentalists in the country for his work on pollution in Lake Taihu. Yet, the following year, when he seemed to have crossed the boundaries, he was beaten by local thugs and arrested by the local government in Yixing (Jiangsu) on dubious charges.
 
15
cf. Fu [33], who shows underground activities in a different policy area: labor.
 
16
e.g., its mayor training program on low-carbon transition and smart city.
 
17
The designation means that failure to meet such targets would automatically nullify all achievements for a given local official in a given year.
 
18
It was reported in 2017 that 170 million units of such cameras were already in place across the country (BBC [3]).
 
19
Anecdotal evidence suggests that effects on many international NGOs—and on domestic CSOs as well—have been devastating so far (Interview, March 16, 2018). In more extreme cases—which are reportedly becoming increasingly common—international CSOs are vilified as potential spies sent by foreign forces [55, 59].
 
20
In China, too, there have been provocative cases in recent years in which domestic CSOs such as Friends of Nature have brought class action public interest lawsuits against even government actors. What is interesting is that often such actions are endorsed or legitimatized by the same processes of formalization and rationalization induced by the Chinese state that seem constraining. They show a glimpse of potential to test and redraw the boundaries of the state-society relationship.
 
Literature
1.
go back to reference Arthur, W.B. 1989. Competing technologies, increasing returns, and lock-in by historical events. The Economic Journal 99 (394): 116–131. CrossRef Arthur, W.B. 1989. Competing technologies, increasing returns, and lock-in by historical events. The Economic Journal 99 (394): 116–131. CrossRef
2.
go back to reference Ashford, D.E. 1986. The British and French social security systems: welfare state by intent and by default. In Nationalizing social security, ed. D.E. Ashford and E.W. Kelley, 96–122. Greenwich: JAI press. Ashford, D.E. 1986. The British and French social security systems: welfare state by intent and by default. In Nationalizing social security, ed. D.E. Ashford and E.W. Kelley, 96–122. Greenwich: JAI press.
4.
go back to reference Beeson, M. 2010. The coming of environmental authoritarianism. Environmental Politics 19 (2): 276–294. CrossRef Beeson, M. 2010. The coming of environmental authoritarianism. Environmental Politics 19 (2): 276–294. CrossRef
5.
go back to reference Berger, S., ed. 1981. Organizing interests in Western Europe: Pluralism, corporatism, and the transformation of politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Berger, S., ed. 1981. Organizing interests in Western Europe: Pluralism, corporatism, and the transformation of politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
6.
go back to reference Birney, M. 2013. Decentralization and veiled corruption under China’s ‘rule of mandates.’ World Development 53: 55–67. CrossRef Birney, M. 2013. Decentralization and veiled corruption under China’s ‘rule of mandates.’ World Development 53: 55–67. CrossRef
7.
go back to reference Bondes, M. 2019. Chinese environmental contention: Linking up against waste incineration. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. CrossRef Bondes, M. 2019. Chinese environmental contention: Linking up against waste incineration. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. CrossRef
9.
go back to reference Burawoy, M. 2009. The extended case method: Four countries, four decades, four great transformations, and one theoretical tradition. Berkeley: University of California Press. CrossRef Burawoy, M. 2009. The extended case method: Four countries, four decades, four great transformations, and one theoretical tradition. Berkeley: University of California Press. CrossRef
10.
go back to reference Campbell, J.L. 2007. Why would corporations behave in socially responsible ways? An institutional theory of corporate social responsibility. Academy of Management Review 32 (3): 946–967. CrossRef Campbell, J.L. 2007. Why would corporations behave in socially responsible ways? An institutional theory of corporate social responsibility. Academy of Management Review 32 (3): 946–967. CrossRef
11.
go back to reference Capoccia, G., and R.D. Kelemen. 2007. the study of critical junctures: Theory, narrative, and counterfactuals in historical institutionalism. World Politics 59 (3): 341–369. CrossRef Capoccia, G., and R.D. Kelemen. 2007. the study of critical junctures: Theory, narrative, and counterfactuals in historical institutionalism. World Politics 59 (3): 341–369. CrossRef
13.
go back to reference Charnovitz, S. 1997. Two centuries of participation: NGOs and international governance. Michigan Journal of International Law 18 (2): 183–286. Charnovitz, S. 1997. Two centuries of participation: NGOs and international governance. Michigan Journal of International Law 18 (2): 183–286.
14.
go back to reference Chiashi, A. 2017. Multi-tiered nature of environmental pollution problems and the pollution control governance in China: The role of environmental NGOs. In Environmental policy and governance in China, 159–176. Tokyo: Springer. CrossRef Chiashi, A. 2017. Multi-tiered nature of environmental pollution problems and the pollution control governance in China: The role of environmental NGOs. In Environmental policy and governance in China, 159–176. Tokyo: Springer. CrossRef
15.
go back to reference Cho, M.Y. 2017. Unveiling neoliberal dynamics: Government purchase ( goumai) of social work services in Shenzhen’s urban periphery. The China Quarterly 230: 269–288. CrossRef Cho, M.Y. 2017. Unveiling neoliberal dynamics: Government purchase ( goumai) of social work services in Shenzhen’s urban periphery. The China Quarterly 230: 269–288. CrossRef
16.
go back to reference Conrad, B. 2012. China in Copenhagen: Reconciling the “Beijing climate revolution” and the “Copenhagen climate obstinacy.” The China Quarterly 210: 435–455. CrossRef Conrad, B. 2012. China in Copenhagen: Reconciling the “Beijing climate revolution” and the “Copenhagen climate obstinacy.” The China Quarterly 210: 435–455. CrossRef
17.
go back to reference Cunningham, E. 2007. China’s energy governance: Perception and reality. Boston, MA: MIT Center for International Studies Audit of the Conventional Wisdom. Cunningham, E. 2007. China’s energy governance: Perception and reality. Boston, MA: MIT Center for International Studies Audit of the Conventional Wisdom.
18.
go back to reference Dai, J., and A.J. Spires. 2018. Advocacy in an authoritarian state: How grassroots environmental NGOs influence local governments in China. The China Journal 79 (1): 62–83. CrossRef Dai, J., and A.J. Spires. 2018. Advocacy in an authoritarian state: How grassroots environmental NGOs influence local governments in China. The China Journal 79 (1): 62–83. CrossRef
19.
go back to reference Dal Bó, E. 2006. Regulatory capture: A review. Oxford Review of Economic Policy 22 (2): 203–225. CrossRef Dal Bó, E. 2006. Regulatory capture: A review. Oxford Review of Economic Policy 22 (2): 203–225. CrossRef
20.
go back to reference Dasgupta, N. 2000. Environmental enforcement and small Industries in India: Reworking the problem in the poverty context. World Development 28 (5): 945–967. CrossRef Dasgupta, N. 2000. Environmental enforcement and small Industries in India: Reworking the problem in the poverty context. World Development 28 (5): 945–967. CrossRef
21.
go back to reference Deng, G. 2010. The hidden rules governing China’s unregistered NGOs: Management and consequences. China Review 10 (1): 183–206. Deng, G. 2010. The hidden rules governing China’s unregistered NGOs: Management and consequences. China Review 10 (1): 183–206.
22.
go back to reference Distelhorst, G. 2017. The power of empty promises: Quasi-democratic institutions and activism in China. Comparative Political Studies 50 (4): 464–498. CrossRef Distelhorst, G. 2017. The power of empty promises: Quasi-democratic institutions and activism in China. Comparative Political Studies 50 (4): 464–498. CrossRef
23.
go back to reference Dryzek, J. S. 2013 (1997). The politics of the earth: Environmental discourses. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Dryzek, J. S. 2013 (1997). The politics of the earth: Environmental discourses. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
24.
go back to reference Eaton, S. 2016. The advance of the State in contemporary China: State-market relations in the reform Era. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Eaton, S. 2016. The advance of the State in contemporary China: State-market relations in the reform Era. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
25.
go back to reference Eaton, S., and G. Kostka. 2017. Too big to regulate: The ‘central SOE problem’ in environmental enforcement in China. The China Quarterly 231: 685–704. CrossRef Eaton, S., and G. Kostka. 2017. Too big to regulate: The ‘central SOE problem’ in environmental enforcement in China. The China Quarterly 231: 685–704. CrossRef
26.
go back to reference Economy, E.C. 2004. The river runs black: The environmental challenge to China’s future. New York: Cornell University Press. Economy, E.C. 2004. The river runs black: The environmental challenge to China’s future. New York: Cornell University Press.
27.
go back to reference Economy, E.C. 2007. The great leap backward-The costs of China’s environmental crisis. Foreign Affairs 86 (5): 38–59. Economy, E.C. 2007. The great leap backward-The costs of China’s environmental crisis. Foreign Affairs 86 (5): 38–59.
28.
go back to reference Edin, M. 2003. State capacity and local agent control in China: CCP cadre management from a township perspective. The China Quarterly 173: 35–52. CrossRef Edin, M. 2003. State capacity and local agent control in China: CCP cadre management from a township perspective. The China Quarterly 173: 35–52. CrossRef
29.
go back to reference Engels, A. 2018. Understanding how China is championing climate change mitigation. Palgrave Communications 4 (1): 1–6. CrossRef Engels, A. 2018. Understanding how China is championing climate change mitigation. Palgrave Communications 4 (1): 1–6. CrossRef
32.
go back to reference Ferdinand, P. 2016. Westward ho – the China dream and ‘One Belt, One Road’: Chinese foreign policy under Xi Jinping. International Affairs 92 (4): 941–957. CrossRef Ferdinand, P. 2016. Westward ho – the China dream and ‘One Belt, One Road’: Chinese foreign policy under Xi Jinping. International Affairs 92 (4): 941–957. CrossRef
33.
go back to reference Fu, D. 2018. Mobilizing without the masses: Control and contention in China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fu, D. 2018. Mobilizing without the masses: Control and contention in China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
34.
go back to reference Fung, A., D. O’Rourke, C.F. Sabel, and J. Rogers. 2001. Can we put an end to sweatshops? Boston: Beacon Press. Fung, A., D. O’Rourke, C.F. Sabel, and J. Rogers. 2001. Can we put an end to sweatshops? Boston: Beacon Press.
35.
go back to reference Gallagher, M.E. 2006. Mobilizing the law in China: ‘Informed disenchantment’ and the development of legal consciousness. Law & Society Review 40 (4): 783–816. CrossRef Gallagher, M.E. 2006. Mobilizing the law in China: ‘Informed disenchantment’ and the development of legal consciousness. Law & Society Review 40 (4): 783–816. CrossRef
36.
go back to reference Geddes, B. 1990. Building ‘state’ autonomy in Brazil, 1930–1964. Comparative Politics 22 (2): 217–235. CrossRef Geddes, B. 1990. Building ‘state’ autonomy in Brazil, 1930–1964. Comparative Politics 22 (2): 217–235. CrossRef
37.
go back to reference Gilley, B. 2012. Authoritarian environmentalism and China’s response to climate change. Environmental Politics 21 (2): 287–307. CrossRef Gilley, B. 2012. Authoritarian environmentalism and China’s response to climate change. Environmental Politics 21 (2): 287–307. CrossRef
38.
go back to reference Habich-Sobiegalla, S. 2018. How Do central control mechanisms impact local water governance in China? The case of Yunnan Province. The China Quarterly 234: 444–462. CrossRef Habich-Sobiegalla, S. 2018. How Do central control mechanisms impact local water governance in China? The case of Yunnan Province. The China Quarterly 234: 444–462. CrossRef
39.
go back to reference Hall, P. A. 1992. The movement from Keynesianism to Monetarism: Institutional analysis and British economic policy in the 1970s. In Structuring politics: Historical institutionalism in comparative analysis, edited by Steinmo, S., Thelen, K., & Longstreth, F., eds., 90–113. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hall, P. A. 1992. The movement from Keynesianism to Monetarism: Institutional analysis and British economic policy in the 1970s. In Structuring politics: Historical institutionalism in comparative analysis, edited by Steinmo, S., Thelen, K., & Longstreth, F., eds., 90–113. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
40.
go back to reference Hall, P.A., and D. Soskice. 2001. An introduction to varieties of capitalism. In Varieties of capitalism: Institutional foundations of comparative advantage, ed. D. Soskice and P.A. Hall, 21–27. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef Hall, P.A., and D. Soskice. 2001. An introduction to varieties of capitalism. In Varieties of capitalism: Institutional foundations of comparative advantage, ed. D. Soskice and P.A. Hall, 21–27. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
41.
go back to reference He, G., I. Boas, A.P. Mol, and Y. Lu. 2017. E-participation for environmental sustainability in transitional urban China. Sustainability Science 12 (2): 187–202. CrossRef He, G., I. Boas, A.P. Mol, and Y. Lu. 2017. E-participation for environmental sustainability in transitional urban China. Sustainability Science 12 (2): 187–202. CrossRef
42.
go back to reference Heberer, T., and A. Senz. 2011. Streamlining local behaviour through communication, incentives and control: A case study of local environmental policies in China. Journal of Current Chinese Affairs 40 (3): 77–112. CrossRef Heberer, T., and A. Senz. 2011. Streamlining local behaviour through communication, incentives and control: A case study of local environmental policies in China. Journal of Current Chinese Affairs 40 (3): 77–112. CrossRef
43.
go back to reference Heberer, T., and R. Trappel. 2013. Evaluation processes, local cadres’ behaviour and local development processes. Journal of Contemporary China 22 (84): 1048–1066. CrossRef Heberer, T., and R. Trappel. 2013. Evaluation processes, local cadres’ behaviour and local development processes. Journal of Contemporary China 22 (84): 1048–1066. CrossRef
44.
go back to reference Holbig, H., and B. Lang. 2022. China’s overseas NGO law and the future of international civil society. Journal of Contemporary Asia 52 (4): 574–601. CrossRef Holbig, H., and B. Lang. 2022. China’s overseas NGO law and the future of international civil society. Journal of Contemporary Asia 52 (4): 574–601. CrossRef
45.
go back to reference Hsu, A., Z.Y. Yeo, and A. Weinfurter. 2020. Emerging digital environmental governance in China: The case of black and smelly waters in China. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 63 (1): 14–31. CrossRef Hsu, A., Z.Y. Yeo, and A. Weinfurter. 2020. Emerging digital environmental governance in China: The case of black and smelly waters in China. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 63 (1): 14–31. CrossRef
46.
go back to reference Hsu, S. C., Tsai, K. S., & Chang, C. C, eds. 2021. Evolutionary governance in China: state-society relations under authoritarianism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Hsu, S. C., Tsai, K. S., & Chang, C. C, eds. 2021. Evolutionary governance in China: state-society relations under authoritarianism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
47.
go back to reference Huang, Y. 2016. Understanding China’s belt and road initiative: Motivation, framework and assessment. China Economic Review 40: 314–321. CrossRef Huang, Y. 2016. Understanding China’s belt and road initiative: Motivation, framework and assessment. China Economic Review 40: 314–321. CrossRef
48.
go back to reference Huang, Y. 2020. Toxic politics: China’s environmental health crisis and its challenge to the Chinese state. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef Huang, Y. 2020. Toxic politics: China’s environmental health crisis and its challenge to the Chinese state. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
49.
go back to reference Hughes, N.C. 1998. Smashing the iron rice bowl. Foreign Affairs 77: 66–67. CrossRef Hughes, N.C. 1998. Smashing the iron rice bowl. Foreign Affairs 77: 66–67. CrossRef
50.
go back to reference Immergut, E.M. 1998. The theoretical core of the new institutionalism. Politics and Society 26 (1): 5–34. CrossRef Immergut, E.M. 1998. The theoretical core of the new institutionalism. Politics and Society 26 (1): 5–34. CrossRef
52.
go back to reference Ji, Q., S. Harlow, D. Cui, and Z. Wang. 2018. Discussing environmental issues in Chinese social media: An analysis of Greenpeace China’s Weibo posts and audience responses. The Journal of Social Media in Society 7 (1): 37–60. Ji, Q., S. Harlow, D. Cui, and Z. Wang. 2018. Discussing environmental issues in Chinese social media: An analysis of Greenpeace China’s Weibo posts and audience responses. The Journal of Social Media in Society 7 (1): 37–60.
54.
go back to reference Kitschelt, H.P. 1986. Political opportunity structures and political protest: Anti-nuclear movements in four democracies. British Journal of Political Science 16 (1): 57–85. CrossRef Kitschelt, H.P. 1986. Political opportunity structures and political protest: Anti-nuclear movements in four democracies. British Journal of Political Science 16 (1): 57–85. CrossRef
55.
go back to reference Koesel, K., V. Bunce, and J. Weiss, eds. 2020. Citizens and the state in authoritarian regimes: Comparing China and Russia. NY: Oxford University Press. Koesel, K., V. Bunce, and J. Weiss, eds. 2020. Citizens and the state in authoritarian regimes: Comparing China and Russia. NY: Oxford University Press.
56.
go back to reference Kostka, G. 2016. Command without control: The case of China’s environmental target system. Regulation & Governance 10 (1): 58–74. CrossRef Kostka, G. 2016. Command without control: The case of China’s environmental target system. Regulation & Governance 10 (1): 58–74. CrossRef
57.
go back to reference Kostka, G. 2019. China’s social credit systems and public opinion: Explaining high levels of approval. New Media & Society 21 (7): 1565–1593. CrossRef Kostka, G. 2019. China’s social credit systems and public opinion: Explaining high levels of approval. New Media & Society 21 (7): 1565–1593. CrossRef
58.
go back to reference Kostka, G., and J. Nahm. 2017. Central-local relations: Recentralization and environmental governance in China. The China Quarterly 231: 567–582. CrossRef Kostka, G., and J. Nahm. 2017. Central-local relations: Recentralization and environmental governance in China. The China Quarterly 231: 567–582. CrossRef
60.
go back to reference Li, J. 2022. Public participation in China: The case for environmental enforcement. Journal of Chinese Governance 7 (2): 159–179. CrossRef Li, J. 2022. Public participation in China: The case for environmental enforcement. Journal of Chinese Governance 7 (2): 159–179. CrossRef
61.
go back to reference Li, L. 2010. Rights consciousness and rules consciousness in contemporary China. The China Journal 64: 47–68. CrossRef Li, L. 2010. Rights consciousness and rules consciousness in contemporary China. The China Journal 64: 47–68. CrossRef
62.
go back to reference Li, Y., and J. Shapiro. 2020. China goes green: Coercive environmentalism for a troubled planet. Cambridge: Polity Press. Li, Y., and J. Shapiro. 2020. China goes green: Coercive environmentalism for a troubled planet. Cambridge: Polity Press.
63.
go back to reference Lieberthal, K.G., and D.M. Lampton, eds. 1992. Bureaucracy, politics, and decision making in post-Mao China. Berkeley: University of California Press. Lieberthal, K.G., and D.M. Lampton, eds. 1992. Bureaucracy, politics, and decision making in post-Mao China. Berkeley: University of California Press.
64.
go back to reference Lo, A.Y. 2013. Carbon trading in a socialist market economy: Can China make a difference? Ecological Economics 87: 72–74. CrossRef Lo, A.Y. 2013. Carbon trading in a socialist market economy: Can China make a difference? Ecological Economics 87: 72–74. CrossRef
65.
go back to reference Lo, C., and S.Y. Tang. 2006. Institutional reform, economic changes, and local environmental management in China: The case of Guangdong Province. Environmental Politics 15 (2): 190–210. CrossRef Lo, C., and S.Y. Tang. 2006. Institutional reform, economic changes, and local environmental management in China: The case of Guangdong Province. Environmental Politics 15 (2): 190–210. CrossRef
66.
go back to reference Locke, R.M., and K. Thelen. 1995. Apples and oranges revisited: Contextualized comparisons and the study of comparative labor politics. Politics and Society 23 (3): 337–367. CrossRef Locke, R.M., and K. Thelen. 1995. Apples and oranges revisited: Contextualized comparisons and the study of comparative labor politics. Politics and Society 23 (3): 337–367. CrossRef
67.
go back to reference Lorentzen, P., and S. Scoggins. 2015. Understanding China’s rising rights consciousness. The China Quarterly 223: 638–657. CrossRef Lorentzen, P., and S. Scoggins. 2015. Understanding China’s rising rights consciousness. The China Quarterly 223: 638–657. CrossRef
69.
go back to reference Mattli, W., and N. Woods. 2009. In whose benefit? Explaining regulatory change in global politics. In The politics of global regulation, ed. W. Mattli and N. Woods, 1–43. Princeton: Princeton University Press. CrossRef Mattli, W., and N. Woods. 2009. In whose benefit? Explaining regulatory change in global politics. In The politics of global regulation, ed. W. Mattli and N. Woods, 1–43. Princeton: Princeton University Press. CrossRef
70.
go back to reference McAllister, L.K., B. Van Rooij, and R.A. Kagan. 2010. Reorienting regulation: Pollution enforcement in industrializing countries. Law & Policy 32 (1): 1–13. McAllister, L.K., B. Van Rooij, and R.A. Kagan. 2010. Reorienting regulation: Pollution enforcement in industrializing countries. Law & Policy 32 (1): 1–13.
71.
go back to reference Mertha, A. 2008. China’s water warriors: Citizen action and policy change. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Mertha, A. 2008. China’s water warriors: Citizen action and policy change. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
72.
go back to reference Mertha, A. 2010. Society in the state: China’s nondemocratic political pluralization. In State and society in 21st-century China: Crisis, contention, and legitimation, ed. P.H. Gries and S. Rosen, 69–84. New York: Routledge Curzon. Mertha, A. 2010. Society in the state: China’s nondemocratic political pluralization. In State and society in 21st-century China: Crisis, contention, and legitimation, ed. P.H. Gries and S. Rosen, 69–84. New York: Routledge Curzon.
73.
go back to reference Minzner, C.F. 2014. Riots and cover-ups: Counterproductive control of local agents in China. University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Law 31 (1): 53–123. Minzner, C.F. 2014. Riots and cover-ups: Counterproductive control of local agents in China. University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Law 31 (1): 53–123.
74.
go back to reference Moe, T. 1987. Institutions, interests and positive theory: The politics of the NLRB. Studies in American Political Development 2: 236–299. CrossRef Moe, T. 1987. Institutions, interests and positive theory: The politics of the NLRB. Studies in American Political Development 2: 236–299. CrossRef
75.
go back to reference North, D. 1990. Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef North, D. 1990. Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
76.
go back to reference O’Donnell, G.A. 1999. Horizontal accountability in new democracies. In The self-restraining state: Power and accountability in new democracies, ed. A. Schedler, L.J. Diamond, and M.F. Plattner, 29–52. Boulder: Lynne Reinner. CrossRef O’Donnell, G.A. 1999. Horizontal accountability in new democracies. In The self-restraining state: Power and accountability in new democracies, ed. A. Schedler, L.J. Diamond, and M.F. Plattner, 29–52. Boulder: Lynne Reinner. CrossRef
77.
go back to reference O’Rourke, D. 2004. Community-driven regulation: Balancing development and the environment in Vietnam. Cambridge: The MIT Press. O’Rourke, D. 2004. Community-driven regulation: Balancing development and the environment in Vietnam. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
78.
go back to reference Ong, L. 2018. Thugs and outsourcing of state repression in China. The China Journal 80 (1): 94–110. CrossRef Ong, L. 2018. Thugs and outsourcing of state repression in China. The China Journal 80 (1): 94–110. CrossRef
79.
go back to reference Ownby, D. 2008. Falun gong and the future of China. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef Ownby, D. 2008. Falun gong and the future of China. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
80.
go back to reference Pierson, P., and T. Skocpol. 2002. Historical institutionalism in contemporary political science. Political Science: The State of the Discipline 3 (1): 1–32. Pierson, P., and T. Skocpol. 2002. Historical institutionalism in contemporary political science. Political Science: The State of the Discipline 3 (1): 1–32.
81.
go back to reference Price, L., M.D. Levine, N. Zhou, D. Fridley, N. Aden, H. Lu, and P. Yowargana. 2011. Assessment of China’s energy-saving and emission-reduction accomplishments and opportunities during the 11th Five Year Plan. Energy Policy 39 (4): 2165–2178. CrossRef Price, L., M.D. Levine, N. Zhou, D. Fridley, N. Aden, H. Lu, and P. Yowargana. 2011. Assessment of China’s energy-saving and emission-reduction accomplishments and opportunities during the 11th Five Year Plan. Energy Policy 39 (4): 2165–2178. CrossRef
82.
go back to reference Putnam, R. 1993. Making democracy work. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Putnam, R. 1993. Making democracy work. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
83.
go back to reference Ran, R. 2013. Perverse incentive structure and policy implementation gap in China’s local environmental politics. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning 15 (1): 17–39. CrossRef Ran, R. 2013. Perverse incentive structure and policy implementation gap in China’s local environmental politics. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning 15 (1): 17–39. CrossRef
84.
go back to reference Ran, R. 2017. Understanding blame politics in China’s decentralized system of environmental governance: Actors, strategies and context. The China Quarterly 231: 634–661. CrossRef Ran, R. 2017. Understanding blame politics in China’s decentralized system of environmental governance: Actors, strategies and context. The China Quarterly 231: 634–661. CrossRef
85.
go back to reference Saich, T. 2000. Negotiating the state: The development of social organizations in China. The China Quarterly 161: 124–141. CrossRef Saich, T. 2000. Negotiating the state: The development of social organizations in China. The China Quarterly 161: 124–141. CrossRef
86.
go back to reference Schedler, A. 1999. Restraining the state: Conflicts and agents of accountability. In The self-restraining state: Power and accountability in new democracies, ed. A. Schedler, L.J. Diamond, and M.F. Plattner. Boulder: Lynne Reinner. CrossRef Schedler, A. 1999. Restraining the state: Conflicts and agents of accountability. In The self-restraining state: Power and accountability in new democracies, ed. A. Schedler, L.J. Diamond, and M.F. Plattner. Boulder: Lynne Reinner. CrossRef
87.
go back to reference Schlæger, J., and J. Zhou. 2019. Digital environmental monitoring in urban China. In Greening China’s urban governance: Tackling environmental and sustainability challenges, ed. J. Delman, Y. Ren, O. Luova, M. Burell, and O. Almén, 131–149. Singapore: Springer. CrossRef Schlæger, J., and J. Zhou. 2019. Digital environmental monitoring in urban China. In Greening China’s urban governance: Tackling environmental and sustainability challenges, ed. J. Delman, Y. Ren, O. Luova, M. Burell, and O. Almén, 131–149. Singapore: Springer. CrossRef
88.
go back to reference Scott, J.C. 1990. Domination and the arts of resistance: Hidden transcripts. New Haven: Yale University Press. Scott, J.C. 1990. Domination and the arts of resistance: Hidden transcripts. New Haven: Yale University Press.
89.
go back to reference Scott, J.C. 2008. Weapons of the weak: Everyday forms of peasant resistance. New Haven: Yale University Press. Scott, J.C. 2008. Weapons of the weak: Everyday forms of peasant resistance. New Haven: Yale University Press.
90.
go back to reference Seligsohn, D., M. Liu, and B. Zhang. 2018. The sound of one hand clapping: Transparency without accountability. Environmental Politics 27 (5): 804–829. CrossRef Seligsohn, D., M. Liu, and B. Zhang. 2018. The sound of one hand clapping: Transparency without accountability. Environmental Politics 27 (5): 804–829. CrossRef
91.
go back to reference Shin, K. 2014. “An Emerging Architecture of Local Experimentalist Governance in China: A Study of Local Innovations in Baoding, 1992–2012.” Ph.D. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Shin, K. 2014. “An Emerging Architecture of Local Experimentalist Governance in China: A Study of Local Innovations in Baoding, 1992–2012.” Ph.D. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
92.
go back to reference Shin, K. 2017. Neither centre nor local: Community-driven experimentalist governance in China. The China Quarterly 231: 607–633. CrossRef Shin, K. 2017. Neither centre nor local: Community-driven experimentalist governance in China. The China Quarterly 231: 607–633. CrossRef
93.
go back to reference Shin, K. 2021. Sustainable transition with Chinese characteristics: Rethinking target-and indicator-based governance. Current Sustainable/Renewable Energy Reports 8 (1): 31–39. CrossRef Shin, K. 2021. Sustainable transition with Chinese characteristics: Rethinking target-and indicator-based governance. Current Sustainable/Renewable Energy Reports 8 (1): 31–39. CrossRef
94.
go back to reference Sima, Y. 2011. Grassroots environmental activism and the internet: Constructing a green public sphere in China. Asian Studies Review 35 (4): 477–497. CrossRef Sima, Y. 2011. Grassroots environmental activism and the internet: Constructing a green public sphere in China. Asian Studies Review 35 (4): 477–497. CrossRef
95.
go back to reference Soifer, H., and M. Vom Hau. 2008. Unpacking the strength of the state: The utility of state infrastructural power. Studies in Comparative International Development 43 (3): 219–230. CrossRef Soifer, H., and M. Vom Hau. 2008. Unpacking the strength of the state: The utility of state infrastructural power. Studies in Comparative International Development 43 (3): 219–230. CrossRef
97.
go back to reference Steinfeld, E.S. 2010. Playing our game: Why China’s rise doesn’t threaten the West. Oxford University Press. Steinfeld, E.S. 2010. Playing our game: Why China’s rise doesn’t threaten the West. Oxford University Press.
98.
go back to reference Steinmo, S. 1993. Taxation and democracy: Swedish, British, and American approaches to financing the modern state. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Steinmo, S. 1993. Taxation and democracy: Swedish, British, and American approaches to financing the modern state. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
100.
go back to reference Teets, J. 2013. Let many civil societies bloom: The rise of consultative authoritarianism in China. The China Quarterly 213: 1–20. CrossRef Teets, J. 2013. Let many civil societies bloom: The rise of consultative authoritarianism in China. The China Quarterly 213: 1–20. CrossRef
101.
go back to reference Teets, J. 2018. The power of policy networks in authoritarian regimes: Changing environmental policy in China. Governance 31 (1): 125–141. CrossRef Teets, J. 2018. The power of policy networks in authoritarian regimes: Changing environmental policy in China. Governance 31 (1): 125–141. CrossRef
102.
go back to reference Teets, J., and O. Almen. 2018. Advocacy under Xi: NPO strategies to influence policy change. Nonprofit Policy Forum 9 (1): 20170028. CrossRef Teets, J., and O. Almen. 2018. Advocacy under Xi: NPO strategies to influence policy change. Nonprofit Policy Forum 9 (1): 20170028. CrossRef
103.
go back to reference Teets, J., and W. Hurst. 2014. Local governance innovation in China: Experimentation, diffusion, and defiance. New York: Routledge. CrossRef Teets, J., and W. Hurst. 2014. Local governance innovation in China: Experimentation, diffusion, and defiance. New York: Routledge. CrossRef
104.
go back to reference Tsai, L.L. 2007. Accountability without democracy: Solidary groups and public goods provision in rural China. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef Tsai, L.L. 2007. Accountability without democracy: Solidary groups and public goods provision in rural China. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
105.
go back to reference Turner, J.L., and F. Wu. 2001. Green NGO and environmental journalist Forum. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Turner, J.L., and F. Wu. 2001. Green NGO and environmental journalist Forum. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.
107.
go back to reference Wang, A.L. 2013. The search for sustainable legitimacy: Environmental law and bureaucracy in China. Harvard Environmental Law Review 37: 365–440. Wang, A.L. 2013. The search for sustainable legitimacy: Environmental law and bureaucracy in China. Harvard Environmental Law Review 37: 365–440.
108.
go back to reference Wang, A.L. 2018. Explaining environmental information disclosure in China. Ecology Law Quarterly 44 (4): 865–924. Wang, A.L. 2018. Explaining environmental information disclosure in China. Ecology Law Quarterly 44 (4): 865–924.
109.
go back to reference Wang, C. 2021. Legal and political practices in China’s central–local dynamics. Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences 14: 523–547. CrossRef Wang, C. 2021. Legal and political practices in China’s central–local dynamics. Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences 14: 523–547. CrossRef
110.
go back to reference Wank, D. 2001. Commodifying communism: Business, trust, and politics in a Chinese City. Cambridge University Press. Wank, D. 2001. Commodifying communism: Business, trust, and politics in a Chinese City. Cambridge University Press.
113.
go back to reference Wiener, J.B. 2007. Climate change policy and policy change in China. UCLA Law Review 55: 1805. Wiener, J.B. 2007. Climate change policy and policy change in China. UCLA Law Review 55: 1805.
114.
go back to reference Wong, C., and V.J. Karplus. 2017. China’s war on air pollution: Can existing governance structures support new ambitions? The China Quarterly 231: 662–684. CrossRef Wong, C., and V.J. Karplus. 2017. China’s war on air pollution: Can existing governance structures support new ambitions? The China Quarterly 231: 662–684. CrossRef
115.
go back to reference Xu, J., and J. Byrne. 2021. Explaining the evolution of China’s government-environmental NGO relations since the 1990s: A conceptual framework and case study. Asian Studies Review 45 (4): 615–634. CrossRef Xu, J., and J. Byrne. 2021. Explaining the evolution of China’s government-environmental NGO relations since the 1990s: A conceptual framework and case study. Asian Studies Review 45 (4): 615–634. CrossRef
116.
go back to reference Yang, G., and C. Calhoun. 2007. Media, civil society, and the rise of a green public sphere in China. China Information 21 (2): 211–236. CrossRef Yang, G., and C. Calhoun. 2007. Media, civil society, and the rise of a green public sphere in China. China Information 21 (2): 211–236. CrossRef
117.
go back to reference Zhao, S. 2021. Rhetoric and reality of China’s global leadership in the context of COVID-19: Implications for the US-led world order and liberal globalization. Journal of Contemporary China 30 (128): 233–248. CrossRef Zhao, S. 2021. Rhetoric and reality of China’s global leadership in the context of COVID-19: Implications for the US-led world order and liberal globalization. Journal of Contemporary China 30 (128): 233–248. CrossRef
118.
go back to reference Zhao, X., and C. Li. 2016. The creative pathway and practical model of governmental purchasing of environmental services. Social Science Section Journal of Nanjing Shida 5: 30–37. Zhao, X., and C. Li. 2016. The creative pathway and practical model of governmental purchasing of environmental services. Social Science Section Journal of Nanjing Shida 5: 30–37.
119.
go back to reference Zhong, L., A.P. Mol, and T. Fu. 2008. Public-private partnerships in China’s urban water sector. Environmental Management 41 (6): 863–877. CrossRef Zhong, L., A.P. Mol, and T. Fu. 2008. Public-private partnerships in China’s urban water sector. Environmental Management 41 (6): 863–877. CrossRef
Metadata
Title
Environmental Civil Society Organizations and the State in China: Institutional Analysis of the Dynamics, 1980s-2010s
Authors
Kyoung Shin
Tingting Zhu
Publication date
28-02-2023
Publisher
Springer Netherlands
Published in
Journal of Chinese Political Science / Issue 3/2023
Print ISSN: 1080-6954
Electronic ISSN: 1874-6357
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11366-023-09848-0

Other articles of this Issue 3/2023

Journal of Chinese Political Science 3/2023 Go to the issue