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About this book

This two-volume work discusses environmental health, the branch of public health concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment affecting human health, and addresses key issues at the global and local scales. The work offers an overview of the methodologies and paradigms that define this burgeoning field, ranging from ecology to epidemiology, and from pollution to environmental psychology, and addresses a wide variety of global concerns including air quality, water and sanitation, food security, chemical/physical hazards, occupational health, disease control, and injuries. The authors intend to provide up-to-date information for environmental health professionals, and to provide a reference for students and consultants working at the interface between health and environmental sectors.

Volume 2 covers the technological, legislative, and logistical solutions for coping with environmental health issues. The principles of environmental legislation are explained in national and international contexts, and assessments are mapped out to craft informed governance plans for health and environmental management. Mitigation measures are introduced to control wastewater and solid waste management and air and noise pollution, and adaptation strategies for emergency preparedness and disaster recovery are discussed.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Avoidance

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Environmental Legislation

Abstract
Protection of the environment would have not been a major concern if it was not related to human health. Technology does not come free of cost and so the enforcement of law. Mere adoption of laws without the use of technology would not fulfil the objectives of the environmental laws. Therefore, modern environmental law has been shaped keeping in mind the precautionary principle, the prevention principle, the “polluter pays” principle, the integration principle, the public participation principle and sustainable development principle. These are discussed in detail in the chapter in the context of international and domestic environmental laws. Global health is imparted by the value of social justice intended to address health difference within and among nations. It attempts to understand the universal right to health, vested in international human rights. The chapter discusses the key case studies apart from the current trends and prospects, as well as dispute settlement mechanisms, along with some of the reasons for failure of enforcement of environmental laws.
Ramesha Chandrappa, Diganta Bhusan Das

Chapter 2. Health Impact Assessment (HIA)

Abstract
Health impact assessment (HIA) is a process to evaluate the health impacts of plants, policies, as well as projects quantitatively and qualitatively. HIA assists the decision-makers to formulate decisions regarding alternatives; unlike the past, decisions cannot be taken by sacrificing the capacity of the environment to provide its ecological services. Like the resource, ecological services of any ecological set-up are limited and cannot take pressure beyond their capacity. Any stress beyond the capacity of nature will result in counter-stress by nature to eliminate the stress to upkeep nature’s health. This chapter discusses the theory and practice of HIA along with the relevant methodologies supported by case studies.
Ramesha Chandrappa, Diganta Bhusan Das

Chapter 3. Environmental Impact Assessment

Abstract
Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a process to ensure early and adequate information on the likely impact on environment due to the development projects. EIA was formally established in the USA in 1969. It received a significant boost in Europe after the EC Directive on EIA was introduced in 1985 and since then the scope of EIA has developed and changed continually. EIA evaluates both the beneficial and adverse environmental impacts of a proposed development/project, along with the interrelated socio-economic, human-health and cultural impacts. In addressing the above points, this chapter discusses the theory and practice of EIA in detail with relevant examples.
Ramesha Chandrappa, Diganta Bhusan Das

Chapter 4. Environmental Health Planning

Abstract
Governance cannot operate in a vacuum. Governing organizations should have guidance from the citizens they serve. Environmental health is driven by several driving forces and exposures and effects. Environment and health are also closely related. The human health cannot be improved or assured without a healthy environment. The plan shall aim to achieve the maximum reduction of illness as well as injury from all causes and consider analysis of environmentally induced illnesses/injuries. The planning exercise shall assess existing environmental conditions that affect the health of the population in areas of concern. The planning shall not just aim to cater demand for treatment-oriented services but should also look into preventive activities and reduction of environmentally induced illnesses/injuries in the home, recreational besides work environments. Environmental factors that intrude upon human health shall be given consideration in the master plans. This chapter discusses the principles of health planning and many usual deviations observed in practice.
Ramesha Chandrappa, Diganta Bhusan Das

Mitigation

Frontmatter

Chapter 5. Water and Wastewater Treatment

Abstract
Water is essential for life and millions of plants and animals live in it. Our food cannot grow without water. Similarly, humans cannot survive without water. The human population has augmented enormously, and the freshwater species are threatened by human activities. The decline in the abundance of freshwater species itself is evidence that all is not well with respect to water quality and quantity. Effluents discharged from wastewater treatment plants are probable sources of pathogenic bacteria in the freshwater environment. Environmental protection requires the use of suitable purification systems. As it is not possible for the composition of wastewater treatment plant effluent to match the water quality of the receiving system, effluent is likely to significantly impact the biological and chemical characteristics of the receiving ecosystem. In addressing these issues, this chapter discusses common engineering technologies for treating water and wastewater along with theory of natural purification.
Ramesha Chandrappa, Diganta Bhusan Das

Chapter 6. Air Pollution Control

Abstract
Atmosphere is a complicated reactive system. The pollution spreads due to a combination of chemical, physical and biological processes, which typically occur simultaneously. Air pollution control requires intervention of science, law and policy. Intervention of knowledge of science is required to control air pollution at the pollution source such as industry, automobile, mining and farming. Policy interventions need to be enforced by law to discipline few polluters for the benefit of many who are exposed to pollution. This chapter discusses the common engineering technologies along with administrative interventions for air pollution control.
Ramesha Chandrappa, Diganta Bhusan Das

Chapter 7. Noise Pollution

Abstract
Noise is defined as any unwanted sound and its pollution is the transmission of noise with negative impact on the human or animal. Noise pollution has multiple health effects mainly attributed to anthropogenic activity, even though the noise from natural sources like waterfalls, wildlife, frogs may exceed the stipulated legal standard of any given country/place. Noise pollution is an environmental nuisance and stressor. It affects both the auditory and non-auditory health. It modifies social behaviour, interferes in complex task performance and causes irritation. This chapter discusses common engineering technologies along with administrative interventions for noise pollution control.
Ramesha Chandrappa, Diganta Bhusan Das

Chapter 8. Solid and Semi-Solid Waste Management

Abstract
Generation of solid and semi-solid waste is part of any civilization. The positive or negative impacts of solid waste management on health, as well as the resultant disposal activities, are only partly understood at the moment. Apart from diseases, a poor solid waste management can result in other issues, for example dogbites and snakebites in developing countries. Solid waste management can be integrated with other services or can be tackled discretely. This chapter discusses common engineering technologies along with administrative interventions for solid and semi-solid waste management.
Ramesha Chandrappa, Diganta Bhusan Das

Chapter 9. Building and Changing Infrastructure

Abstract
nvironmental health of a region depends on the infrastructure of the region. Human health depends on the built environment. The absence of suitable infrastructure has been the cause of many diseases due to pollution, contamination and injury. However, the acceleration of infrastructure development can accelerate resource consumption, land degradation and pollution. The effect of urbanization includes violent crimes, infectious diseases and drug abuse, in addition to motor vehicle accidents. Urban centres can act as catalysts for speedy increase of infectious ailments due to large population in a limited area that give the ideal conditions for various epidemics. Poor urban planning and limited capacity to meet the needs and expectations of a fast-growing population result in the development of shantytowns and slums. This chapter discusses the theory and practice of environmental health outcomes associated with building and changing infrastructure.
Ramesha Chandrappa, Diganta Bhusan Das

Chapter 10. Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Management

Abstract
A disaster is a significant disturbance that occurs in a short span of time. Emergency is an unforeseen situation that calls for actions immediately. A disaster is likely to have more overwhelming consequences and/or affect more people compared to an emergency. An emergency may turn into a disaster, whereas a disaster is innately an emergency situation. A disaster could be anthropogenic or natural. The disaster affects health and environment in many ways resulting in injury, epidemic, death and pollution. Due to the significance of the above issues, this chapter discusses the theory and practice of emergency preparedness and disaster management along with case studies.
Ramesha Chandrappa, Diganta Bhusan Das

Adaptation

Frontmatter

Chapter 11. Living with Environmental Diseases

Abstract
Many illnesses may not respond to preventive actions and will be difficult to anticipate. When the community, nation or world fails to get rid of a health risk, then people need to live with the disease causative agents and the disease itself. Effective adaptation methods can greatly help to keep infected and non-infected people apart, thereby reducing the spread of diseases in the environment. This chapter discusses some of the adaption ideas, practices and strategies the world has witnessed to live with environmental diseases.
Ramesha Chandrappa, Diganta Bhusan Das

Restoration

Frontmatter

Chapter 12. Restoration

Abstract
Restoration of any degraded environment needs policy coordination, infrastructure development, control of trade, financial integration into environmental policy, cultural exchanges and enhancing skill and knowledge apart from in situ and ex situ technical interventions. For example, the approaches to restore air and soil are not same for all regions and situations. Restoration may need policy intervention of technical intervention depending on which one is more suitable to the situation. In addressing these points, this chapter discusses the theory and practice of environmental restoration along with relevant case studies.
Ramesha Chandrappa, Diganta Bhusan Das

Backmatter

Additional information