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About this book

This volume of Eurasian Studies in Business and Economics includes selected papers from the 22nd Eurasia Business and Economics Society (EBES) Conference in Rome. It presents original empirical research from several countries and regions including many developing economies such as Poland, Russia, Tunisia, Lebanon, Belarus, and Lithuania. Both the theoretical and empirical papers in this volume cover diverse areas of business and management from various regions. The main focus is on sharing the latest research results on evolving approaches to entrepreneurship research, behavioral aspects of entrepreneurship and SME development, and policy development. The volume also includes related studies that analyze international business cooperation, performance assessment, and a range of other current topics.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Correction to: Companies’ Understanding of Transborder Cooperation: An Empirical Study in Poland and Republic of Belarus

Anna Wasiluk

Entrepreneurship and Internationalization

Frontmatter

From Entrepreneurial Orientation to Innovation: The Mediating Role of Information System—Case of Tunisian SMEs

Abstract
The object of the entrepreneur passes necessarily through the development of an entrepreneurship shared by all. The achievement of this object supports the introduction of an information system mobilizing technology impregnate by the environment in which the business operates. The objective of this study is to present a state of the literature on entrepreneurship, innovation and information systems. Therefore, we propose a conceptual model on entrepreneurship-innovation link. To provide more information, empirical investigation covering two cases of Tunisian SMEs. The observatory study, conducted through internships in companies, allowed us to see the evolution of the model after 30 years of operation. The analysis reveals important interactions between the various components of the proposed model. Overall, the study will provide relevant knowledge about the impact of entrepreneurial orientation on innovation, in particular through the information system.
Samah Chemli Horchani, Mahmoud Zouaoui

Complexity Theory in the Advancement of Entrepreneurship Ecosystem Research: Future Research Directions

Abstract
The underlying principles of complexity theory has been disused in “five dimensions of non-linear interactions between agents and components”, “hierarchical nature of the system”, “emergence”, “co-evolutionary order creation”, and “self-organization”. The rationale for considering entrepreneurship ecosystem as a complex system has been presented. Then, the application of complexity theory for the study of entrepreneurship ecosystem and future research directions have been comprehensively discussed. The paper contributes to the entrepreneurship research with its emphasis on the application of complexity theory as a new line of reasoning for the study of entrepreneurial ecosystems.
Zeynab Aeeni, Mehrzad Saeedikiya

Internationalization of European Small and Medium-Sized Companies

Abstract
The aim of this article was to analyze the process of internationalization of small and medium-sized European companies in international markets. The literature review shows that there are many theories of internationalization that have attempted to analyze the process and its results as in the times of globalization companies of all sizes view internationalization as a huge opportunity to develop. European Union has recently worked out programs for supporting the internationalization of European companies in order to strengthen their competitive position. Special focus has been put on small and medium-sized companies, as they play a very important role in the economic development in modern economies. The study’s findings revealed that enhancing the internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises has become a priority of the institutions of the European Union and of the governments of the EU Member States.
Wiktor Bołkunow

Toward a Better Understanding of SME: Three Different Policies for Three Types of SMEs

Abstract
The importance of small and medium-sized enterprises in economic development is apparent to governments in almost every country. There are special agencies and programs developed at the national and international levels to foster these types of businesses. Practically every country has a policy framework for SME development. However, almost everywhere the developed policy is based on the assumption that SMEs are relatively homogenous. In the real economy, the concept of SME includes family shops and cafes along with factories with more than 100 workers. Such diverse economic entities have different values, different objective functions, and different expected results. For this reason, these universal recipes do not work for all groups of small and medium-sized enterprises. This article considers a new approach to creating a policy for small and medium-sized enterprises based on three different types of structure—small family business, small growing business, and medium-sized enterprises, each categorized by their features and their most important characteristics. The effective forms of state support have been defined for each form and a principle has been developed from this. All enterprises will have the potential to independently attribute themselves to the form that corresponds in the best way to their behavioral function and structure. The proposed cognitive frame can be used by national governments in different countries for improving SME development policy by endowing them with the ability for self-development.
Dmitri Pletnev, Ekaterina Nikolaeva

Supporting Enterprise Innovation by Cooperation with Business Environment Institutions in Poland and Belarus

Abstract
Effective implementation of innovation in the context of economy globalization requires entering into cooperative relationships with other companies and market participants. Business environment institutions (BEI) constitute one of the most important elements of efficient innovation system. They support companies and facilitate the flow of knowledge and technology between science and businesses. There are not many research on cooperation between enterprises and BEI carried out in regional context, especially on cooperation between Polish and Belarusian companies. The research problem refers to a small impact of cooperation between enterprises and BEI on the possibility of effective implementation and supporting innovation development in Podlasie region in Poland. This article presents the results of studies which took into account factors that affect the level of cooperation between BEI and companies representing the leading branches in north-eastern Poland and in Belarus. The methods of critical analysis of the literature and statistical analysis of data have been used. It was found out that the existing forms of mutual cooperation between businesses and BEI are not used effectively enough to support innovation. In order to increase the innovative activity of enterprises it may be necessary to develop cross-border cooperation, inspired by the cooperation programs developed by local authorities.
Andrzej Daniluk

Foreign Entrepreneurs in the Russian Federation: Barriers and Advantages

Abstract
Since 2000, the Russian Federation has started a gradual process of market opening that actually is not completed; anyway, this process has facilitated procedure of creation of a small and medium business made by foreigners in Russia. Main factors that influence positively volume of foreign investments in Russia are the taxation level that actually is 15% and the amount of time necessary to open a society (5 working days); furthermore, Russian market guarantees a highly skilled and educated workforce. Unfortunately, in the Russian Federation, there are no incentives or concessions for the opening of a new small-medium business, and it can represent a problem for a foreign investor who wants to open a new company. This study attempts to address main positive and negative factors of the Russian market that can influence a foreign investor who is interested to start a new activity in the Russian Federation. It examines law system that regulates economic sector in Russia, but it also uses direct experiences of foreigners who have already opened a small-medium business or an individual enterprise in Russia. Moreover, the article studies possible variants to make Russian market more open and favourable to foreign investors.
Victor Barhatov, Antonio Campa, Dmitri Pletnev

Accounting

Frontmatter

Ethical Accounting: The Driver in Recovering Markets

Abstract
The unethical behavior by accounting professionals and corporate managers and the resulting growing epidemic thereof is a topic of increasing concern for the regulators and standard-setters worldwide. This assumes significance on account of the recovering phase of economies since global meltdown in 2008. Ethics are a key area of concern in accounting at present on account of series of corporate scandals that have taken place in the world questioning the credibility of the accounting profession and management behavior. The present paper deals with the concept of ethical accounting and highlights the relevance of “ethical” (quality) aspect of accounting (earnings) in financial reporting practices of the corporate. It further discusses its implications on the role of accounting professionals for corporate reporting and the regulatory machinery for its promotion.
Sandeep Goel

History of the European Accounting Directives Review: Analysis of the Public Consultation Results

Abstract
Approval of the new European Accounting Directive followed a long standard-setting process, characterized by a public consultation held in 2009 through a Questionnaire submitted by the European Commission as part of the project to simplify EU accounting rules. This paper analyses the comment letters received by the European Commission with a twofold aim: first, to evaluate whether there are significant differences among Country groups and respondent categories, and second to verify the acceptance level of the constituents’ opinions in the subsequent European Commission’s review proposal and in the European Parliament and Council’s final decisions. Confirming our hypotheses, results show a significant diversity among respondents. In particular, only German-speaking Countries favor eliminating significant disclosure and publication requirements. Anglo-Nordic Countries agree on increasing simplification options and information freedom, whilst Latin Countries are more oriented towards a rule-based approach. Concerning respondent categories, preparers show more appreciation for a significant reduction of mandatory disclosure with respect to users and public authorities. In any case, the proposal for a new Accounting Directive presented by the European Commission, as well as the final Directive, though apparently supporting the ‘user primacy’ principle, seems not to consider adequately all the needs emerging from the public consultation.
Gabriele D’Alauro

CSR Ratings and Contradiction of Real and Communicated Aims of Media Organization: The Case of News Corporation

Abstract
The article aims at the critical analysis of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) ratings in accordance with reports presented by the largest organization which evaluates corporate social responsibility—the CSRHUB. The analysis refers to media corporations, such as News Corporations, and it aims at providing an answer to the question how the crisis of social trust towards media which belong to a media corporation affects their CSR ratings. In the article, there have been two hypotheses formulated: (1) the complex character of social, political and market aims pursued by media corporations is not clearly reflected by CSR ratings; (2) the comprehensiveness of CSR ratings does not contribute to the identification of key threats which result from the lack of social responsibility in a media corporation. The analysis indicates that—in their scope which is difficult to verify—CSR ratings of media corporations take into consideration the following elements: media specificity, and lobbying nature of some organizations (e.g. News Corporation). Their complexity and aggregated character makes it difficult to identify the sources of the problem. Furthermore, image disasters of particular entities within corporations insignificantly affect their CSR ratings.
Jan Kreft

Human Resources

Frontmatter

Explanations of the Feminization Effects in HR Profession and Beyond

Abstract
In this paper we aim to find out whether there is an empirical evidence of the queuing and the devaluation theory. Based on one cross-sectional and two longitudinal studies using Cranet Human Resource Management network data we redefine the indicators of Human Resource strategic integration. The paper investigates the characteristics of feminization and Human Resource integration in four regions of the world in two consecutive Cranet surveys (2008/10 and 2014/16); also extends this focus on the Hungarian marketing, Human Resources, and finance recent graduates based on Graduate Career Tracking System database 2011–2014. Our empirical findings add new aspects of gender-effect on the strategic role of Human Resource Management in four regions of the world, further weaken the explanatory power of the two theories. We can conclude our study with a positive statement: the glass ceiling seems to break in the Human Resources, and based on the Graduate Career Tracking System data, sticky floors no more characterize the gender differences in earnings. Human Resources profession seems fully feminized, marketing on its way, but finance succeeds to preserve still its positive characteristics for men.
Zsuzsa Karoliny, Norbert Sipos

Impact on Salespersons’ Success Through Transformational Leadership

Abstract
The paper analyses how strongly the combination of transactional and transformational leadership improves the performance of German salespersons in comparison to a straight transactional leadership style. Most sales executives use a straight transactional leadership style to manage their sales force. Although the impact of sales forces’ success through transactional leadership has been researched very well, recent research has only very limited analyzed the impact of the combination of both leadership styles exclusively on the success of salespersons in Germany. This paper will provide the current state of knowledge concerning transformational leadership in sales and its impact on followers’ performance. Additionally, different samples of sales executives and sales agents have been interviewed about the applied leadership style and their opinion about the performance of their sales force. The questionnaire includes questions from the MLQ-Form 5X to identify the leadership style and questions about the sales executives’ and sales agents’ individual opinion about the success of their team. The results of the quantitative research are discussed in corroboration with the findings from the literature. The results of this paper show that the application of a transformational leadership style in sales has a positive effect on the success of salespersons. According to the results of the interviewed sales executives and agents the application of transformational leadership techniques has an even greater effect on the performance of salespersons than what is commonly observed in studies without a specific focus on sales. In some cases the effect that we measured was quite massive.
Matthias Dünnweber, Carmen Păunescu

Improvement of the Quality of Life in the University “Politehnica” of Bucharest Campus: A Problem Detection Study Approach

Abstract
Based on the idea that the quality of campus spaces influences the quality of the educational and research processes within it, we have conducted a study in order to assess the students’ and professors’ perception on the quality of life in the campus of University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest (UPB). The aim of this article is to compute a general index showing the quality of life perceived by professor and students together, to identify the aspects that need improvement the most, and to suggest ideas to make those changes. Our analysis is based on the results obtained from self-administered questionnaires, and also, on a problem detection study (PDS) approach in order to rank the most important problems found. The results show there is a medium level of satisfaction regarding the quality of life in the UPB campus. Room space, urban furniture, recreational options, insufficient promotion of ERASMUS programs, and the decision making process are some of the most important aspects that need to change, from the point of view of students and professors. We conclude with our main findings and solutions offered and we present our ideas to further address the issues regarding the quality of life in campus.
Corina-Ionela Dumitrescu, Beatrice Leuștean, Ioana-Ruxandra Lie, Răzvan-Mihai Dobrescu, Viorel Vulturescu

Development of Strategic Partnerships for Work-Based Learning

Abstract
Competitiveness of companies on local and international markets greatly depends on skilled labor force. There is an increased need for well-trained medium level specialists prepared by the vocational education and training (VET) systems. For countries with school-based VET systems tailor made approaches for work-based learning need to be implemented. This requires also new strategic partnerships. In Latvia in 2016 legal regulation on work-based learning was adopted. However, there is little research on the pre-conditions enabling the public administration to implement innovative VET approaches. The purpose of the study is to investigate the opinions of relevant public stakeholders from the education, employment and economic sectors regarding innovation in VET and the feasibility of strategic partnerships in this regard. The methods used: public administrators’ survey results analysis in scale of 1–10. For data processing of survey results indicators of descriptive statistics (means and indicators of variability) as well as cross tabulations and multivariate analysis—factor analysis were applied. For countries with school-based systems work-based learning as an innovative form of VET requires partnerships by public stakeholders from various branches. Strategic partnerships beyond the national level might be beneficial, especially among countries with historically similar educational and cultural backgrounds.
Ilze Buligina, Biruta Sloka

Management

Frontmatter

Quality of Life in University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest Campus: Professors’ Perception

Abstract
A university campus can be considered similar to a miniature urban space. The residents’ moral and intellectual features are the main differences between the two spaces. Studies on job burnout suggest that the work environment, life and work satisfaction have a great influence on the quality of work performed. As the quality of education offered in University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest (UPB) is extremely important, this article aims to assess the quality of life in campus as it is perceived by professors in the University; we also intend to identify the aspects that can be improved, in order to obtain even better results regarding teaching and research activity. The study was carried out using a self-administered questionnaire, which was sent to UPB professors via email. We analyze their answers and discuss the results obtained. As a conclusion we calculate the Quality of Life Index for Professors IQoLP, and detect the issues that need to be addressed, as they have a negative influence on their performance.
Corina-Ionela Dumitrescu, Beatrice Leuștean, Ioana-Ruxandra Lie, Răzvan-Mihai Dobrescu, Viorel Vulturescu

Trust and Cooperation Between Companies and Public Administration Institutions in Poland

Abstract
The aim of this article is to determine the level of cooperation and trust between Polish enterprises and public institutions both governmental and self-government ones. In particular, the factors that most affect the companies’ low trust in the public sector are analyzed and how the changes in various factors may improve this trust in the future. The critical analysis of literature and statistical analysis of the results of the survey carried out in 381 Polish companies with their headquarters in the Podlaskie Province (Poland) were used in this article. Spearman’s correlations ranks were used as a part of the statistical analysis to determine the dependency of the level of trust on cooperation between companies and public institutions. The study found a fairly low level of companies’ trust in public administration institutions in Poland. The existing level of cooperation with these institutions was assessed very low by the respondents. In particular, the respondents indicated the low level of trust and cooperation with government institutions. Among the factors affecting the existing cooperation between enterprises and public institutions the ones assessed lowest were: the offer prepared by the administration, the image of administration and previous experience of cooperation.
Urszula Kobylińska

Instant Articles (Facebook): The Impact of Trust and Relations Among the Partners Pursuing the Strategy of Coopetition

Abstract
Coopetition refers to simultaneous competition and cooperation between the rivals. Such a strategy involves organizations who—while competing and cooperating with each other—both take advantage of such a relation Instant Articles comes as a project involving the coopetition strategy developed by Facebook and press publishers who since 2015 have been offering instant access to articles which until then were first of all available in publishers’ websites or in traditional paper press. The aim of the article is to identify the significance of trust in business partners who have decided to pursue the strategy of coopetition. The survey carried out in May 2016 on the Polish media market was of quality nature. To collect the required data, some in-depth interviews were carried out with the CEOs of publishing companies in Poland. The obtained results indicate a low level of trust in Facebook, expressed by the CEOs of Polish publishing companies. The obtained results allow to conclude that limited trust is not a barrier which entirely excludes a chance for coopetition.
Jan Kreft

Fuzzy Modeling of Customized Solutions for Corporate Performance Assessment

Abstract
The social environment in which corporations operate is affected by their actions but equally corporations experience the pressures of society. The idea that the economic environment is currently in a transition phase from the knowledge-based economy and society to the innovation economy and society is strongly emphasized by the policy makers and experts’ publications and reports underlining the pressure the companies are under in order to adjust to the environmental and economic changes and to become more competitive. The paper aims to develop and test, in a textile company from Iasi, a performance assessment model based on fuzzy modelling techniques. In order to assess corporate performance Balanced Scorecard approach was considered based on fuzzy technique. The corporate performance using lagging and leading indicators suggests that business performance should be evaluated not only by using financial indicators but also by simultaneously considering non-financial indicators. This way, it is possible to evaluate the business performance from a strategic perspective, taking into account not only past results but also leading indicators. The fuzzy it is suitable for industrial firms to monitor the performance indicators that can contribute to a sustainable competitive position.
Marius Pîslaru, Silvia Avasilcăi, Lidia Elena Alexa

Paradise of Knowledge: The Emergence of the Lebanese Newspaper Industry, 1851–1879

Abstract
Industry emergence is one of the central topics in organizational theory. Researchers agree that different industries emerge for different reasons. This paper will study how the Lebanese newspaper industry emerged. The paper will show that the Lebanese newspaper industry emerged as a social movement. Both macro-level structural changes and micro-level grievances will be examined. The identity of the newspapers will be inferred from the framing process and from “stories” told by the newspapers themselves. Ultimately, the paper will show that the early newspapers projected a unified identity as a social movement. The paper will also stress the importance of both macro-level structural events and micro-level grievances.
Najib A. Mozahem

Determining Reverse Logistics Motivation Factors and Barriers: Multiple Criteria Decision Making Application on Pipe Manufacturing Company

Abstract
In a climate of scarcity of natural resources and growing populations, changing and increasing demand for products has brought a new perspective to supply chain and business management. Governments and customers demand to know how raw materials are extracted, where and how they are delivered, how they are produced and how they are distributed. As a result, businesses experience pressure on how conform to environmental regulations and standards and consumers and shareholders have questions about environmental responsibility. Green and closed-loop supply chains, which are also related to the subject of reverse logistics, are linked to industrial ecology and are considered a prerequisite of sustainability. As a subject of this paper, reverse logistics are viewed as a part of environmental sustainability that is gaining increased attention. In reverse logistics practices there are motivation factors that affect business but also some problems that need to be addressed. Not all the driving factors and problems have equal importance and power, so it is a necessity to unearth which factors are important or dominant as drivers and barriers. In this study, after implementing AHP in pipe manufacturing company, obligatory reasons, customer demand and enhancing corporate image were found to be the most primary drivers that enable reverse logistics practices. Legal issues, lack of trained human resources and low product quality were identified as the most important problems/barriers in practice and so provide a road map and solutions that can be implemented on a priority basis.
Gulsun Nakiboglu

Companies’ Understanding of Trans-border Cooperation: An Empirical Study in Poland and Republic of Belarus

Abstract
Increasing globalization of economic processes forces companies to strengthen intensively their competitiveness. They need to find new sources of competitive advantages and one of such sources could be the internalization of company operations. The use of geographical location may be an additional source of increasing the attractiveness and competitiveness of border regions and enterprises. Although there is no shortage of studies devoted to trans-border cooperation and in fact its political and legal context, there is a deficit of publications devoted to actual readiness for undertaking trans-border cooperation by Polish and Belarusian companies. This may be due to the specifics of conducting research in Belarusian enterprises and the difficulty of reaching companies there. The objective of this text is to identify the level of current cooperation between Polish and Belarusian businesses and their readiness to tighten this cooperation in the near future. The study found a large deficit at both continuation the existing cooperation and prospects for the possibility of strengthening it in the near future. The analyses showed that the dominant percentage of surveyed companies has not undertaken any cooperation with foreign companies (Polish or Belarusian) so far and does not intend to undertake it in the near future.
Anna Wasiluk

Cooperation Between Competing Companies: The Example of Polish and Belarusian Enterprises

Abstract
Enterprises today have to deal with increasingly difficult and very complicated development conditions and such circumstances force them not only to compete, but also to cooperate with other entities in order to use their potential more efficiently. Wide availability of studies on cooperation between both national and regional enterprises results from the growing importance of cooperation in development strategies. This article attempts to fill in the gaps concerning cooperation on the regional level. The study covers neighboring regions of Poland and Belarus. The purpose of the article is to identify the level of cooperation with competitors in selected sectors of Polish and Belarusian enterprises and to define the prospects of its strengthening in the near future. The research involves more than 500 companies. It is found that both low level of current cooperation with competitors as well as insufficient optimism which can be observed in the assessment level of interest by surveyed enterprises which are interested in cooperation in the near future.
Tomaszuk Anna

Tourism and Marketing

Frontmatter

The Enforcement of Air Passenger Rights: An Analysis and Comparison of Claims Management Companies and Recently Established Conciliation Bodies

Abstract
Based on a regulation the European Union issues common rules on compensation and assistance to air passengers in the event of denied boarding and of cancellation or long delay of flights. Nevertheless, since the regulation came into force in February 2005, one could observe that the legal framework itself has suffered from many undefined terms and loopholes, so that it had to be supplemented by an increasing body of case law. Several reasons like the unclear legal situation, high transaction costs for a lawsuit in relation to a relatively low amount of compensation and the strategical behavior of the airlines not to handle passengers’ complaints in a correct manner, led to the situation that affected air passengers were deterred from enforcing their rights. The objective of the paper is to analyze, how new business models in form of claims management companies (e.g. Flightright, EUclaim, FairPlane, … etc.) have successfully established themselves on the market. In comparison, as another effective tool for the enforcement of air passenger rights, recently founded conciliation bodies are taken into consideration; whereby the Conciliation Body for Public Transport in Germany serves as an exemplary model.
Claudia Hipp

Airports as Shopfronts of Tourism Destinations: Awarded Brand Singapore Changi Versus Surviving Istanbul Ataturk

Abstract
Industrial tourism which is depended on inclusive tours consists of several supplying sectors. Air transportation is one of the primary suppliers of industrial tourism not only because it provides one of the two main components of inclusive tour but also it is maybe the most institutional and industrial supplying sector for tourism. Airports on the other hand, play a shopfront role for the destinations as they are ‘first impressions’ either for the arrival-departures or for the transfers. Considering the importance of airports as shopfronts, the main international Airport in Turkey: Istanbul, Ataturk (IA) is examined in this particular study. Taking the perceptions of both airports’ passengers into consideration, the well-known and permanent five star rated Singapore, Changi (SC) as ‘best in class’ (BIC) is compared with three star rated IA. The results revealed there are significant differences between the perceptions of both airports’ passengers.
Erkan Sezgin, Gül Nur Demiral

Emerging Brand Meanings in Wearable Sports Technology: A Case Study on Suunto Sports Watches

Abstract
The purpose of this study is to describe and analyse emerging brand meanings in the context of wearable sports technology. The theoretical framework is built on the concept of wearable sports technology and the contemporary literature on brand meanings. This empirical research is based on a case study of the Suunto Ambit3 Sport Sapphire watch. A qualitative projective ZMET-method is applied to generate data from ten interviews with Finnish female customers who own the Suunto Ambit3 Sport Sapphire watch. Eight themes are identified that incorporate several interconnected sub-meanings: well-being, connecting with nature, setting and achieving goals, expressing style, appreciating technological advancement, relying on professionalism, testing one’s limits, and embracing special experiences.
Hilla Karamaki, Sonja Lahtinen, Pekka Tuominen

Make It Happen: Marketing Processes for Competitive Market Positioning of Firms in Transitional Economy

Abstract
This paper presents some of the marketing processes, i.e. activities that firms in transitional economy can follow in the process of competitive market positioning. The main objective is to demonstrate that the practice of certain business processes, such as market orientation, market research, written marketing plans as a base for future business operations are correlated with creation of market positioning statements and thus increase the focus on market positioning in regards to competitors. This in addition, results in positive effects on profitability. Data are gathered through questionnaires and follow-up interviews. The results show that the analyzed processes have a positive outcome for firms in regards to competitive positioning. The creation of market positioning statement is found to be positively correlated with profitability. However, many of the firms in a transitional economy are slow in adapting to market changes, and have a selective approach to marketing activities. The most striking result is the more proactive approach of small and medium-sized enterprises in implementation of some of the marketing activities, like formal marketing planning and market research than large firms.
Tamara Jovanov, Elenica Sofijanova, Ljupco Davcev, Riste Temjanovski, Goran Mitev

Do Consumers of Products and Services Perceive the COO Effect in a Multi-dimensional Way? A Polish-Lithuanian Comparison

Abstract
So far, it has not been explicitly decided whether the country of origin (COO) effect comes as a one- or multi-dimensional phenomenon. The fundamental aim of the presented research study is to answer that question. Hence, two hypotheses have been tested: (1) the country of origin of products and services affects their assessment; (2) there are some differences in the assessment of the particular dimensions of the country of origin of products and services. The data collected from 192 Lithuanian and Polish respondents during a questionnaire survey have been analyzed with the use of a linear mixed model. The results indicate that the country of origin of products and services affects their assessment, and it gives more differentiation to the assessment of the offer than the country of origin of respondents and the COO dimensions. It has been confirmed that there are statistically significant differences between the assessments of the dimensions, depending on the country of origin of the offer. The results of the discussed research may find their practical application during the development of marketing programs which are dedicated to foreign markets.
Monika Boguszewicz-Kreft, Katarzyna Sokołowska, Ewa Magier-Łakomy, Brigita Janiūnaitė
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