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Evolution of New Working Spaces

Changing Nature and Geographies

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About this book

This open access book provides multidisciplinary perspectives on the changing dynamics of new working spaces, with insights from various European countries and observing critical theoretical approaches. Divided into two main parts, the first part focuses on the different typologies of new working spaces, identifying the changing nature of these spaces and associated concepts, taxonomies, and specific approaches to this phenomenon. The second part analyzes the location of new working spaces, examining its recent evolution and identifying new factors and geographies, offering an additional empirical analysis of different European realities. The research included in this book contributes to the current discussion of new forms and geographies of work and their impact on the territories and related policies.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Open Access

Introduction to the Evolution of New Working Spaces
Abstract
The chapter briefly describes the book structure and the contents of the chapters. Two sections compose the book: the first describes the main typologies of NeWSps and the evolution of this phenomenon, and the second focuses on NeWSps location and its evolution. The chapter also describes the methodological approaches to explore NeWSps, and underlines to what extent the book fills the gap in the literature on NeWSp typologies and geographical patterns.
Ilaria Mariotti, Elisabete Tomaz, Grzegorz Micek, Carles Méndez-Ortega

Typologies of New Working Spaces

Frontmatter

Open Access

The Evolution of Non-traditional Workplaces: From Third Places to Hybrid Places
Abstract
Recent socioeconomic and technological developments with significant impacts on work organization and labor relations, along with changes in the work/life relationship, have driven the emergence and rapid growth of new working spaces (NeWSps). Starting with a review of the multidisciplinary literature, we seek to identify and understand the various categories and related concepts arising from non-traditional workspaces and their evolution. Concepts such as “third place” as an alternative to home (“first place”) and workplaces of production (“second place”) refer to environments that facilitate informal social relations and provide a sense of community. Alongside the emergence of third places for work, discussions about hybrid places are arising as a spatial concept that combines two or more predefined NeWSps typologies, either with each other or with inherently tourism and hospitality infrastructure. The typologies presented serve as analytical tools to improve the understanding of this growing phenomenon, foster its diversity and integration, and contribute to future research on NeWSps and their socioeconomic implications.
Elisabete Tomaz, Helyaneh Aboutalebi Tabrizi

Open Access

A Taxonomy of New Working Spaces
Abstract
In this chapter, we present a definition of new working spaces (NeWSps). We then delve into the unique characteristics of different types of NeWSps. We propose a typology that classifies these spaces based on the primary needs of their users, distinguishing between two approaches: “do it together” and “do it yourself”. Drawing from our literature review, we introduce the concepts of coworking spaces, creative hubs, living labs, corporate labs, makerspaces, fab labs, open worklabs and hackerspaces. We argue that while these types of NeWSps share some similarities, there are important differences between them, and they may overlap in certain dimensions. To capture the wide range of new working spaces, we present two perspectives on makerspaces and creative hubs: lato sensu and stricto sensu.
Grzegorz Micek, Tüzin Baycan, Bastian Lange

Open Access

New Working Spaces Typologies Beyond Core Cities
Abstract
Technological development, global economic restructuring and the changing nature of work are three main factors prompting new working spaces (NeWSps). In this text, we explore the phenomenon of NeWSps beyond the core cities in the European context. We aim to understand how new ways of working spur NeWSps, focusing on their spread and impact on peripheral and rural areas. We organize the chapter into two parts. First, we present a brief overview of typologies and characteristics of new working spaces beyond core cities. Second, we introduce two case studies conceived in rural areas of Portugal. Beyond their distinct features, the success of these examples relies on the virtuosity of the networks and connections that have evolved around these spaces so as to root them in the territory and local communities.
Maria Assunção Gato, Gislene Haubrich

Open Access

University Hubs: Hybrid Spaces Between Campus, Work, and Social Spaces
Abstract
In recent years work and learning have radically changed to support community-focused, inter-professional, and interdisciplinary engagements. In response, companies and public administrations have been developing networked and dispersed workspaces to grant people access to a variety of places tailored to their needs. Likewise, university campuses have been evolving in the same direction. Aiming to expand into different geographical contexts, universities have been activating off-campus facilities that enact their mission of sustainable development, university-industry connection, and social inclusion. However, the phenomenon is still poorly understood even though evidence exists that it is an expanding trend. This study analyses this emergent phenomenon we call University Hubs by distinguishing it from other similar dynamics and discussing it in the context of the hybridization of spaces for study and work. Through a preliminary case study analysis, the paper reflects on University Hubs as an opportunity for the development of future university models. These spaces can pursue knowledge creation and sharing with diverse communities outside the campus boundaries, but they entail the risk of simply enhancing university visibility in different places without pursuing a true engagement with local communities.
Alessandra Migliore, Chiara Tagliaro, Davide Schaumann, Ying Hua

Open Access

Caring Practices in and Beyond Coworking Spaces
Abstract
Coworking and coworking spaces have proliferated over the last decade, and research has shown how these flexible, shared workspaces provide crucial resources for freelance and self-employed workers. This chapter aims to understand how care is practised in and through coworking spaces. Drawing on interviews with female hosts in different spaces across Europe, we apply Joan Tronto’s ethics of care framework (Tronto in Moral boundaries: A political argument for an ethic of care. Routledge [43]; Tronto in Caring democracy: Markets, equality, and justice. NYU Press [44]) to analyze caring practices in coworking spaces. This chapter adds to the literature on how coworking hosts and community managers provide care to “maintain, continue, and repair” (Fisher and Tronto in Work and identity in women’s lives. SUNY Press [18], p. 40) community and the hospitable atmosphere in coworking spaces across Europe.
Janet Merkel, Eva Belvončíková, Vika Zhurbas-Litvin

Location of New Working Spaces

Frontmatter

Open Access

Theoretical Framework of the Location of Coworking Spaces
Abstract
Location theory focuses on the optimal location choice determined by the attractiveness of sites for firm location. This chapter reviews the location theories (neoclassical, behavioral, institutional, and evolutionary), which offer insights into the location factors of coworking spaces that can be assimilated to those of the service sectors. It discusses the role of proximity measures a là Boschma and presents a literature review of the studies exploring coworking spaces’ location factors. Conclusions and future research lines conclude the chapter.
Ilaria Mariotti, Grzegorz Micek

Open Access

Systematic Literature Review of Location Factors of Coworking Spaces in Non-urban Areas
Abstract
The global COVID-19 pandemic fostered the relocation of remote workers and freelancers from metropolitan to non-urban areas. During the first waves of the pandemic, regional migration flows affected the local demand for flexible working spaces in non-urban regions and attracted the interest of the local stakeholders. As a result, a growing number of coworking spaces (CSs) were established in non-urban areas. Yet the scientific discussion on what determines the location of non-urban CSs remains fragmented and has not been analyzed systematically. This chapter presents a systematic literature review (PRISMA) of recent evidence (2010–2022 publication period) on the topic of location factors of CSs in non-urban (rural) areas, and it outlines the main characteristics of CSs’ locations. Analysis is performed on the macro, meso, and micro spatial scales and, in addition, the COVID-19 factor is taken into account. The results of our study indicate that since 2010, the most frequently and continuously analyzed location factors have been those at the regional (meso) level. Secondly, the micro and macro levels of analysis have increasingly gained scientific interest since 2020 but have remained under-researched. Finally, our results show a gradually increasing frequency of occurrences of the COVID-19 factor, which since 2021 has been the most discussed location factor.
Thomas Vogl, Anastasia Sinitsyna, Grzegorz Micek

Open Access

Location of Coworking Spaces: Evidence from Spain
Abstract
Nowadays, due to the post-COVID-19 situation, teleworking has grown exponentially worldwide. In this context, and as the pandemic has moved into a less restrictive phase, the role of coworking spaces (CSs) has gained relevance. This chapter investigates the location patterns and characteristics of 599 coworking spaces in Spain as of 2021. Specifically, it examines the location factors, characteristics, and attractiveness of central and peripheral regions of these spaces. Data from CSs in Spain provided by the COST Action CA18214 is used. By analyzing features of the CSs, utilizing Geographical Information Systems and Kd functions of agglomeration, we confirmed that CSs are highly concentrated in specific urban areas of Spain where there are greater opportunities to meet customers and suppliers, access to human capital, proximity to key amenities, and good connections.
Eva Coll-Martínez, Carles Méndez-Ortega

Open Access

The Importance of Location for Coworking Spaces and the Timed City Concept. Experiences, Perceptions, and Reality in Malta
Abstract
In this chapter we aim to unravel the importance of the link between three themes: location, Coworking Spaces (CSs), and the timed city concept. We argue that location, CSs, and timed cities are interdependent and complement each other. To do this, we use Malta as a case study, a small high densely populated, car dependent island state that has only been exposed to CSs in the previous decade. To support our argument, we conducted semi-structured interviews with two CS owners, four traditional employers, and an entity representing employers. The former provided their experiences of having CSs in Malta and the latter two discussed their perceptions of CSs. The reality and the importance of location are represented through Geographic Information Systems, by which we analyzed walkable areas within the catchment of the CSs. The findings highlight that location unravels the importance of micro-geography in the context of an island state when considering the applicability of CSs and the timed city concept. Furthermore, the research resonates with the literature with regard to issues associated with mobility, accessibility, job type, and peripherality.
Thérèse Bajada, Bernadine Satariano, Seyed Hossein Chavoshi

Open Access

The Localization of Different Types of New Working Spaces in Central Europe
Abstract
This chapter deals with the emergence of six different types of working spaces in Central European cities. Coworking spaces (CSs), makerspaces, fab labs, hackerspaces, living labs, and corporate labs are legal entities that in scientific literature are referred to as new working spaces (NeWSps). This chapter provides a summary overview of the emergence of individual types of NeWSps for in 138 selected cities of Central Europe—specifically in Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, and Slovakia—over the last 15 years. The results of our research showed that between 2007 and 2021, a total of 712 NeWSps entities were established in V4 countries, with CSs being the most represented (approximately 85% of the total number of NeWSps are coworking paces) and living labs the least represented. Our results further showed that the larger the number of inhabitants in cities and countries, the greater the number of established NeWSps in them. In the final part of the chapter we present examples of good practice for individual types of NeWSps from selected cities of the V4 countries.
Oliver Rafaj, Lukáš Danko, Shifu Zhang, Eva Belvončíková

Open Access

The (re)location of Coworking Spaces in Ukraine During the Russian Invasion
Abstract
A significant part of all firms tends to remain in the same location throughout their lives. Firm birth, death, and relocation are part of firm demography. Firm location, birth, and death are driven by several pull and push factors which also include exogenous shocks such as a foreign invasion. This paper aims to present and discuss the location of coworking spaces in Ukraine during the first year of the Russian Invasion. Several coworking spaces closed down in the Kyiv region, and others have opened in the western part of the country. The motivations driving the choice of location of three new coworking spaces in western areas are presented through interviews with the coworking spaces managers, and the role played by the coworking spaces community discussed.
Vika Zhurbas, Ilaria Mariotti, Marko Orel

Open Access

Concluding Remarks on the Evolution of New Working Spaces
Abstract
The concluding chapter briefly describes the trends and evolution of NeWSps types referring to what has been explored and presented in the book chapters. The COVID-19 pandemic and the growth of remote working have favoured hybrid types of NeWSps. Besides, the chapter explores the positive role of NeWSps in rural and remote areas, which are affected by depopulation challenges, and puts forward future research.
Ilaria Mariotti, Elisabete Tomaz, Grzegorz Micek, Carles Méndez-Ortega
Metadata
Title
Evolution of New Working Spaces
Editors
Ilaria Mariotti
Elisabete Tomaz
Grzegorz Micek
Carles Méndez-Ortega
Copyright Year
2024
Electronic ISBN
978-3-031-50868-4
Print ISBN
978-3-031-50867-7
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-50868-4