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2024 | Book

Explorations in the History and Heritage of Machines and Mechanisms

8th International Symposium on History of Machines and Mechanisms (HMM2024)


About this book

This book gathers the latest advances in the field of history of science and technology, as presented by leading international researchers at the 8th International Symposium on History of Machines and Mechanisms (HMM), held in Ankara, Turkey on April 18-20, 2024. The Symposium, which was promoted by the permanent commission for the History of Machine and Mechanism Science (MMS) of IFToMM, provided an international forum to present and discuss historical developments in the field of MMS. The contents cover all aspects of the development of MMS from antiquity until the present era and its historiography: modern reviews of past works, engineers in history and their works, the development of theories, history of the design of machines and mechanisms, historical developments of mechanical design and automation, historical developments of teaching, the history of schools of engineering, the education of engineers. The contributions, which were selected by means of a rigorous international peer-review process, highlight numerous exciting ideas that will spur novel research directions and foster multidisciplinary collaborations.

Table of Contents


Historic Development of Teaching and Education of Engineers

History of Drawing Robots
In this paper, we present an overview on the history of drawing robots. Starting with the drawing automata by Jaquet-Droz and Maillardet, we show the evolution of drawing machines in the XIX and XX centuries. Then, we examine the first painting machines, which appeared in the 1950s, as well as the first robotic drawing prototypes, which become increasingly autonomous and creative with the advent of cybernetics and computer graphics. Furthermore, we depict drawing and painting robots of the XXI century with enhanced manipulation, control, and computing capabilities. Finally, recent trends and future developments in this field are discussed, such as the introduction of collaborative robotics and artificial intelligence.
Lorenzo Scalera, Alessandro Gasparetto, Stefano Seriani, Paolo Gallina
Italian Teaching with Models from Mechanism Catalogues in 19th Century
At the end of the 19th century, the teaching of mechanisms and machine science in the Italian engineering schools was based on the use of physical models of simple mechanisms as teaching devices to show to the student practical applications of theoretical classes. The same approach was applied in European academia (later worldwide) until the late 20th century similarly with the use of computers and Computer-Aided-Design leading to digitalization of teaching tools, including mechanism models via simulation. The aim of this paper is to show the connection between the machine models available in Italy and the classification of mechanisms developed in that period by distinguished figures. In particular, the catalogue of models manufactured by Giovanni Blotto is linked to the classification of mechanisms proposed by Carlo Ignacio Giulio, both working at the Royal Application School of Engineering in Turin, Italy (today Politecnico di Torino). Pictures from the main collection of the engineering schools in universities in Italy, show the fascination that these models still arise so that they could be still considered both from educational and museum points of view.
Marco Cocconcelli, Marco Ceccarelli
Newton’s Mechanics Lectures in Cambridge
The publication of the correspondence between Newton (1642–1727) and Roger Cotes (1682–1716), reviewer and editor of the second edition of the Principia (1713), is also accompanied by other important manuscripts and works, in the sense of a better evaluation and understanding of the immense intellectual construction that was carried out with the publication of the Principia, in 1687. The publication of this correspondence based on manuscripts belonging to the library of Trinity College, Cambridge, also includes the lectures given by Newton in the years 1684, 1685 and 1687, in Cambridge. In this paper, we will explore the manuscripts relating to these courses, trying to reconstruct the content of the mechanics lectures given by Newton in 1684, as we consider that they have a very great importance in the preparation of the Principia itself.
Agamenon R. E. Oliveira
Science of Mechanics in the Ottoman Classical Period (14–18th Century)
This study discusses the role of mechanics in the Ottoman classical period spanning the 14th and 18th centuries. Firstly, it is asserted that the science of mechanics in the Islamic world was based on the works of the Ancient Greeks, and then Muslim scholars contributed further on this field. Secondly, it is emphasised that Ottoman science inherited the classical Islamic scientific tradition and demonstrating the mathematical nature of mechanics through the encyclopaedic work of Tashkopruluzāde, a prominent Ottoman scholar from the 16th century. Additionally, Tashkopruluzāde’s definition of mechanical disciplines is analysed to understand Ottoman perspectives on sciences. Thirdly, the study explains how mathematics and physics were taught in the Ottoman classical/scholastic education system, introducing some books on these subjects. Moreover, the practical knowledge of mechanics applied by Ottoman architects and engineers is reviewed. Finally, the works on mechanics written by the Ottomans are discussed, illustrating the subjects studied up to the modern period. In conclusion, it is stated that the Ottomans developed the Islamic mechanical tradition and sustained it until the 18th century. They established new Western-style schools and included modern Newtonian mechanics into their education system in the 19th century.
Alper Atasoy
Ottomans’ Mechanical Science Books in the 19th Century
From the 18th century onwards, Ottomans tried to catch up with the new technologies, especially in the military. Various expeditions were made to investigate the reasons for the Western world’s military superiority; for that, various books were translated from Western sources at this time. Some experts were invited to teach in the military academies, and some Ottoman students were sent abroad for education. Mechanics education in military academies was an important part of transferring information about new technologies. Therefore, understanding its content is very important for the history of science and technology in Türkiye. In this article, all the mechanics textbooks written and compiled for the Ottoman military academies in the 19th century are examined, and information is given about their authors and the contents of these books. Some of these books have been reviewed by historians of science before, and some have not been examined. While preparing this article, the original Ottoman texts of these books mentioned were examined, and secondary sources were also used.
Irem Aslan-Seyhan

History of Machine Designs

Windmills in the Netherlands
This article contains an outline of the development of the classic wind mill with some additional attention to developments in the Netherlands.
Teun Koetsier
First Escalators and Their Inventors Until the End of the 19th Century
Very important factors in vertical transportation are escalators (moving stairways). In this historical respect the escalators and moving stairways differ from elevators, which basic principles were formulated several centuries ago, but at their beginnings they were considered as some kind of elevators and/or conveyors. Nowadays, escalators are widely used and operate in different places such as shopping centers, underground stations, airports, etc. The basic design employed has not varied from those patented more than a century ago. All crucial patents regarding the fascinating history of escalators have been developed in the second half of the 19th century, until 1900. However, some of those patents are quite different from the traditional ones. Inventors and engineers, who created the first patents and installations of escalators as we know them nowadays, can be considered as fathers” of escalators. They are: Nathan Ames, Leamon Souder, Jesse Reno, George Wheeler, Charles Seeberger, Jacques Hallé and James Dodge. Their patents and installations are described in chronological order, including some available short biographical notes on those first inventors of escalators. The formal name of moving stairways the word “escalator” was trademarked in 1900 by Otis Company and coincides with escalator debut at the Paris Exposition.
Nenad Zrnić, Miloš Đorđević, Vlada Gašić
The Evolution of Operating Machines for Ancient and Modern Huai’an Sluices
Based on a retrospective analysis of the operating machines employed in ancient Huai'an continuous sluices system, as well as those utilized in the modern Huai'an regulation and canalization system, this article provides a comprehensive exposition of the intricate details pertaining to the Yangzhuang Regulator, particularly focusing on its operating machines. The objective is to elucidate how Chinese capacity for regulating the Huai River has been enhanced within the context of evolving patterns of river regulation and through technology transfer from Western hydraulic practices.
Yingjie Chu
Fuzzy Logic-Based Evaluation of Ancient Topographic Measurement Instruments and Mechanisms
In the historical context of the ancient Roman Empire, especially in Southwestern Spain, this study employs fuzzy logic methodology to conduct a comprehensive comparative analysis of topographical measurement instruments. These instruments—specifically the groma, surveyor's square, dioptra, chorobate, and odometer—were instrumental in shaping the region's infrastructure and played a crucial role in ancient engineering projects. Fuzzy logic is strategically utilized to assign fuzzy values ranging between 0 and 1 to five pivotal characteristics: precision, complexity, versatility, durability, and ease of use. These attributes enable a nuanced evaluation of each instrument. For instance, an instrument known for its precision would be assigned a value closer to 1, while one with lower precision would receive a value closer to 0. The outcomes of this research provide a multifaceted perspective on the historical importance of these instruments in Southwestern Spain during the Roman era. By offering detailed assessments of their strengths and weaknesses through fuzzy logic-based comparisons, the study highlights the suitability of each tool for distinct measurement requirements. By illustrating the adaptability of fuzzy logic in evaluating historical instruments, this research introduces a novel approach that can be applied to various contexts. It not only reveals the pivotal role played by these instruments during the Roman Empire but also underscores their relevance to contemporary surveying and topography, providing a valuable bridge between ancient and modern practices.
José Antonio Hernández-Torres, César Antonio Rodríguez-González, Juan Macías, Ángel Mariano Rodríguez-Pérez, Julio José Caparrós-Mancera, José Macías
Construction Tools Used by Ottoman Architects and Engineers in the Classical Period
Construction activities in a state are concrete data that provide information about the political, social, economic situation and science and technology of the state. These activities of states are not independent of the dynamics in question. Building activities in the Ottoman Empire, a great empire, were shaped according to these dynamics. The political history of the Ottoman Empire is generally divided into two: the classical and the Westernization period. However, when the construction activities in the Ottoman Empire were examined, it was seen that this distinction would also be valid for construction practices. In particular, the change in the perception of science and technology has caused the tools and materials used in construction to change. In this study, construction tools were examined in the light of written sources from the classical period. Classical period construction techniques, tools and materials were examined in the light of three Works. The two works are named Tezkiretü'l Bünyan and Tezkiretü'l Ebniye, which describe the life and works of Mimar Sinan. Another work is called Risale-i Mi'mariyye, which gives information about Mehmed Ağa's works. The tools used were identified in the light of the works in question.
Bihter Türkmenoğlu
From Wood to Steel. The Transformation of the Mining Machinery in Mexico
This chapter compares the principal machinery used in the Mexican mines during two different periods: the Spanish colonial time, from the 16th century to the beginning of the 19th century, and the initiation of the Industrial Revolution. Mining and metallurgical processes drastically changed from wood and animal power to steel and steam engines in a few years. The changes were more than only material and power; they implied new organizations, technical development, and skills. During the colonial period, machines and metallurgical processes were locally developed, and the working organization depended on intense labor activities and animal power. During the steel period, influenced by the Industrial Revolution, production significantly increased due to better machines, the use of explosives, and improvements in transportation systems. This chapter contributes to disseminating the evolution of technology, comparing the technological transformation of machines and mechanisms and their relation to other factors such as commerce and social development.
Juan Carlos Jauregui-Correa

Modern Reviews of Past Works

Reconstruction of the Snail of Demetrios of Phaleron at the Dionysia Festival in Athens in 308 BC
The historic evolution of wheeled transportation systems, along with early traction, suspension, and braking systems have been investigated extensively in the literature. A giant self-moving snail described by Polybius was displayed at the Dionysia festival in Athens, in 308 BC by the Athenian orator Demetrios of Phaleron. An attempt to reconstruct the Demetrius’ snail is presented here. The reconstruction is based on the literature survey, the anthropometrical standards of the time, and the accommodation needs of the operators, along with aesthetics considerations, safety, and performance flexibility. Analytical and numerical methods were incorporated to analyze the most conceivable loading situations and traction dynamics of this ancient machine.
Thomas G. Chondros, Constantino Frontalini, Giovanni Di Pasquale, Kypros F. Milidonis, Dimitris Korres
Mechanical Heritage of China’s Mountain Gun Manufacturing in the 1940s: The SOMUA Rifling Machine at North Western Industrial Corporation
This paper examines modern Chinese gun machining technology by analyzing the Jin-made 36 Type 75 mm mountain gun manufactured by the North Western Industrial Corporation. It also investigates the technical characteristics and introduction process of the SOMUA rifling machine as a mechanical heritage, while discussing artillery manufacturing during the era of the Republic of China.
Qingqi Lyu, Yibing Fang
An In-Depth Analysis and 3D Reconstruction of the Farga Rossell Ironworks Mechanism
The Farga Rossell mechanism, a hallmark of traditional engineering from the historic iron industry of Andorra, represents the confluence of craftsmanship and technological innovation of its time. During its operational years, significant advancements such as the use of water power, the integration of waterpowered bellows, and the automation of hammering processes revolutionized production efficiency. This study delves deep into the mechanical engineering principles underpinning the design of Farga Rossell, from its water management systems to its intricately crafted gears. A modern 3D representation of this mechanism offers a detailed visualization of its components, underscoring the precision and expertise that went into its creation. Beyond its operational significance, Farga Rossell's enduring legacy is evident in contemporary engineering practices, especially the shift from traditional water wheels to hydroelectric power generation. The comprehensive exploration of this mechanism, paired with its 3D design, stands as both an homage to historical engineering wonders and a testament to the timeless nature of innovation.
Julio Jose Caparros Mancera, César Antonio Rodríguez-González, José Antonio Hernández Torres, Angel Mariano Rodríguez-Pérez

Historic Development of Theories

History of Planar Linkage Coupler Point Loci for Tracing Special Coupler Curves
This brief, approximately chronological, paper is about two special types of linkages for converting rotational or oscillatory input motion into an approximate linear or circular motion. Decades long development of the concepts of Inflection Circle and Circling Point curves (Cubic of Stationary Curvature) for anticipating an approximate straight line or an approximate circular arc in the coupler curve is described with minimal inclusion of the mathematical expressions and significant steps essential for their development. This paper presents the much-required rich background to have a relook at the almost forgotten achievements of matured topics like differential geometry, kinematic geometry, and kinematics of mechanisms with graphical approaches. Historically the Path Curvature theory had arrived at the methodology to anticipate the best possible coupler geometry to trace the longest approximate straight line path for the selected pose of the input link of the planar linkage. This paper revisits the long history of almost eighteen decades (1700–1880) to enrich the present-day data sets, with limiting values, to be used for data driven synthesis. After rekindling of interest in these topics, interdisciplinary researchers can select and use any one of present day digital, i.e. Machine Learning, techniques to overcome the hurdles faced by the experts of yesteryears.
Prashant B. Shiwalkar, Marco Ceccarelli
A Historical Review of Polyhedral Linkages
Polyhedral linkages are linkages that resemble polyhedral shapes at different configurations. This paper summarizes the necessary geometrical fundamentals of polyhedral geometry and presents a historical and critical review of the polyhedral linkage designs available in the literature. Basic definitions of polyhedral geometry and operations are needed to comprehend and design polyhedral linkages. First, early works on polyhedral linkages are presented, where flexible polyhedra with rigid faces and flexible edges are issued. The final part is reserved to conformal polyhedral linkages, which go through shape transformations while plane, dihedral and solid angles are preserved. Conformal polyhedral linkages are examined in four categories: 1) Jitterbug-like linkages with screwing polygonal links connected to each other with dihedral angle preserving links, 2) polyhedral linkages with planar kinematic chains in radial motion planes, 3) polyhedral linkages with planar kinematic chains on faces, that are connected to each other with dihedral angle preserving links, and 4) other conformal polyhedral linkages.
Gökhan Kiper
Structural Synthesis of the Trigger Mechanism in an Ancient Japanese Automaton “Ryomon Waterfall”
Japanese automata, representing a significant facet of mechanical art development, have historical roots dating back to the 8th century. This paper focuses on the reconstruction design of the trigger mechanism in the automaton “Ryomon Waterfall” from the 18th-century compendium “Karakuri Zui.” The automaton narrates a mythical tale of a carp transforming into a dragon and ascending to the sky. Despite historical significance, the internal mechanisms are not fully illustrated. A systematic design procedure is proposed, involving the synthesis of feasible mechanism structures and subsequent dimensional design. The process is applied to the trigger mechanism, and a prototype is constructed, showcasing the applicability of the method. The study contributes to the understanding and reconstruction of ancient automata, shedding light on Japan's mechanical craftsmanship during the 18th century.
Zhi-Jie Zhang, Yu-Hsun Chen, Hong-Sen Yan

People and Their Works

Briefs on Buonaiuto Lorini's Fortificationi (1609): Geometry, Machines & Mechanics into Engineering During the Renaissance
The literature of the past century produced an historical reconstruction of statics theory applied to mechanical structures coinciding–starting with Le Mecaniche (1634) and Discorsi e dimostrazioni matematiche sopra a due nuove scienze (1638) by Galileo Galilei (1564–1642). Based on previous research (RP) and our historical and historiographical line of research [37], in this paper we briefly analyse Buonaiuto Lorini (1540–1611) Le Fortificationi ([1596] 1609) as a bridge between the science of weights and early mechanical science, including the graphical scale and machines. This is a fundamental and advanced military fortification–engineering treatise with an evident important relationship between theory & practice, including designsprojects of both fortresses and machines, understood as tools, to manufacture them. Lorini also presents an excursus on how fortifications developed according to the advent of new artillery/weapons, comprising the crucial passage from the use of square to circular towers up to the description of modern fortresses in all their details, e.g., bulwarks and cavaliers, curtains, orillons, star–shaped plans. Basing on Archimedes’ (fl. 287–212 BCE) techniques (law of the lever) and Guidobaldo del Monte's (1545–1607; Le Mecaniche (1577–1581) he successfully engaged in advanced mechanical considerations. His position (at the end of the first chapter) on the distinction between the mathematician (scientist) and the mechanician (architect–engineer or even machine expert) is historiographically very interesting within the difference between abstract Euclidean geometry and the application of its contents to imperfect and heterogeneous reality. The translations are ours.
Raffaele Pisano, Julie Robarts
Refik Fenmen and His Work on Applied Mechanics
This article discusses and analyzes the life and contributions of Refik Fenmen, a prominent Turkish intellectual who played a pivotal role in advancing modern science and engineering during the late Ottoman period and the early years of the Republic of Türkiye. Fenmen’s varied career included publishing popular science journals and books to promote scientific culture, advocating for gender-inclusive classrooms, and promoting educational changes. However; perhaps his most important achievements was his work in applied mechanics, particularly his book “Applied Mechanics,” which provided a practical and accessible guide for readers, including technicians, on the principles and maintenance of engines, such as steam engines. This article explores the content of this book and its relevance to the industrial developments of its time, emphasising the importance of further research into Fenmen’s extensive body of work for a more comprehensive understanding of the institutionalisation of the modern sciences in Türkiye. The article concludes that such studies contribute to a better understanding of the challenging path of Turkish modernization and the history of technology in the country.
Vural Başaran
New Views on the Famous Ottoman Engineer Taqî al-Dîn
In the sixteenth century, the brilliant Ottoman scientist and engineer, Taqî al-Dîn wrote on arithmetic, algebra, geometry, astronomy, optics and mechanics. It has been claiming that while Taqî al-Dîn was carrying out these extraordinarily successful works, he obtained the most of his knowledge from Western scholars. Considering the basis of his work, his education and the atmosphere in which he lived, he rather appears to have carried out these successful works independently of Western scholars. This article argues that this nonreciprocal interaction could not have occurred owing to the scientific and technical relations between Europe and the Ottomans in the time of Taqî al-Dîn.
Melek Dosay Gökdoğan
Betancourt Synthesis for Three-Position Problem in Mechanism Design
Between the late 18th century and the early 19th century, the Spanish engineer Agustín de Betancourt y Molina (1758–1824) left an indelible mark on the field of kinematic design of mechanisms through two groundbreaking contributions to the formulation and resolution of trajectory synthesis problems, particularly within the realm of steam engine design. These pivotal contributions are encapsulated in two distinct works: the “Mémoire sur une machine à vapeur à double effet,” presented at the French Académie Royale des Sciences in 1789, and the collaborative effort “Essai sur la composition des machines,” co-authored with José Maria de Lanz y Zaldívar (1764–1839) published in Paris in 1808. The here-in proposed comprehensive examination delves into the intricacies, advancements, limitations, and nuances of both of Betancourt’s seminal works. Today, with accessible and thoroughly studied documentation at our disposal, it is evident that these contributions represent the earliest formulations and resolutions of what would later evolve into the synthesis of a four-bar linkage, wherein the coupler point exhibits approximately rectilinear motion with three points of precision.
Juan Ignacio Cuadrado Iglesias, Marco Ceccarelli

History of Mechanism Design

The Pantograph: Rare Models and Application
The paper describes the role that pantograph has played in the development of Science and Technology. The widespread application of pantographs dates back to the 18th century, and we can easily trace the links between Natural Science and Engineering, including the applied technical disciplines. The authors aim to strengthen interdisciplinary scientific connections between the students and specialists in technical and humanitarian sciences. Based on the study of rare copies of pantographs from the Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU) Museum collection, the authors trace the development over time of this unique in its simplicity mechanism both when used in the activities of naturalists, scientists and inventors, and in the ordinary human life. Originally created as a tool of proportional mathematics, the pantograph in the modern world is used in copying machines for wood, bone and metal processing; in the constructions of collectors for electric transport, manipulators for loading work, in furniture elevators, and much more.
G. V. Tikhomirov, O. V. Egorova, G. A. Bazanchuk, S. V. Kurakov
Historical Significance and Modern Impact of Al-Jazari’s Elephant Clock
The elephant clock, an astonishing automaton and mechanical marvel devised by al-Jazari in the 13th century, is an enduring symbol of Islamic engineering and innovation. This remarkable creation exemplifies the intricate fusion of art and engineering that epitomized the Islamic Golden Age. The study delves into the cultural and technological context surrounding the invention of the Elephant Calendar, shedding light on its multifaceted impact. Moreover, al-Jazari’s genius has left an indelible mark, as the elephant clock was meticulously re-engineered and recreated after a span of 8 centuries, attesting to its timeless appeal and historical significance. In conclusion, this comprehensive research illuminates the historical importance of the elephant clock and its enduring relevance in the modern world. As an iconic representation of the ingenious blend of technology and creativity in Islamic history, the elephant clock continues to inspire and captivate both scholars and enthusiasts, highlighting its remarkable journey through time and its continued influence in contemporary society.
Tolga Cankurt, Ilham Çelebi, Iskender Giray

Direct Memories of the Recent Past

Italy-Spain Transfer of MMS in Modern Times
Since always good exchange relations between Spain and Italy were experienced in many aspects, including the technology of machines and mechanisms. This paper attempts an historical survey on those exchanges referring to main contributors in the development of machine and mechanism technology with activity also in transferring solutions, experiences, and knowledge even within academic institutions.
The paper is focused on the specific historical windows in modern times as attempt to widen the traditional national historical records.
Marco Ceccarelli, Rafael López-García
Three Technical Reports in the Trial of Enzo Ferrari for the 1957 Mille-Miglia Car Crash
In 1957, a car crash at the Mille Miglia – an Italian competition on a street circuit – caused the death of 11 people. As a matter of course, the car manufacturer, Enzo Ferrari, was investigated for negligent homicide. In order to clarify the car dynamics and the root causes, a first committee of technicians and academics had been assigned to produce an expert report. This report pointed directly towards the specific design of the tires used (made by the Belgian manufacturer Englebert) and, as a consequence, towards the Ferrari team and his owner. Other two reports followed, one provided by the defense and a third one to finally settle the issue. This paper won’t focus on the media aspect that the personalities involved aroused, but on the technical aspects of the reports produced by the three committees. Accidentally, these memories differ in the approach followed and allow a comparison on what the optimal approach should be to solve a technical problem, as well as a memory of a significant event in Italy which saw technical-scientific reasoning as the key to arriving at the truth and clearing Enzo Ferrari of all charges.
Marco Cocconcelli
Editorial Activity of the IFToMM-PC for the History of Mechanism and Machine Science in the Period 2018–2023
The mandate of the current steering committee of the IFToMM Permanent Commission for the History of Mechanism and Machine Science (PC-HMMS) ends in 2023, after two consecutive terms. This paper is aimed at summarizes the activities and results of the PC-HMMS by all its members in these six years (2018–2023). It is intended to be a brief final report - the first to date - to constantly monitor the state of health of the commission. In particular, the focus is on the editorial activity of the PC that has been developed on two main tracks: the publication of monographs and related books on HMMS, and the publication of the proceedings of conferences and workshops related to the HMMS topics. The paper, without claims of completeness, is intended to be a moment of reflection on what has been done and a starting point for the activity of the next board of the IFToMM PC-HMMS.
Marco Cocconcelli, Marco Ceccarelli, Alessandro Gasparetto
A History of LARMbot Humanoid
The historical-technical development of the LARMbot humanoid is presented with its design and functional characteristics referring to low-cost and user-based laboratory solutions for applications with limited operational capabilities. The concept of the humanoid LARMbot has been developed since 2001 with the aim of aggregating design solutions and prototypes of partial robotic structures in manipulation and locomotion until reaching the conception of a unitary project still with a modular strategy for a high-performance functional laboratory prototype with innovative cable-actuated structures built in 2016. The latest developments have been published in improvements and expansion of parallel cable-actuated structures for the torso and also for the upper limbs to ensure high-load capacity compared to the weight of the LARMbot humanoid structure.
Marco Ceccarelli
Modeling, 3D Printing and Mechanical Analysis of Roman Patenotre
Mineral extraction works in mines can be accompanied by problems derived from water infiltration. The networks of galleries are receptors of infiltration water that are transformed into small subway watercourses that circulate towards the lower points of exploitation.
The need to evacuate the water to the exterior makes it necessary to channel the water from the different galleries to a drainage gallery at the lowest level, and from there, it is conveyed to a surface hydraulic network.
Already in Roman times, different systems for lifting and pumping water were developed, which were mentioned by Vitruvius: the Tympanum, bucket wheel, bucket chain, Archimedes’ screw, and Ctesibius’ machine.
This paper analyzes a system devised about 2000 years ago and attributed to the Roman architect and engineer Vitruvius. The mechanism called Paternoster or Patenotre is a vertical pumping system that resembles a rosary; it has a rope-type traction system with knots or discs that push the water through a tube by the force of a wheel at the top of the well or work site. To complete the study, geometric modeling was carried out using a computer-aided design program, obtaining a three-dimensional model of the Roman mechanism and providing detailed documentation with sketches and plans. Subsequently, the 3D printing of the mechanism and a mechanical and similarity analysis were carried out.
Ana Maria Gómez Amador, Álvaro Joya Machado, Leopoldo Prieto Fernández, Alejandro Quesada González, Higinio Rubio Alonso
Explorations in the History and Heritage of Machines and Mechanisms
Marco Ceccarelli
Irem Aslan Seyhan
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