Skip to main content
Top

Hint

Swipe to navigate through the articles of this issue

Published in: Experiments in Fluids 8/2019

01-08-2019 | Research Article

Extended flexible trailing-edge on the flow structures of an airfoil at high angle of attack

Authors: Xi He, Qinfeng Guo, Jinjun Wang

Published in: Experiments in Fluids | Issue 8/2019

Login to get access
share
SHARE

Abstract

A two-dimensional time-resolved particle image velocimetry experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of flexible trailing-edge on the flow structures of an airfoil at high angle of attack. The experimental model was composed of a rigid NACA0020 airfoil and a flexible extended trailing-edge plate. The Reynolds number ranged from 1.42 × 104 to 3.57 × 104 (based on the model length). The kinematic characteristics of the flexible trailing-edge plate were first analyzed. While interacting with the fluid, the flexible plate performed a strongly periodic vibration. The plate presented more complicated deformation and larger amplitude with the increase of Reynolds number. The flow field was also captured in this study. It was found that the vibration of the flexible plate caused the generation and shedding of the trailing-edge vortex. Furthermore, the disturbance of plate vibration could propagate upstream and influence the formation of the leading-edge vortex in the separated shear layer. In the wake region, the alternative shedding processes of the leading- and trailing-edge vortices were coupled with the vibration of the plate. Besides, this study further scaled the vibration frequencies with a Strouhal number based on the wake width. The scaled Strouhal numbers were in the range of 0.14–0.21 for all Reynolds number cases tested, which indicated that the fluid–structure coupling led the flow to form a bluff-body wake.

Graphic abstract

The vibration patterns of the flexible trailing-edge plate at various Reynolds numbers.
Literature
go back to reference Abernathy FH (1962) Flow over an inclined plate. ASME J Basic Eng 84:380–388 CrossRef Abernathy FH (1962) Flow over an inclined plate. ASME J Basic Eng 84:380–388 CrossRef
go back to reference Adrian RJ, Christensen KT, Liu ZC (2000) Analysis and interpretation of instantaneous turbulent velocity fields. Exp Fluids 29(3):275–290 CrossRef Adrian RJ, Christensen KT, Liu ZC (2000) Analysis and interpretation of instantaneous turbulent velocity fields. Exp Fluids 29(3):275–290 CrossRef
go back to reference Allen JJ, Smits AJ (2001) Energy harvesting eel. J Fluid Struct 15:629–640 CrossRef Allen JJ, Smits AJ (2001) Energy harvesting eel. J Fluid Struct 15:629–640 CrossRef
go back to reference Anderson JM, Streitlien K, Barrett DS, Triantafyllou MS (1998) Oscillating foils of high propulsive efficiency. J Fluid Mech 360:41–72 MathSciNetCrossRefMATH Anderson JM, Streitlien K, Barrett DS, Triantafyllou MS (1998) Oscillating foils of high propulsive efficiency. J Fluid Mech 360:41–72 MathSciNetCrossRefMATH
go back to reference Blake R (1983) Fish locomotion. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge Blake R (1983) Fish locomotion. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge
go back to reference Bleischwitz R, De Kat R, Ganapathisubramani B (2017) On the fluid-structure interaction of flexible membrane wings for MAVs in and out of ground-effect. J Fluid Struct 70:214–234 CrossRef Bleischwitz R, De Kat R, Ganapathisubramani B (2017) On the fluid-structure interaction of flexible membrane wings for MAVs in and out of ground-effect. J Fluid Struct 70:214–234 CrossRef
go back to reference Cantwell B, Coels D (1983) An experimental study of entrainment and transport in the turbulent near wake of a circular cylinder. J Fluid Mech 136:321–374 CrossRef Cantwell B, Coels D (1983) An experimental study of entrainment and transport in the turbulent near wake of a circular cylinder. J Fluid Mech 136:321–374 CrossRef
go back to reference Champagnat F, Plyer A, Le BG, Leclaire B, Davoust S, Le Saut Y (2011) Fast and accurate PIV computation using highly parallel iterative correlation maximization. Exp Fluids 50(4):1169–1182 CrossRef Champagnat F, Plyer A, Le BG, Leclaire B, Davoust S, Le Saut Y (2011) Fast and accurate PIV computation using highly parallel iterative correlation maximization. Exp Fluids 50(4):1169–1182 CrossRef
go back to reference David MJ, Govardhan RN, Arakeri JH (2017) Thrust generation from pitching foils with flexible trailing edge flaps. J Fluid Mech 828:70–103 CrossRefMATH David MJ, Govardhan RN, Arakeri JH (2017) Thrust generation from pitching foils with flexible trailing edge flaps. J Fluid Mech 828:70–103 CrossRefMATH
go back to reference Deng SC, Pan C, Wang JJ, Rinoshika A (2017) POD analysis of the instability mode of a low-speed streak in a laminar boundary layer. Acta Mech Sin 33(6):981–991 CrossRef Deng SC, Pan C, Wang JJ, Rinoshika A (2017) POD analysis of the instability mode of a low-speed streak in a laminar boundary layer. Acta Mech Sin 33(6):981–991 CrossRef
go back to reference Dewey PA, Boschitsch BM, Moored KW, Stone HA, Smits AJ (2013) Scaling laws for the thrust production of flexible pitching panels. J Fluid Mech 732:29–46 CrossRefMATH Dewey PA, Boschitsch BM, Moored KW, Stone HA, Smits AJ (2013) Scaling laws for the thrust production of flexible pitching panels. J Fluid Mech 732:29–46 CrossRefMATH
go back to reference Eloy C, Souilliez C, Schouveiler L (2007) Flutter of a rectangular plate. J Fluid Struct 23:904–919 CrossRef Eloy C, Souilliez C, Schouveiler L (2007) Flutter of a rectangular plate. J Fluid Struct 23:904–919 CrossRef
go back to reference Eloy C, Lagrange R, Souilliez C, Schouveiler L (2008) Aeroelastic instability of cantilevered flexible plates in uniform flow. J Fluid Mech 611:97–106 MathSciNetCrossRefMATH Eloy C, Lagrange R, Souilliez C, Schouveiler L (2008) Aeroelastic instability of cantilevered flexible plates in uniform flow. J Fluid Mech 611:97–106 MathSciNetCrossRefMATH
go back to reference Giacomell A, Porfiri M (2011) Underwater energy harvesting from a heavy flag hosting ionic polymer metal composites. J Appl Phys 109(8):084903 CrossRef Giacomell A, Porfiri M (2011) Underwater energy harvesting from a heavy flag hosting ionic polymer metal composites. J Appl Phys 109(8):084903 CrossRef
go back to reference Griffin OM (1978) An universal Strouhal number for the “locking-on” of vortex shedding to the vibrations of bluff cylinders. J Fluid Mech 85(3):591–606 CrossRef Griffin OM (1978) An universal Strouhal number for the “locking-on” of vortex shedding to the vibrations of bluff cylinders. J Fluid Mech 85(3):591–606 CrossRef
go back to reference Heathcote S, Gursul I (2007) Flexible flapping airfoil propulsion at low Reynolds numbers. AIAA J 45(5):1066–1079 CrossRef Heathcote S, Gursul I (2007) Flexible flapping airfoil propulsion at low Reynolds numbers. AIAA J 45(5):1066–1079 CrossRef
go back to reference Katz J, Weihs D (1978) Hydrodynamic propulsion by large amplitude oscillation of an airfoil with chordwise flexibility. J Fluid Mech 88(3):485–497 CrossRefMATH Katz J, Weihs D (1978) Hydrodynamic propulsion by large amplitude oscillation of an airfoil with chordwise flexibility. J Fluid Mech 88(3):485–497 CrossRefMATH
go back to reference Kim W, Yoo JY, Sung J (2006) Dynamics of vortex lock-on in a perturbed cylinder wake. Phys Fluids 18(7):1–22 Kim W, Yoo JY, Sung J (2006) Dynamics of vortex lock-on in a perturbed cylinder wake. Phys Fluids 18(7):1–22
go back to reference Lighthill MJ (1970) Aquatic animal propulsion of high hydromechanical efficiency. J Fluid Mech 44(2):265–301 CrossRefMATH Lighthill MJ (1970) Aquatic animal propulsion of high hydromechanical efficiency. J Fluid Mech 44(2):265–301 CrossRefMATH
go back to reference Lindsey CC (1978) Form, function and locomotory habits in fish. Fish Physiol 7:1–100 CrossRef Lindsey CC (1978) Form, function and locomotory habits in fish. Fish Physiol 7:1–100 CrossRef
go back to reference Liu TS, Montefort J, Liou W, Pantula SR, Shams QA (2007) Lift enhancement by static extended trailing edge. J Aircraft 44(6):1939–1947 CrossRef Liu TS, Montefort J, Liou W, Pantula SR, Shams QA (2007) Lift enhancement by static extended trailing edge. J Aircraft 44(6):1939–1947 CrossRef
go back to reference Liu TS, Montefort J, Liou W, Pantula SR, Yang Y and Shams QA (2009) Post-stall flow control using a flexible fin on airfoil. In: 47th Asia Aerospace Sciences Meeting. 5–8 Jan 2009, Orlando, Florida Liu TS, Montefort J, Liou W, Pantula SR, Yang Y and Shams QA (2009) Post-stall flow control using a flexible fin on airfoil. In: 47th Asia Aerospace Sciences Meeting. 5–8 Jan 2009, Orlando, Florida
go back to reference Liu TS, Montefort J, Pantula SR (2010) Effects of flexible fin on low-frequency oscillation in poststall Flows. AIAA J 48(6):1235–1247 CrossRef Liu TS, Montefort J, Pantula SR (2010) Effects of flexible fin on low-frequency oscillation in poststall Flows. AIAA J 48(6):1235–1247 CrossRef
go back to reference Ma LQ, Feng LH, Pan C, Gao Q, Wang JJ (2015) Fourier mode decomposition of PIV data. Sci China Technol Sc 58:1935–1948 CrossRef Ma LQ, Feng LH, Pan C, Gao Q, Wang JJ (2015) Fourier mode decomposition of PIV data. Sci China Technol Sc 58:1935–1948 CrossRef
go back to reference Mackowski AW, Williamson CHK (2015) Direct measurement of thrust and efficiency of an airfoil undergoing pure pitching. J Fluid Mech 765:524–543 CrossRef Mackowski AW, Williamson CHK (2015) Direct measurement of thrust and efficiency of an airfoil undergoing pure pitching. J Fluid Mech 765:524–543 CrossRef
go back to reference Miyanawala TP, Jaiman RK (2019) Decomposition of wake dynamics in fluid-structure interaction via low-dimensional models. J Fluid Mech 867:723–764 MathSciNetCrossRefMATH Miyanawala TP, Jaiman RK (2019) Decomposition of wake dynamics in fluid-structure interaction via low-dimensional models. J Fluid Mech 867:723–764 MathSciNetCrossRefMATH
go back to reference Morse DR, Liburdy JA (2009) Vortex dynamics and shedding of a low aspect ratio, flat wing at low Reynolds numbers and high angles of attack. J Fluid Eng T ASME 131(5):051202 CrossRef Morse DR, Liburdy JA (2009) Vortex dynamics and shedding of a low aspect ratio, flat wing at low Reynolds numbers and high angles of attack. J Fluid Eng T ASME 131(5):051202 CrossRef
go back to reference Pan C, Xue D, Xu Y, Wang JJ, Wei RJ (2015) Evaluating the accuracy performance of Lucas–Kanade algorithm in the circumstance of PIV application. Sci China Phys Mech 58(10):1–16 CrossRef Pan C, Xue D, Xu Y, Wang JJ, Wei RJ (2015) Evaluating the accuracy performance of Lucas–Kanade algorithm in the circumstance of PIV application. Sci China Phys Mech 58(10):1–16 CrossRef
go back to reference Pantula SR (2008) Modeling fluid structure interaction over a flexible fin attached to a NACA0012 airfoil. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, 2008 Pantula SR (2008) Modeling fluid structure interaction over a flexible fin attached to a NACA0012 airfoil. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, 2008
go back to reference Roshko A (1954) On the drag and shedding frequency of two dimensional bluff bodies. NACA Technical Note 3169 Roshko A (1954) On the drag and shedding frequency of two dimensional bluff bodies. NACA Technical Note 3169
go back to reference Sfakiotakis M, Lane DM, Davies JBC (1999) Review of fish swimming modes for aquatic locomotion. IEEE J Ocean Eng 24(2):237–252 CrossRef Sfakiotakis M, Lane DM, Davies JBC (1999) Review of fish swimming modes for aquatic locomotion. IEEE J Ocean Eng 24(2):237–252 CrossRef
go back to reference Shelley MJ, Vandenberghe N, Zhang J (2005) Heavy flags undergo spontaneous oscillations in flowing water. Phys Rev Lett 94(9):094302 CrossRef Shelley MJ, Vandenberghe N, Zhang J (2005) Heavy flags undergo spontaneous oscillations in flowing water. Phys Rev Lett 94(9):094302 CrossRef
go back to reference Timpe A, Zhang Z, Hubner J, Ukeliey L (2013) Passive flow control by membrane wings for aerodynamic benefit. Exp Fluids 54(3):1471 CrossRef Timpe A, Zhang Z, Hubner J, Ukeliey L (2013) Passive flow control by membrane wings for aerodynamic benefit. Exp Fluids 54(3):1471 CrossRef
go back to reference Triantafyllou MS, Triantafyllou GS, Gopalkrishnan R (1991) Wake mechanics for thrust generation in oscillating foils. Phys Fluids 3(12):2835–2837 CrossRef Triantafyllou MS, Triantafyllou GS, Gopalkrishnan R (1991) Wake mechanics for thrust generation in oscillating foils. Phys Fluids 3(12):2835–2837 CrossRef
go back to reference Triantafyllou MS, Techet AH, Hover FS (2004) Review of experimental work in biomimetic foils. IEEE J Oceanic Eng 29(3):585–594 CrossRef Triantafyllou MS, Techet AH, Hover FS (2004) Review of experimental work in biomimetic foils. IEEE J Oceanic Eng 29(3):585–594 CrossRef
go back to reference Wang JS, Feng LH, Wang JJ, Li T (2018) Görtler vortices in low-Reynolds-number flow over multi-element airfoil. J Fluid Mech 835:898–935 CrossRef Wang JS, Feng LH, Wang JJ, Li T (2018) Görtler vortices in low-Reynolds-number flow over multi-element airfoil. J Fluid Mech 835:898–935 CrossRef
go back to reference Watanabe Y, Suzuki S, Sugihara M, Sueoka Y (2002) An experimental study of paper flutter. J Fluid Struct 16:529–542 CrossRef Watanabe Y, Suzuki S, Sugihara M, Sueoka Y (2002) An experimental study of paper flutter. J Fluid Struct 16:529–542 CrossRef
go back to reference Wolfgang M, Anderson JM, Grosenbaugh MA, Yue DKP, Triantafyllou MS (1999) Nearbody flow dynamics in swimming fish. J Exp Biol 202(17):2303–2327 Wolfgang M, Anderson JM, Grosenbaugh MA, Yue DKP, Triantafyllou MS (1999) Nearbody flow dynamics in swimming fish. J Exp Biol 202(17):2303–2327
go back to reference Wu T (1971) Hydromechanics of swimming propulsion. Part 1. Swimming of a two-dimensional flexible plate at variable forward speeds in an inviscid fluid. J Fluid Mech 46(2):337–355 MathSciNetCrossRefMATH Wu T (1971) Hydromechanics of swimming propulsion. Part 1. Swimming of a two-dimensional flexible plate at variable forward speeds in an inviscid fluid. J Fluid Mech 46(2):337–355 MathSciNetCrossRefMATH
go back to reference Yarusevych S, Sullivan PE, Kawall JG (2006) Coherent structures in an airfoil boundary layer and wake at low Reynolds numbers. Phys Fluids 18:044101 CrossRef Yarusevych S, Sullivan PE, Kawall JG (2006) Coherent structures in an airfoil boundary layer and wake at low Reynolds numbers. Phys Fluids 18:044101 CrossRef
go back to reference Yarusevych S, Sullivan PE, Kawall JG (2009) On vortex shedding from an airfoil in low-Reynolds-number flows. J Fluid Mech 632:245–271 CrossRefMATH Yarusevych S, Sullivan PE, Kawall JG (2009) On vortex shedding from an airfoil in low-Reynolds-number flows. J Fluid Mech 632:245–271 CrossRefMATH
go back to reference Zhang J, Childress S, Libchaber A, Shelley M (2000) Flexible filament in a flowing soap film as a model for one-dimensional flags in a two-dimensional wind. Nature 408:835–839 CrossRef Zhang J, Childress S, Libchaber A, Shelley M (2000) Flexible filament in a flowing soap film as a model for one-dimensional flags in a two-dimensional wind. Nature 408:835–839 CrossRef
go back to reference Zhou Y, Yiu MW (2006) Flow structure, momentum and heat transport in a two-tandem-cylinder wake. J Fluid Mech 548:17–48 CrossRef Zhou Y, Yiu MW (2006) Flow structure, momentum and heat transport in a two-tandem-cylinder wake. J Fluid Mech 548:17–48 CrossRef
go back to reference Zhou J, Adrian RJ, Balachandar S, Kendall TM (1999) Mechanisms for generating coherent packets of hairpin vortices in channel flow. J Fluid Mech 387:353–396 MathSciNetCrossRefMATH Zhou J, Adrian RJ, Balachandar S, Kendall TM (1999) Mechanisms for generating coherent packets of hairpin vortices in channel flow. J Fluid Mech 387:353–396 MathSciNetCrossRefMATH
go back to reference Zhou Y, Zhang HJ, Yiu MW (2002) The turbulent wake of two side-by-side circular cylinders. J Fluid Mech 458:303–332 CrossRefMATH Zhou Y, Zhang HJ, Yiu MW (2002) The turbulent wake of two side-by-side circular cylinders. J Fluid Mech 458:303–332 CrossRefMATH
Metadata
Title
Extended flexible trailing-edge on the flow structures of an airfoil at high angle of attack
Authors
Xi He
Qinfeng Guo
Jinjun Wang
Publication date
01-08-2019
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Published in
Experiments in Fluids / Issue 8/2019
Print ISSN: 0723-4864
Electronic ISSN: 1432-1114
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-019-2767-5

Other articles of this Issue 8/2019

Experiments in Fluids 8/2019 Go to the issue

Premium Partners