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10-05-2020 | Issue 4/2020

Cognitive Computation 4/2020

Extracting Time Expressions and Named Entities with Constituent-Based Tagging Schemes

Journal:
Cognitive Computation > Issue 4/2020
Authors:
Xiaoshi Zhong, Erik Cambria, Amir Hussain
Important notes
This paper is an extension of the following conference paper: Xiaoshi Zhong and Erik Cambria. 2018. Time Expression Recognition Using a Constituent-based Tagging Scheme. In Proceedings of the 2018 World Wide Web Conference , Association for Computing Machinery, Lyon, France, pages 983–992.

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Abstract

Time expressions and named entities play important roles in data mining, information retrieval, and natural language processing. However, the conventional position-based tagging schemes (e.g., the BIO and BILOU schemes) that previous research used to model time expressions and named entities suffer from the problem of inconsistent tag assignment. To overcome the problem of inconsistent tag assignment, we designed a new type of tagging schemes to model time expressions and named entities based on their constituents. Specifically, to model time expressions, we defined a constituent-based tagging scheme termed TOMN scheme with four tags, namely T, O, M, and N, indicating the defined constituents of time expressions, namely time token, modifier, numeral, and the words outside time expressions. To model named entities, we defined a constituent-based tagging scheme termed UGTO scheme with four tags, namely U, G, T, and O, indicating the defined constituents of named entities, namely uncommon word, general modifier, trigger word, and the words outside named entities. In modeling, our TOMN and UGTO schemes model time expressions and named entities under conditional random fields with minimal features according to an in-depth analysis for the characteristics of time expressions and named entities. Experiments on diverse datasets demonstrate that our proposed methods perform equally with or more effectively than representative state-of-the-art methods on both time expression extraction and named entity extraction.

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