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2022 | Book

Fast Charging and Resilient Transportation Infrastructures in Smart Cities

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About this book

This book provides readers with expert knowledge on the design of fast charging infrastructures and their planning in smart cities and communities to support autonomous transportation. The recent development of fast charging infrastructures using hybrid energy systems is examined, along with aspects of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAV) and their integration within transportation networks and city infrastructures. The book looks at challenges and opportunities for autonomous transportation, including connected and autonomous vehicles, shuttles, and their technology development and deployment within smart communities. Intelligent control strategies, architectures, and systems are also covered, along with intelligent data centers that ensure effective transportation networks during normal and emergency situations. Planning strategies are presented to demonstrate the resilient transportation infrastructures, and optimized performance is discussed in view of performance indicators and requirements specifications, as well as regulations and standards.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
Chapter 1. Introduction
Abstract
With the broader deployment of transportation electrification, there is an increasing need to adapt fast-charging solutions to reduce charging time while improving energy efficiency. This book discusses concepts, analysis, and solutions for fast-charging infrastructures toward transportation electrification in smart cities. The book will discuss transitioning of transportation technologies and infrastructures. Requirements of fast-charging technologies will be analyzed and used to design fast-charging stations in view of demand profiles. Fast-charging solutions will be discussed for electric vehicles (EVs), electric buses (e-buses), electric trucks (e-trucks), electric railways, and marine transportation electrification. The book will explain mobile fast-charging infrastructures’ design and operation aspects. Due to different weather conditions, fast-charging infrastructures should support extreme cold weather and harsh environment. Design and operation approaches will be discussed to implement fast-charging infrastructures in harsh environment and during emergencies. The recent development of autonomous transportation opened the door for further analysis about fast-charging infrastructures for autonomous transportation. Discussions will be covered about the electric wheel, which is one of the valuable technologies that can enhance transportation electrification. Hybrid energy systems with nuclear-renewable integration will be explained to support fast-charging stations. Planning of fast-charging infrastructures will be elaborated and linked to deployment strategies. In order to ensure profitable projects of fast-charging infrastructures, lifecycle cost analysis will be discussed.
Hossam A. Gabbar
Chapter 2. Requirement Analysis of Fast-Charging Stations
Abstract
In order to discuss the design and operation aspects of a fast-charging station, it is essential to understand the requirements that will be used to design high-performance fast-charging station (FCS). This chapter presents requirements analysis for all functions of FCS, which are classified as follows: FCS design, FCS facility, energy management, and charging units. The chapter explained possible requirements for each category and associated performance targets and implementation strategies. Best practices are covered in three regions: the United States, Europe, and Asia. Related standards are explained and used to analyze requirement analysis. Functional modeling is used to demonstrate the understanding of FCS and map to design requirements. Analysis of mobility is used to plan the deployment of fast-charging infrastructures.
Hossam A. Gabbar
Chapter 3. Fast-Charging Station Design
Abstract
This chapter presents detailed design of fast-charging stations (FCS). Functional model is presented for fast-charging stations to reflect key functions to be achieved by fast-charging stations. The conceptual design of fast-charging station shows key design concepts to be included in the target station design. The fast-charging station includes hybrid energy storage such as flywheel, battery, and ultracapacitor systems to provide enhanced capabilities. Renewable energy sources such as PV, wind, and fuel cell are integrated with the charging station to complement energy supply from the grid. The detailed design of fast-charging station is presented. Multi-input converter is presented as part of the detailed design of the charging station. Control strategies, control system design, and energy management schemes are presented to show effective operation of the fast-charging station.
Hossam A. Gabbar
Chapter 4. Analysis of Transportation Electrification and Fast Charging
Abstract
Transportation has the largest share of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in the world. Bus networks can transfer millions of people daily as one of the most common forms of public transit. Therefore, electrification of buses will reduce the emission immensely. The main two issues in the electrification of buses are the size of energy storage and the charging time. This chapter will analyze the transportation electrification and charging technologies of EV, electric buses, and electric trucks. The market analysis is conducted to support the deployment of transportation electrification and charging infrastructures.
Hossam A. Gabbar
Chapter 5. Fast-Charging Infrastructure for Transit Buses
Abstract
This chapter presents the planning and modeling of fast-charging infrastructure for transit buses. The analysis is performed for different bus routes while considering charging station types, trips, bus technologies, and battery storage technologies
Hossam A. Gabbar
Chapter 6. A Robust Decoupled Microgrid Charging Scheme Using a DC Green Plug-Switched Filter Compensator
Abstract
Renewable and sustainable energy and power electronic applications emerge in green energy utilization in the wind photovoltaic (PV) microgrids, energy storage, and battery charging systems. The power electronic DC-to-DC and back-to-back converters serve the efficient energy transfer from wind/fuel cell/solar PV sources to load canters using a green plug, switched filters, static synchronous compensator (STATCOM), and other flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices using fast-acting decoupled optimal control strategies. The advanced control techniques optimally change and modulate PWM (pulse width modulation) switching control of the converter and green plug system.
A novel PV-powered boost converter device is proposed to store the battery with a DC green plug scheme in this chapter. The proposed green plug and boost converter is switched with a pulse width modulation (PWM) signals. These signals are generated by (proportional integral derivative) PID (proportional integral derivative) control and driven by an error signal operated by dual-loop controllers. These double loops use the current and voltage error signals to obtain the total error signals. The error amplifier controllers were decoupled to increase efficiency and stability. The control theory of this system is investigated in more detail in this chapter.
This chapter also gives more detailed information about the PV model design and controller design and theory. Various controllers are investigated and compared in this chapter. The converter topology is analyzed in more detail. Different loads and their impact on the general system are topics that are investigated. Different green plug topologies and how do they affect the system are research topics in this chapter.
The simulation models are designed and tried in MATLAB/Simulink software, and obtained results were tested and compared for different climate conditions. The proposed system with a green plug filter increases the total system efficiency as seen in simulation results. The proposed scheme provides better energy-efficient utilization and battery fast charging with reduced inrush current conditions and modified hybrid charging modes. This chapter supplies basic information about PV-powered converter control systems and how they are designed for DC green plug topologies and how they affect the DC systems. The detailed simulation model investigation supplied readers with more helpful information about this matter and its application practically.
The proposed scheme ensures reduced switching transient inrush current conditions while ensuring efficient energy delivery and utilization. The novel green plug scheme using supercapacitor provides energy storage and minimum excursions under load excursions and changes in PV and solar insulation (SX) and junction temperature (TX) variations. The decoupled multi-loop controller is effective as it ensures time scale decoupled action with dominant and supplementary loops. The modified PWM/switched DC-DC converter is a fast action with reduced switching losses.
Hossam A. Gabbar
Chapter 7. Fast Charging for Railways
Abstract
The railway is one of the oldest transportation systems, considered one of the leading players in freights and passenger transportation. However, railway electrification depends on the grid. Transportation of passengers is very sensitive to grid outages, especially in harsh atmospheric conditions, in terms of comfort and safety. Energy storage systems play an essential role in increasing reliability and reducing the load on the grid. Therefore, fast chargers are essential to reduce unplanned stops and failures. In this chapter, the railway infrastructure is elaborated, showing the interconnected microgrid as a railway power supply. In addition, a comparison study on the different energy storage technologies for the railway includes the economic, technical, and environmental aspects of different energy storage technologies for the railway.
Hossam A. Gabbar
Chapter 8. Hybrid Charging Stations
Abstract
The transition to transportation electrification requires gradual changes to the charging infrastructure where the number of EVs (electric vehicles) and FCVs (fuel cell vehicles) gradually increases. Expansion of EV and FCV charging stations can be implemented via hybrid charging stations, maximizing the utilization of existing fueling infrastructures of ICVs (internal combustion vehicles) and DVs (diesel vehicles). This chapter discusses the potential design of a hybrid charging station that can combine charging of EV and fueling of ICV, DV, and FCV. The conceptual design of the hybrid charging station will be defined and used to describe possible operations using process variables for each subsystem. Optimization models are described as part of an integrated optimization framework. Each component and subsystem of the hybrid charging station will be defined, and associated performance measures and process variables will be explained. A hybrid energy system is used within the hybrid charging station and will be described using micro energy grid (MEG), with a thermal, gas, and electricity network. MEG will connect with the power grid, a thermal storage system (TES), gas/diesel supply, hydrogen supply, and waste collection. The optimization framework will be described to optimize local units and the overall hybrid charging station. The local energy generation capacity is maximized, and overall performance is optimized while considering energy supply, power grid, TES, gas supply, hydrogen supply, and waste inputs.
Hossam A. Gabbar
Chapter 9. Fast Charging for Marine Transportation
Abstract
Shipping via sea or ocean is considered more economical than road shipping with reduced GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. Maritime electrification requires effective charging infrastructures. The penetration of renewable energy systems in maritime will support the transportation electrification in maritime applications. In order to expand maritime electrification, integrated charging infrastructures should be implemented effectively. There are benefits to integrating charging infrastructures for maritime with waterfront energy systems where implementation costs are reduced while reducing GHG emissions. This chapter discusses the analysis and functional modeling of the hybrid energy system for maritime transportation electrification as integrated with waterfront applications. Hybrid energy system design is discussed where renewable and energy storage technologies are integrated to meet load profiles for maritime charging and waterfront energy supply demands. Model parameters are identified and utilized to define suitable configurations of the integrated charging station with maritime ships based on different ship categories and demand profiles for different routes. Optimization techniques and practices are discussed using the charging station, ship, and grid interface parameters. A global and local optimization framework is explained using performance measures for each integrated system component. Research and innovation approaches are discussed to support the research chain from academia to industry.
Hossam A. Gabbar
Chapter 10. Resilient Charging Stations for Harsh Environment and Emergencies
Abstract
Recent climate change led to several extreme weather conditions. A harsh environment due to severe weather conditions might cause interruptions to transportation infrastructures and charging stations. This chapter analyzes different harsh conditions based on a review of recent research performed. Resiliency design framework is presented based on inherent features, resiliency control, and resiliency interlock systems. Emergencies are discussed and reflected in different charging scenarios and related parameters and evaluated using emergency indexes used to quantify the charging operation in case of emergencies. Priority analysis is used to support the charging process in view of emergencies while considering key parameters related to the vehicle, human (driver and passengers), road, trip, environment, and traffic. The classifications of emergencies are used to demonstrate priority assessment in charging stations.
Hossam A. Gabbar
Chapter 11. Autonomous Transportation
Abstract
Transportation is moving toward the deployment of connected and autonomous vehicles. Transportation infrastructures and roads should support the operation and management in view of the transition to connected and autonomous transportation. Fast-charging infrastructures should be designed and deployed to support the business process governing autonomous transportation. This chapter discusses the requirements and analysis for implementing fast-charging stations for autonomous transportation. New charging techniques are studied to be adopted for autonomous transportation. Mobile charging stations are required to support urgent and sudden charging needs for autonomous vehicles. Wireless charging stations based on wireless power transfer techniques will be required to charge autonomous vehicles where there is no driver on board. Functional modeling and technical requirements are analyzed and mapped to deployment strategies.
Hossam A. Gabbar
Chapter 12. Transportation with Electric Wheel
Abstract
This chapter explains the basics of the electric wheel (EW) or in-wheel electric motor and their implementation in transportation infrastructures. Electric wheel can offer enhanced performance in terms of stability, energy efficiency, and reliability. Discussions on the basics of EW are presented in this chapter, including basic design, components, regenerative braking system, and the integration within EV (electric vehicle). The use of the electric wheel will enhance the function of regenerative braking connected to each EW. Related concepts and technologies are explained by a review of regenerative braking system techniques. Electric wheel design and related components are illustrated with a related research review, which provides a good understanding of the development of the electric wheel. In order to understand the potential implementation of electric wheel, different configurations of electric wheels are explained with a case study design in hybrid ways to maximize the overall performance of EV. Practical implementations of the electric wheel can be achieved with retrofitting the electric wheels in existing internal combustion vehicles or EVs.
Hossam A. Gabbar
Chapter 13. Fast-Charging Infrastructure Planning
Abstract
The potential importance of fast-charging stations led to proper planning. There is a high cost to implement the transitioning of charging infrastructures. This chapter discusses planning and technology development of fast-charging infrastructures, mapping to city layout, and road and mobility models. It is essential to understand demand profiles and charging loads from different transportation systems and link with other charging applications such as nuclear power plant outage, power substations, and industrial facilities. The discussions will include analysis of key parameters related to each subsystem, such as the size, type, location, and management schemes of fast-charging infrastructures in view of load profiles and the distributions over different regions. The analysis is performed on deploying fast-charging stations to support electric vehicles (EVs), electric buses, electric trucks, and marine systems such as electric boats. The planning to integrate fast charging with power utility substations to balance their local loads is conducted. The integration of fast charging with industrial facilities could benefit the local energy management and support transportation electrification by providing fast charging for transit bus routes and public transportation.
Hossam A. Gabbar
Chapter 14. Techno-economic Analysis of Fast-Charging Infrastructure
Abstract
In order to ensure successful deployment of fast-charging infrastructures, techno-economic analysis is essential to demonstrate the overall performance with the cost-effectiveness of the proposed fast-charging infrastructures. Short-term and long-term planning are discussed and evaluated in view of fast-charging stations’ different design and operation options. Assumptions will be defined for each scenario to ensure a clear and accurate evaluation of deployment options. The analysis will include assessing size, location, and operation options of fast-charging infrastructures for integrated utilization for transportation electrification, substations, and industrial facilities. The analysis is based on key performance measures for each component and for the overall fast-charging infrastructures, including system costs, mobility factors, energy efficiency, grid condition, and environmental factors. Optimization techniques are discussed to assess different scenarios in techno-economic analysis to achieve the highest performance.
Hossam A. Gabbar
Chapter 15. Advances in Charging Infrastructures
Abstract
Recent advances in charging infrastructures led to several innovations and improvements to transportation electrification. This chapter discusses advances in charging techniques and technologies and analysis of different charging models and mechanisms. Vehicle to grid (V2G) offered advantages to enhance grid performance by utilizing EV (electric vehicle) to charge back to the grid. Wireless charging methods are discussed and analyzed in view of possible vehicle, mobility, and technology readiness parameters. Vehicle to vehicle (V2V) is discussed, and different models are explained to show merits of implementations and associated performance measures. Different views of potential fast-charging infrastructures are explained with possible implementation strategies.
Hossam A. Gabbar
Chapter 16. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems with Charging Stations for Transportation Electrification
Abstract
This chapter presents the integration of nuclear-renewable energy sources to support energy infrastructures such as fast-charging stations for transportation electrification. Different coupling mechanisms are presented to support different installations and user requirements. Design and operation strategies and different technologies are illustrated to deploy nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems and their use for different applications in city, urban, and remote communities. Performance measures are proposed to evaluate different strategies. The chapter includes a techno-economic evaluation of interconnected nuclear-renewable micro hybrid energy systems with combined heat and power and their impact on a number of implementation strategies. Strategies are illustrated to deploy nuclear-renewable hybrid energy system (N-R HES), with considerations on scalability, capital cost, project lifetime, and other implementation parameters. Nuclear technologies are presented, including small modular reactor (SMR) or micro modular reactor (MMR), as integrated within micro energy grids. Resiliency and performance measures are discussed in view of a number of operation and control strategies to meet user requirements. The presented N-R HES is integrated with charging stations for transportation electrification. The integrated model is presented and analyzed.
Hossam A. Gabbar
Chapter 17. Transactive Energy for Charging Infrastructures
Abstract
Transactive energy is offering a framework to provide a profitable energy supply chain with peer-to-peer energy transactions. The interface between transactive energy and charging infrastructures will allow flexible charging with the cheapest options. This chapter presents a framework for transactive energy to support charging infrastructures. Renewable energy resources are utilized to complement grid supply. Hybrid energy systems include PV, wind turbine, fuel cell, nuclear reactor, and hybrid energy storage, including battery, flywheel, and ultra-capacitor. Trade agent infrastructure is defined to allow bidirectional energy flow between EV, charging station unit, renewable energy resources, and the grid. Negotiation mechanisms are defined among trade agents associated with each component. Energy cost models are defined that include levelized energy cost, energy price, and minimum and maximum price limits for each component and system. Investment model is discussed to allow multiple investors to manage different energy components in the charging infrastructure. The different power transfer, energy flow, and cost parameters are defined for each component and utilized to analyze trade bids and requests and take decisions to achieve profitable energy supply for charging requests.
Hossam A. Gabbar
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
Fast Charging and Resilient Transportation Infrastructures in Smart Cities
Author
Prof. Hossam A. Gabbar
Copyright Year
2022
Electronic ISBN
978-3-031-09500-9
Print ISBN
978-3-031-09499-6
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-09500-9