Fastenings like headed studs and post-installed mechanical or chemical anchors for use in concrete are often used in Industrial Facilities. This paper deals with fastenings that are used to transmit seismic actions by means of tension, shear, or a combination of tension and shear,
- between connected structural elements
- between non-structural attachments and structural elements
Although the majority of fastenings up to now are designed and tested for use in non-seismic environments, they are commonly used for applications in structures in earthquake regions. Fasteners will be subjected to both crack cycling and load cycling at dynamic rates during an earthquake (Fig 1 [1, 2]). Therefore in future special requirements for the use of fasteners in seismic regions are demanded.
Metal anchors used to resist seismic actions shall meet the requirements of ETAG 001 Annex E: “Assesment of Metal Anchors under seismic action” . The document deals with the preconditions, assumptions, required tests and assessment for metal anchors under seismic action. The design value of the effect of seismic actions acting on the fixture shall be determined according to Eurocode 8 . Furthermore the EOTA “Technical report TR 045 – Design of Metal Anchors under Seismic Actions”  and the draft of Eurocode 2 part 4 “Design of Fasteners for Use in Concrete”  gives further requirements regarding the design of fasteners under seismic actions in addition to Eurocode 8.