Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Hint

Swipe to navigate through the articles of this issue

10-06-2019 | Issue 1/2020

Fire Technology 1/2020

Flame Spread Over Ultra-thin Solids: Effect of Area Density and Concurrent-Opposed Spread Reversal Phenomenon

Journal:
Fire Technology > Issue 1/2020
Authors:
Anthony Vetturini, Wohan Cui, Ya-Ting Liao, Sandra Olson, Paul Ferkul
Important notes

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Abstract

There are no existing experimental studies of flame spread rate trends for ultra-thin solid samples. Previous theory has predicted that for concurrent flame in kinetic regime, the flame spread rate decreases as the sample thickness decreases and there is a critical thickness below which burning is not possible. To test this hypothesis, a series of microgravity experiments of concurrent-flow flame spread over samples of ultra-low area densities are conducted using NASA Glenn Research Center’s Zero Gravity Research Facility (the 5.18 s drop tower). The tested samples are cellulose-based materials of various area densities, ranging from 0.2 mg/cm2 to 13 mg/cm2, as low as one order of magnitude less than those ever tested before. Each sample is 30 cm long by 5 cm wide and is burned in a low-speed concurrent air flow (5 to 30 cm/s). The results show that the concurrent flame spread rate is proportional to the flow velocity relative to the flame and is inversely proportional to the sample area density. A theoretical formulation, provided in this work, suggests that the flame length has a linear relationship with the relative flow speed and has no direct dependency on the sample area density. The experimental data supports this conclusion. From the images recorded in the experiments, a unique flame base tubular structure directed upstream away from the burnout zone is observed for thin samples. This structure is suspected to be due to flame stretching and localized blowoff caused by the oxidative pyrolysis Stefan flows at the sample burnout. This can be an indication that the chemical time becomes comparable to the flow time of the Stefan flow and the tested samples are approaching the kinetically-limited thickness. For the thinnest tested sample (0.2 mg/cm2), flames with concurrent and opposed dual natures are observed when the air flow rate is low (< 20 cm/s). At the lowest tested flow rate (5 cm/s), the flame spread rate exceeds the air flow rate and the flame transits to an opposed flame in the concurrent flow. The dual nature and flame transition are presented and discussed. This study provides detailed examination through high-resolution images of the transition between the concurrent to opposed flame spread modes.

Please log in to get access to this content

To get access to this content you need the following product:

Springer Professional "Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 50.000 Bücher
  • über 380 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Umwelt
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe




Testen Sie jetzt 30 Tage kostenlos.

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 69.000 Bücher
  • über 500 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Umwelt
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Testen Sie jetzt 30 Tage kostenlos.

Literature
About this article

Other articles of this Issue 1/2020

Fire Technology 1/2020 Go to the issue