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About this book

The book presents the results of the research project Fleets Go Green from different engineering disciplines. It includes comprehensive empirical data as well as different methods and tools for evaluating and integrating electric vehicles into corporate fleets. Finally, the authors give recommendations for fleet owners, vehicle manufacturers and political decision.

The aim of the joint research project Fleets Go Green was the integrated analysis and evaluation of the environmental performance of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles in everyday usage on the example of fleet operations.

The potential of electric vehicles for reducing the harmful environmental impacts of road transport in everyday conditions can only be analyzed and evaluated in field tests. If electric vehicles should realize their potential to reduce emissions and minimize the consumption of resources, an integrated life cycle assessment is required.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Research for Sustainable Mobility—Fleets Go Green

Mobility is fundamental for trade and business, for science, culture and everyday life of people. An efficient transport system enables economic growth, promotes social exchange, creates more freedom and independence for each individual and thus makes a significant contribution to the quality of life. The planning and design of future mobility is associated with a multitude of fundamental challenges. Megatrends such as individualization tendencies, urbanization and aging of societies have a strong influence on future mobility concepts. In addition, technological developments like eco-efficient lightweight structures, electrification and digitalization and, last but not least, new business models on product-service systems and sharing economy lead to new vehicle and mobility concepts.
Christoph Herrmann, Mark Stephan Mennenga, Stefan Böhme

Chapter 2. Fleet Measurement and Full Vehicle Simulation

The electric vehicles, which were integrated into two different fleet use cases, were equipped with measurement equipment to gain knowledge about energy consumption and usage profiles. For each vehicle type the energy consumption is divided into powertrain and auxiliary energy consumption and an overall as well as a monthly evaluation is performed. Main aspect of the usage profiles are the travelled distances, trip durations, share of different road types and environmental conditions. To get additional knowledge about the energy consumption under different conditions, like ambient temperature or another share of road types, or vehicle configurations a full vehicle simulation was established. By creating models for each component of the powertrain and also modeling the air conditioning system as well as the passenger cabin, a modular simulation model was achieved. For each vehicle type only a new parameterization was needed. A validation of the simulation was performed by using the measurement data of the vehicles as well as tests on a test bench.
Marcel Sander, Michael Gröninger, Ole Roesky, Michael Bodmann, Ferit Küçükay

Chapter 3. Determining Relevant Factors in Purchasing Electric Vehicles for Fleets

While research on electric vehicle adoption has largely focused on total costs of ownership and driving range of electric vehicles, it is a point of interest to determine the relative influence of these factors on purchase intention. Results of a scenario-based experiment reveal that either the price or the range have to be elevated to the level of conventional cars in order to achieve a similar level of purchase intention. Moreover, the impact of the suitability of particular vehicles in terms of total costs of ownership, image and mobility-business-model fit on purchase intention have been investigated. Besides the importance of total costs of ownership and mobility-business-model fit, the image of cars plays an important role in fleet decision making.
Daniela Mau, David M. Woisetschläger

Chapter 4. Planning of the Energy Supply of Electric Vehicles

In the project Fleets Go Green innovative concepts have been developed to improve the integration of electric vehicle fleets into the electric power system and to increase the proportion of energy from renewable sources in their supply. The charging should be “green” (using sustainable energy), efficient and convenient for the users.
Jan Mummel, Michael Kurrat, Ole Roesky, Jürgen Köhler, Lorenz Soleymani

Chapter 5. Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Vehicles in Fleet Applications

Electric vehicle fleets have the potential to decrease transportation related greenhouse gas emissions. However, the technology shift towards electric mobility can be linked to environmental trade-offs that need to be addressed adequately in order to ensure environmental advantages. This chapter presents the evaluation of the environmental impacts of two exemplary electric vehicle fleets in the project Fleets Go Green. The evaluation focuses mainly on the use stage and explores different influencing factors such as electricity mix, ambient temperature and driving patterns.
Antal Dér, Selin Erkisi-Arici, Marek Stachura, Felipe Cerdas, Stefan Böhme, Christoph Herrmann

Chapter 6. Workshop Based Decision Support Methodology for Integrating Electric Vehicles into Corporate Fleets

Corporate vehicle fleet owners face new challenges through the introduction of electric vehicles to the automotive market. A fundamental understanding of the fleet tasks and a life cycle oriented evaluation are a prerequisite for the successful integration of alternatively powered vehicle concepts into corporate fleets. In order to enable fleet managers to respond to the arising challenges, a workshop based decision methodology for integrating electric vehicles into corporate fleets has been developed. Throughout the workshop, relevant aspects in life cycle oriented fleet planning are introduced to the participants, which help them assessing the current usage of the fleet and developing alternatives. A simulation based decision support system is used for evaluating the viability of alternative fleet configurations and deriving recommendations. The developed methodology can be applied to all kinds of fleet sizes. However, it was especially developed for small and medium sized companies. The methodology is presented within a case study for the fleet of a local energy supplier.
Mark Stephan Mennenga, Antal Dér, Christoph Herrmann

Chapter 7. Recommendations from Fleets Go Green

Electric vehicles have the potential to reduce emissions from road transport, while releasing no local emissions during the use phase. The utilization of electric vehicles in fleet operations offers an excellent opportunity for the rapid diffusion of electric vehicles into the market due to the fast turnover rate of fleet vehicles. However, further research is necessary to examine the utilization of electric vehicles in daily use in order to recognize drawbacks and to determine further improvement potentials. The project Fleets Go Green aims to study the environmental assessment of electric vehicles in fleet operations. Fleets Go Green consists of different research modules, which investigate the integrated vehicle, usage, and power supply system behavior. The total energy requirements of fleet vehicle operations with different topologies over the use phase are determined in Module 1, while the user acceptance both from fleet owners and from drivers perspectives are researched in Module 2. Module 3 aims to integrate the electric vehicle fleets in the electrical distribution system and maximize the integration of renewable energy sources in their supply. The environmental assessment of fleets is studied in Module 4. Furthermore, all findings are integrated into a decision support system for the ecologically oriented fleet management and planning in Module 5.
Christoph Herrmann, Michael Bodmann, Stefan Böhme, Antal Dér, Selin Erkisi-Arici, Ferit Küҫükay, Michael Kurrat, Daniela Mau, Mark Stephan Mennenga, Jan Mummel, Marcel Sander, David Woisetschläger
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