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2024 | Book

Flexible Electronics for Electric Vehicles

Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference, FlexEV 2022

Editors: Sunil Kumar Goyal, Dheeraj Kumar Palwalia, Rajiv Tiwari, Yeshpal Gupta

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series : Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering


About this book

This volume comprises the select proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Flexible Electronics for Electric Vehicles (FlexEV 2022). It aims to provide a comprehensive and broad-spectrum picture of the state-of-the-art research and development in flexible electronics & applications, electric vehicle technology & infrastructures, materials & devices, battery management & intelligent systems. This volume will prove a valuable resource for those in academia and industry.

Table of Contents

Detection and Classification of Power Quality Disturbances Using Variational Mode Decomposition and Deep Learning Networks

Nowadays, electronic gadgets become part of everyone's life, and as a drawback, it injects power quality disturbance (PQD) into the power system, which results in maloperation of the device, affects system stability, and reduces the life of the machine. It is somewhat difficult to detect and identify what type of power quality disturbance is occurred in the power system network. Due to the data complexity, it’s highly difficult to separate PQDs data from other data like normal system data and data during faults. In this paper, power quality disturbance data is generated as per IEEE standards and this data is processed by the variational mode decomposition (VMD) to extract hidden features from the PQD signals. These features are transformed into 3D image vectors, which are used to train the convolutional neural network (CNN). In this work, the study is made on VMD parted with various pre-trained CNNs and compared their results with developed CNN models, to find the optimum classifier.

P. Vijaya Bhargava Phani Dutt, Harish Balaga
Performance Evaluation of Brushless Direct Current Motor for an Electric Vehicle with Various PWM-Based Controllers

Electric vehicles will replace combustible automobiles to enhance driving performance and cut emissions, all of which will contribute to sustainable development. The potential to lengthen an electric vehicle's range is necessary for proper EV operation. BLDC motor drives are the most viable for electric vehicles as they have a simple structure, less weight, a broader speed range, noiseless operation, strong starting torque, accurate and precise control, and high dynamic responsiveness as compared to a DC motor. But torque oscillations cause increased noise, vibrations, and inefficiencies. The most popular controllers are direct torque control (DTC) and field-oriented control (FOC). But DTC has disadvantages, including problems with control at low speeds with huge current and torque pulsation formation. Hence, a field-oriented control (FOC) of a BLDC motor utilizing sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM), space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM), a fuzzy/PID logic control scheme (FLC/PID), and finally a bio-intuitive spider web-based algorithm control scheme has been compared. The torque pulsation values, the controller expense for each case, as well as the settling time and peak overshoot for the speed obtained are explored to evaluate the effectualness of the techniques for electric vehicle implementation. The system assessment is performed using the MATLAB/Simulink platform.

Rinki Roy Chowdhury, G. Koperundevi
Comparison of Different Topologies of Multilevel Inverter

Multilevel inverters are being used in the production/industrial sector for quite some time. They are generally used to achieve high power output from medium-level voltage sources. They reduce the harmonic distortion (also known as total harmonic distortion or THD) present in the output voltage generated by these multilevel inverters. This paper tries to compare the different topologies of multilevel inverters which are cascaded h-bridge multilevel inverter, modular multilevel converter, and diode clamped multilevel inverter. The topologies have been simulated in MATLAB SIMULINK software and the final results are tabulated.

G. Shilpa, Divyansh Singh, Sayan Ghosh, S. Mohneesh
Design and Analysis of Off-Grid Solar Photovoltaic System for a Residential Building in Omaxe City, Jaipur

The solar energy is a prominent alternative source of energy for wide range of utilities including industrial and domestic requirements. The electricity has been irreplaceable requirement to run the household equipment’s, which is generally supplied by government body. The electricity charges and regularity of uninterrupted supply are always prime concern at many places in India. So, the solar photovoltaic sustainable modules are one of the better options of existing electricity supply. This article discussed the design and evaluation of a small off-grid solar PV plant for fulfilling the energy needs of a residential house, situated at Omaxe City, Jaipur. The average monthly and annually consumption of 172 m2 area villa are around 350 units and 4200 units, respectively. A 2 KW off-grid solar photovoltaic system was installed and investigated to meet the energy requirement. The presented analysis has also discussed its financial implication, economic benefits, and the reduction of the traditional energy reservoirs.

Peeyush Garg, Mahipal Bukya, Pancham Kumar
Behaviour of Constant Speed Wind Power System Under Different Operating Conditions

The use of renewable energy technologies has risen highly in the recent past due to the modern policies of reducing the carbon emission. Wind power is also one of such a system which has highest share after solar power. Thus, this paper concentrates on the behaviour of a fixed speed wind power system running under different operating conditions. Although the wind turbine system operating on variable speed with maximum power extraction feature is quite popular but such a generator has complexity in its control and not robust. While the fixed speed wind generators are robust and quite simple in structure and thus needs attention of the operator and researchers for its investigation. The mathematical modelling of the constant-speed wind turbine system connected to the grid has been presented in this paper and further has been examined under the variable wind conditions and disturbances in the grid in terms of voltage sag and voltage swell. The results found are useful for the academicians, new researchers as well as operators to know the behaviour of such a system under different disturbance scenarios and take the appropriate decisions.

Ganesh P. Prajapat, Vikas Sharma, D. K. Yadav, Surender Singh Tanwar, K. G. Sharma
A Review of Architecture and Topologies Used for Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

Electric vehicles (EVs) have been increasingly popular in recent years due to their high efficiency, decreased reliance on fossil fuels, and low maintenance requirements. Because of its high power transformation efficiency, dependability, and simple interface with a renewable energy source, DC bus-connected EVs are preferable to AC ones. Transformer-based charger installation is too expensive and heavy. At a reduced load, it is unable to offer more efficiency. Transformerless charging stations are used to avoid these kinds of problems. It works with high voltage levels and provides higher energy efficiency. An extremely fast-charging station, which is similar to a gasoline car and can allow refueling, uses a solid-state transformer. The article is firstly reviewing the various renewable energy source connected to charging station infrastructures. Secondly, the transformerless charging station is used to enhance the power density. After that, reviewed on solid-state transformer replacing the low-frequency transformer. In the end, charging station levels and standards are also discussed.

Aayushi Priyadarshini, Shekhar Yadav, Nitesh Tiwari, Utkarsh Shukla
Trends and Developments of Electric Vehicles: Current State and Future Perspectives

Increasing transport electrification results in more charging stations with outstanding impacts on the electricity networks. Therefore, various charging approaches as well as grid integration strategies are being enhanced to reduce the adverse impacts of EV charging and to promote the profits of EV grid integration. Maximizing the advantages of EVs with smart charging infrastructure, distributed generators, and reliable communication systems is critical to measuring effects on the electrical grid. With the increasing importance given to this area, this paper addresses the current EV status and investigates an extensive overview on significant international EV charging and grid interconnection standards. The characteristics of the EV technologies are investigated and discussed. The main charging techniques, battery technologies, and charging standards are overviewed and discussed. Some results based on registrations of the EVs, battery demand, and electric cars including battery electric vehicles (BEVs), fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are analyzed and examined.

Performance Estimation of Multilayer-Stack-Channel IGZO-Based Thin-Film Transistor in Double-Gate Mode

Several additional amorphous oxide materials have been employed as promising materials in Thin-Film Transistor (TFT) applications due to their good transparency, resilience, and cost-effectiveness. However, due to low attainable mobility and low turn-on currents, the single-layer channel a-IGZO TFT is insufficient. To improve the switching characteristics of IGZO TFTs, this research suggests a multi-stack channel configuration. In this study, the source of performance enhancement in double-gate TFTs, compared to the Single-Gate (SG) multi-layer stack channel structure, has been described. Low mobility and Subthreshold Swing (SS) degradations occur in SG multi-layer stack channel TFTs. The field-effect mobility (FE) of SG TFTs (14.70 cm2/V-s) increases to 24.92 cm2/V-s when the gate voltage (VG = 10 V) is increased. From the channel’s top to the gate-insulator interface (1.3 × 1018 per cubic cm), the concentration of electrons in SG TFT declines gradually (1.86 × 1018 per cubic cm). The current density in the DG structure of the multi-stack channel drops from 7.5 A per cm2 to 2.5 A per cm2, leading to accumulation in the a-IGZO bulk and a large drain current. When the results from the proposed structure were compared to current results, they were found to be extremely encouraging and promising for future displays.

Shashi Kant Dargar, Abha Dargar, Shilpi Birla, V. Hima Deepthi
Towards Space Sensor Network and Internet of Things: Merging CubeSats with IoT

The fourth industrial revolution, also known as Industry 4.0, has been impacted by the advancements of various technological areas, including microsatellites. The Internet of Space Things (IoST) and Space Sensor Networks (SSNs) are generally integrated into microsatellites as well as Internet of Things (IoT) devices that have recently been used in modern applications. Compared to the traditional microsatellites and IoT devices, the current IoST and SSN devices have the advantages of collecting IoT data in remote areas where there is no network or Internet, sending data with low power between mobile devices and satellite constellations, ensuring global coverage of data exchange, and so on. Due to the mentioned individual advantages, the IoST and SSNs devices have been widely applied in microsatellites and IoT devices. The IoST devices can be integrated with a satellite constellation and CubeSats or IoT receivers. Beside this, the IoST devices are implemented in other applications as a bigger satellite constellation which have both IoT receivers and space sensors such as satellite dishes and RF devices. This paper surveys the current research and technologies of IoST and SSNs within their applications in microsatellites and IoT devices. The impact of IoST on Industry 4.0 is also discussed in this paper.

Charalampos Koulouris, Piromalis Dimitrios, Izzat Al-Darraji, Georgios Tsaramirsis, Alaa Omar Khadidos, Adil Omar Khadidos, Panagiotis Papageorgas
Advancement in Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology and Their Impact on the Global and Indian Market

The global rising greenhouse gas emission (GHG) rate and the improving technology for more efficient automobiles have given electric vehicles a significant boost and penetrative scope on international markets. With their battery technology, EVs offer an alternative to conventional IC engine vehicles. This paper has discussed battery technology advancements that have opened new channels for bringing revolutionary changes to respective EV sectors. A brief comparison of multiple battery sources for technological advancements gives us an idea of their future trends, predicting their market share values, reliability, and scope. This provides us with global market share data for the EV boost amendments. While researching reforms, government initiatives, and the highest revenue market share trends in countries, a factual representation of the values of different countries was conveyed. To keep up with the advancing trends, the Indian government has taken several steps to reform the EV sector, including implementing schemes and regulations that affect state markets to ensure future linear growth at the national level. Collaboration between the government and the private sector has also increased to promote and develop consumer awareness.

Anavi Malhotra, Nikhil Vivek Shrivas, Gauri Gangwar
Quaternary Multiplier with Modified Carry Using Carbon Nanotube FETs

The paper proposes the use of carbon nanotube FET (CNTFET) to implement a quaternary multiplier with modified carry. To begin with, CNTFET will be used to design the Quaternary multiplier circuit. A quaternary 4:1 multiplexer is used. The designs are simulated using cadence Spectre software with the technology of CNTFET 32 nm. The existing Quaternary multiplier faces a problem in carrying output which is eliminated in the proposed Quaternary multiplier.

G. V. S. Ajay, Sarada Musala
Design and Verification of 3D Network-on-Chip Router

Devices with rapid speed, low power, and minimal space usage are necessary for modern life. An increase in the amount of data transfer from one IP block to another existing on the same chip reduces the operating frequency of the system-on-chip device due to an increase in the number of IP blocks. Network-on-chip router can operate at a higher speed and consume less area, which is a viable solution to the stated problem. Furthermore, the performance of the network on chip router can be significantly improved by adding 3D IC technology, which improves network throughput and provides minimal latency. The 3D NOC router has been designed by reversible logic to prevent loss of information and to reduce heat dissipation, gate counts, and garbage outputs. In the paper, 3D NOC router has been designed and verified using Verilog HDL. An improved reversible logic-based 3D NOC router has been simulated and synthesized. The results indicate low latency, high performance, and improved frequency design.

Gurleen Kaur, Deepika Bansal
A Framework for Evaluating the Ergonomics of Mechanical Designs of Gaming Controllers

Human–computer interaction emphasizes bringing people technical solutions that can solve their problems and deliver them functionality with the minimum unpleasant starting from designing the product till delivering it to user. In this paper, we selected an article from the news that talks about a product that is designed for kids. We analyzed the product from the perspective of universal design, user-centered design, and interactive design. We bring on the advantages and the disadvantages of the mentioned design and we suggested a design solution for the issue we found.

Fatimah Albargi, Nura Albuhairi
Triggering an Email Alert Based on Price Comparison by Web Scraping Using Python

Web scrapping offers a response for the people who want to grab the access to structured information on the web in an electronic plan. Web scrapping, otherwise called web extraction, is a strategy to separate information from the World Wide Web (www) and save it to a record framework or dataset for later recovery or examination. Web scratching utilizes savvy robotization to extricate millions and billions of information from the unlimited information facilitated over the web. Web scrapping has various utilizations like Price Intelligence, Market Research, Real Estate, News and content monitoring, and so on. This paper is about scrapping the prices from different e-commerce websites and then comparing them and finally triggering an email having the link of the website offering a lesser price for the same product. Various websites like trivago, for example, offer least price for specific services after comparing the prices offered by different websites. Authors have attempted to cater this service for a large variety of products and user be getting an email as a result, which will have the link specifying the details of the product along with the website offering least price.

Shikha Singh, Garima Srivastava, Vandana Dubey, G. R. Mishra
Enhanced Hyperledger Fabric Network Set-Up for Remittance and Settlement Process

Blockchain is a magnificent technology that has the ability to decentralize the storage, sharing, and management of data and information. Hyperledger Fabric, an open-source, permissioned blockchain initially introduced by IBM as Hyperledger Fabric v1.0 and then more recently as Hyperledger Fabric v1.4.4, is one of the most recent blockchain systems to emerge. There is no clear technique for comparing attributes like performance, security, and scalability, despite the fact that there are multiple blockchain platforms. Furthermore, the new Hyperledger Fabric version was never compared to any other blockchain platform. In the study, the evaluation and settlement for Hyperledger Fabric 1.4.4 have been done. A complete set-up is presented in this document. As more Hyperledger Fabric networks go live, serviceability and operational aspects are becoming increasingly critical. With logging enhancements, health checks, and operational analytics, Fabric v1.4 takes a major step ahead. Fabric v1.4.4 is hence the recommended release for production use. Under heavy workload circumstances, however, the performance of the Hyperledger Fabric v1.4.4 platform did not match that of con- temporary conventional database systems.

Parveen Mor, Rajesh Kumar Tyagi, Charu Jain, Deepak Kumar Verma
Distribution System Operation with Minimum Topological Variations

Distribution network reconfiguration (DNR) is a well-established operational strategy for distribution systems to improve its performance. Also, several social and techno-economic objectives can also be effectively achieved in contemporary distribution systems by optimally placing distributed resources (DRs). However, with integration of DR, distribution system becomes active distribution systems and it has dynamically changing nature of load and generation. Therefore, it is important to reinvestigate the effectiveness of existing NR strategy. In this paper, a new NR strategy is suggested for power loss minimization where the network topology varied only once during a day. An investigation is carried about existing and proposed reconfiguration strategies while considering some realistic scenarios pertaining to contemporary distribution systems. The application results are shown on 33-bus test distribution system.

Praveen Agrawal, Neeraj Kanwar, Nikhil Gupta, K. R. Niazi, Anil Swarnkar
A Combined DG Integration-Network Reconfiguration-Based Method for Network Loss Minimization and Voltage Profile Improvement

Distribution system operators (DSOs) are opting network reconfiguration as a simple and cost-effective way of reducing network losses and avoiding the islanding effect occurring due to line outages. The continuously increasing integration of distributed generators has posed Volt-VAr optimization as major concern. This paper focuses on optimal network losses and bus voltage enhancement by network reconfiguration in DG-embedded system. The voltage stability indices are used to accommodate the DG at appropriate location. This practice is performed in MATLAB and validated on IEEE 33-bus distribution system. The proposed study finds the reduced network losses, improved supply reliability, and better voltage profile.

Deepak Porwal, Manoj Fozdar (SMIEEE), Rajive Tiwari
Thermal Sensing Behavior of SiC Schottky Diode in 200–600 K

This work describes a high-temperature probe that may be used in industrial settings as a trustworthy alternative to thermocouples with a short life duration. As legislation aimed at reducing the industrial impact on the environment progresses, precise temperature control and energy efficiency have emerged as critical research areas, exerting ever-increasing criteria from temperature sensors. Silvaco TCAD’s ATLAS module is used to design Pt/4H-SiC Schottky diode and its thermal sensitivity is observed in the current range of 1–50 nA and in the temperature range 200–600 K. Sensor is found to be well operational within this temperature range and temperature sensitivity is observed its maximum value at 1 nA which is 3.15 mV/K.

Jaya, Bhavya Sinhmar, V. K. Dasarraju, Suman
Design and Performance of a Circularly Polarized Planar Microstrip Antenna with Improved Gain

This paper presents a simulated circularly polarized microstrip patch antenna resonating at a frequency of 2.4 GHz for wireless applications. We insert a reflecting surface over the antenna to improve its gain. The frequency bandwidth is 70.5 MHz and its return loss is −30.7676 dB at a frequency of 2.4 GHz. The axial ratio is less than 3 dB, which is 1.3202 dB, which shows a circular radiation pattern. The maximum gain of the antenna is 5.6083 dB without a reflector at the proposed frequency. We have used HFSS software for the simulation of the proposed antenna.

Shipra Tiwari, Pramod Sharma, Shoyab Ali
Cost–Benefit Analysis on Electrical Vehicle Charging Station Using the Vehicle-To-Grid Technology from Python Language

In the present scenario, most of the vehicles use an integrated combustion engine which consumes fossil fuels and pollutes the atmosphere. As fossil fuels are going to be depleted in the future, Vehicle electrification will have a positive impact on the system as electric vehicles have a low emission rate which in turn reduces global warming. Therefore, the usage of electric vehicles increases in the future. The huge penetration of electric vehicles is going to bring an additional load on the existing grid. Hence, there is a need to control and manage electric power wisely. To overcome this demand on the grid at peak times and to conserve energy, the vehicle-to-grid concept is introduced. Electric vehicle users can supply back the available power in their vehicle to the grid at peak times. This minimizes the load on the grid at peak times and users can be benefitted as they get paid by supplying power back to the grid. Hence, the vehicle-to-grid technology benefits both the user and the grid. To implement this vehicle-to-grid concept there is a need for an interface that connects both the user and the grid. This can be done by using an electric vehicle aggregator. In the proposed approach, an IEEE 33 bus system integrated with four electric vehicle charging stations (10, 14, 17 and 30) was considered to analyse the performance of the system for a 24-h horizon. Here, the Python coding is carried out for cost–benefit analysis based on the load demand and SoC constraints during off and peak load times for 24 h of the day.

Naresh Kumar Golla, Suresh Kumar Sudabattula, Sai Nithika Yakkali, Yerolla Harshith
Performance Analysis of a 3.2-kW Solar PV Electric Vehicle Charging Station Under Variable Climatic Conditions

Due to an alarming situation of global warming across the world in the past few years, eco-friendly transportation system based on green (non-conventional) energy has been increasingly adopted across the world. However, the challenge in the adoption of this new emerging technology is its sustainable deployment on a large scale. In the past couple of years, Electric Vehicles (EVs) are commercialized on a large scale and are available in the market for consumers. The emission of greenhouse gases has been reduced nowadays with the replacement of internal combustion (IC) engines by the emission-free EVs. Therefore, charging of these EVs with solar photovoltaic systems (SPVS), i.e., PV-EV charging is an interesting option and attracting the attention of researchers throughout the world. In view of this, a PV-based charging methodology for EVs is proposed in this paper with SPVS, i.e., (PV-EV Charging). In this methodology, the power generation requirements through SPVS for charging EVs have been estimated based on the technical and performance specifications of different EVs (Cars) available in the Indian market. To charge the EVs effectively, an MPPT charge controller is implemented based on Perturb & Observe (P&O) technique along with the DC/DC boost converter to maximize the PV generation through SPVS. The simulation model is developed in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The performance analysis of SPVS with the P&O MPPT technique to charge EVs is studied under different operating conditions including actual (practical) climatic conditions.

Bhuwan Pratap Singh, Sunil Kumar Goyal, Shahbaz Ahmed Siddiqui
Application of SEPIC Converter to Developed Electric Vehicle Charging Station Based on PV Source

The ever-increasing concern about climate change as a result of emitting greenhouse gases has led to a greater emphasis on discovering and developing clean energy alternatives. It has played a significant part in the development of electrification in the transportation industry and has contributed to the rise in the popularity of electric cars. Therefore, a major benefit and degree of control for charging electric vehicles is afforded by a charging station that makes use of renewable energy sources. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a solar energy power conversion system (SEPIC) based on a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller and a power and energy optimization (P&O) algorithm. The job was done for the sake of display. Photovoltaic (PV) systems require a constant voltage in order to regulate their output voltage and output power in response to varying levels of irradiance and temperatures. The operational voltage of a PV system is the consistent electric current it provides. This research makes use of data collected on solar irradiation at Ashok Leyland Bhandara, Maharashtra. Using a SEPIC converter allows for a high-voltage transformation ratio above the input voltage while minimizing loss across the switch. Improved energy conversion and increased convenience are the outcomes of combining solar cells with MPPT controllers, modernized P&O algorithms, and SEPIC converters. The PI paper controller is used with the SEPIC converter to maintain the duty cycle to be more efficient. In the proposed system, the MPPT P&O algorithm is written in a MATLAB functional block diagram and implemented in the simulation.

Ram Niwash Mahia, Rajat Kumar
Regenerative Braking Integrated with Anti-lock Braking Mechanism in Electric Vehicle

Commercialization in a profitable way with rapid adoption toward the electrified vehicles has made the reduced consumption of petroleum. In order to secure energy, the advancement in transportation systems has been made which makes the best use of electricity for running the vehicles which in turn minimizes the environmental impacts and limits the non-renewable resource usage. It is difficult to shift away from petroleum in the intensive transport energy sector as high energy and density in power make petroleum an ideal running fuel. However, the recent frontier of research in electric vehicles is the implementation of regenerative braking system. The integration of regeneration braking alongside anti-lock braking system which is studied upon safety heading will increase the battery life and add mileage to the vehicle. Both these concepts work hand in hand to enhance the energy which is required while driving operation. The idea of using regenerative braking technique tends to recover the amount of energy which gets wasted while braking, and on the other hand, anti-lock braking employed in vehicles improves safety by minimizing the longitudinal distance of breaking. These two methods make the vehicle efficient and safer to use.

Gagneet Kour, Surbhi Gupta
Investigating Opto-Electronic Performance of RbSiBr3 Multi-junction Solar PV Material: A Path Toward Sustainable Development

The cubic inorganic metal halide perovskite compound RbSiBr3 is thermodynamically and mechanically stable because of its good absorption of photons. The present work is oriented on finding optoelectronic properties of the RbSiBr3 compound by simulation tool: DFT (density functional theory) which is compiled in Wien2k code. All simulation works of finding the optoelectronic properties are carried out by TB-mBJ (Tran-Blaha-modified Becke Johnson) exchange–correlation potential. The electronic computations announced the 0.84 eV band gap of this compound that shows its handiness in the lower layer of multi-junction solar cells. The analysis of optical properties gives lower reflection and high absorption coefficient that proves its adaptation in optoelectronic applications.

Hansraj Karwasara, Karina Khan, Mamta Soni, Amit Soni, Jagrati Sahariya
An Overview of Distributed Generation Integration Techniques, Present Trends and Future Scope

Distributed generation integration is a new booming and fast-adopting technology. The small rating components, compactness, local power demand fulfilment and renewable-based input energy sources are the attractive features of distributed energy resources. They offer a reliable and secure supply at distribution level. The system as a whole is relieved from heavy power congestion with the presence of these local energy sources. However, DERs suffer from low inertia issues, power quality problems and changing input energy and load patterns. This paper reviews the DG technologies in service, their contribution in total energy demands and need for active distribution networks and future challenges.

Deepak Porwal, Manoj Fozdar (SMIEEE), Rajive Tiwari
Design and Control of Battery Management System for Electric Vehicle

The battery management system (BMS) serves the purpose of controlling the functional limits of the battery packs, thermally and electrically, and is critical for accident protection. The BMS also helps in optimal operation of the battery pack, which helps to prolong the battery life, benefitting the lifecycle and the cost. This paper addresses the future challenges in BMS and focuses on the possible solutions. This paper encompasses cell balancing automation, which equalizes the voltage and SoC among the cells when the cells are at distinct SoC thereby improving the battery life, and SoC estimation, which estimates the approximate driving range of the electric vehicle. This paper focuses on the control of cell balancing function of battery management system, MATLAB model is designed performing the cell balancing of six cells for different states of charge values. A comprehensive technical review of the BMS is done and an evaluation of components and architecture of BMS is also presented along with the major simulations.

Bharat Singh, Deepanshu Rawat, Pulkesh Parwani, Rhydham Gupta, Tisha Kapoor
Current Conduction in Nichrome/p-Si Schottky Diode

Schottky diodes are widely explored in the last few years due to their high sensitivity, low operating temperature, high selectivity and low working cost. High efficiency, low forward voltage drop and low capacitance make Schottky diodes suitable for using in voltage clamping devices, solar panels, power rectifiers, radio frequency mixtures, detector diode and switched-mode power supplies. Much work has been done on metals and their silicides as Schottky diodes; however, as far as we can tell, there is a lack of insight using alloys as Schottky diodes. In the present work, the development and characterization of a silicon-based Schottky diode based on a nichrome alloy are discussed. Electron beam deposition technique was used to fabricate a wire-shaped nichrome alloy with composition Ni-80 wt%: Cr-20wt%. Capacitance–voltage and current–voltage measurements at room temperature were used to examine the electrical properties of nichrome/p-Si Schottky connections, confirming that the alloy is compatible with conventional silicon fabrication techniques. Calculations of crucial device parameters, including ideality factor, trap centres’ energy level and density and barrier height, were made in an effort to understand the observed current conduction mechanism in diode that had been manufactured.

Ekta Sharma, Ankit Panchal, Reena Rathi, Vamshi Krishna Dasarraju, Suman
III & V Group Elements and Heterostructures for Optoelectronics: A Survey

III–V semiconductors have a lot of promise for new optoelectronic applications. A survey of different research led us to that heterostructure devices are framed by the thin film deposition of III and V semiconductors. A heterojunction is an interface formed by two different semiconductor layers or areas. A heterostructure is the arrangement of numerous heterojunctions in a device. Heterojunction devices in view of III–V expected possibility for the manufacture of effective solar cells. Semiconductor diode lasers are used in the manufacture of many applications like DVD and CD players, as well as fiber optic handsets. In the synthesis of lasing heterostructures, rotating layers of different III–V compound semiconductors are utilized. This paper presents types of various heterojunctions with a collection of optical and electronic properties of various III & V compound semiconductors.

Jayesh Jain, Amit Rathi, Priya Chaudhary
Load Shedding Technique for Maintaining Voltage Stability

Recently, energy and power industries have under-went considerable changes, because of intervention of DG’s in the existing conventional system, the operational, management, and control of the power system is becoming ever so more complicated and tedious along with several challenges. The earlier distribution structure has under-went huge modification in the past few years as power systems are no more regulated by a single hand. The involvement of variable large and small private players has complicated the situation further. The system operator is facing more challenges as now the flow of power in both the directions, i.e., from generator end to consumer end and vice versa. The spatially Distributed Generation (DG) has provisioned facility of clean energy and reduction of emissions safe guarding environment and has considerably improved the efficiency and performance of power system. However, inclusion and integration of DGs in the conventional power system have side effects towards reliability of the system. The introduction of DGs gives rise to poor power quality, faulty operation of protection systems or devices, and may even lead to voltage sag or swell, all of which are undesirable effects of penetration of DGs.

Prashant Kumar Sharma, Akash Sharma, Rajive Tiwari
Implementation of Renewable Sources for Designing EV Charging Station with Hybrid Storage Device as Reserve Source

A worldwide temperature alteration has prompted the immense reception of Electric Vehicles (EVs) seem to be the best substitution for ICE motors. Charging the vehicles with petroleum/fuel-based grid isn't conservative and productive. Due to the increased number of EVs in transportation sector, implementation of electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS) is fundamental to empower huge reception as it will lessen “range anxiety” concerns about the distance. Then, at that point, EV could travel before battery runs out. Subsequently, a renewable power-based charging station views as massive potential and control for electric vehicle charging. An effective plan of charging station (CS) with the utilization of solar power of 25KW, wind power of 20KW, and storage devices (battery and super-capacitor) is developed. MPPT control procedure, DC appropriate converters, and current control methodologies used for the optimal power management for the designed sources. Super-capacitors, batteries, and grid stays the optional energy storage devices/delivering devices for the EVs in the charging station. By coordinating these renewable sources, it produces electric energy to charging vehicles as well as huge decrement in the dependence on the over-burdened grid. Simulation results are realized with the help of MATLAB/Simulink for the designed system.

K. N. D. V. Sai Eswar, M. Arun Noyal Doss
A Cost-Efficient Energy Management of EV Integrated Community Microgrid

The use of energy management in community microgrid is essential for load fulfillment and to cope up with the varying power output of renewable energy sources. Nowadays, electric vehicle is a good opportunity as it can act as both energy source and load according to optimum cost and available energy. If the systems have extra renewable energy, they can be utilized for EV charging. Scheduling of EV charging with respect to excess generated power and varying electricity prices is considered in this paper. The proposed system helps in energy management of community microgrid integrated with the residential EV charging points. The cost is optimized using biogeography-based optimization method with a given load profile, generated renewable energy, and real-time price of electricity. The limits of EV owner priority are also kept considered. The results show that with the higher electricity cost, EV is either kept idle or being charged with minimum charging rates, while for lower electricity cost, EV is charged with higher rates.

Divya Mathur, Neeraj Kanwar, Sunil Kumar Goyal
Automatic Target Recognition from ISAR Images: A Review

Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) is one of the promising imaging radar technology used in military applications mostly. ISAR picture productions are extremely good at predicting common radar targets such as aircraft, missiles, military vehicles, battleships, and space objects. Even though extensive research work is going on the classification/recognition of targets from ISAR imagery, no study has been performed to compile and compare those works. This paper presents a review of research works done on Automatic Target Recognition/Classification (ATR/ATC) from ISAR imagery. This work will be helpful for the researchers to have a comprehensive overview of the research progress.

Hari Kishan Kondaveeti, Rakesh Kancharla, K. Raja Sravan Kumar, Valli Kumari Vatsavayi
A Survey Study and Comparison of Drones Communication Systems

Drones have become more popular in recent years and this technology has dramatically advanced. Drones are starting to become essential tools in many operations such as surveillance, delivery, and more. A communication system is an essential challenge in drones that determines the drone’s capabilities of guiding, positioning, controlling, and transmission of information remotely. This paper introduces the current drone Radio Frequency (RF) communication technologies by specifying and explaining their features. These technologies represent IoT devices, Satellites, Global System for Mobile (GSM), Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), Remote control, Bluetooth, WiFi, and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Furthermore, a comparison of ability in working in various environments is provided between the RF communication systems such as urban areas, remote areas, sea, and high altitude. It is found that each RF communication system is useful for a different scenario. Thus, a drone has to use a combination of RF communication systems in order to be remotely effectively communicated and guided.

Charalampos Koulouris, Piromalis Dimitrios, Izzat Al-Darraji, Georgios Tsaramirsis, Alaa Omar Khadidos, Adil Omar Khadidos, Panagiotis Papageorgas
Studying the Optoelectronic Properties of NaSnCl3 Solar PV Material: A Step Towards Sustainable Development

The halide perovskites appear as new-generation semiconductors in the last few years. The goal of the current work is to govern the optoelectronic characteristics of NaSnCl3 by using DFT which is incorporated in Wien2k code. The Tran-Blaha modified Becke Johnson exchange–correlation potential (TB-mBJ) is used for all simulation work in order to determine the optoelectronic properties. The compound band gap value of 0.91 eV demonstrates its usefulness in the field of multi-junction solar cells. Low reflection and high absorption coefficients revealed by an investigation of optical properties demonstrate, this material’s suitability for optoelectronic applications.

Shikha Sharma, Hansraj Karwasara, Karina Khan, Mamta Soni, Amit Soni, Jagrati Sahariya
Overview of India’s Battery-Swapping and Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles

In this study, an overview of the current state of electric vehicle (EV) technology in India is provided. This paper introduces the beginning of electric vehicles which are shifting from traditional engine vehicles. EVs have a number of advantages, including increasing the use of clean energy by using less oil and fossil fuels, helping to meet climate change commitments by reducing harmful emissions, reducing pollution lower public risks, and the introduction of new technologies leads to infrastructure and economic growth. Comparisons are made between different types of battery systems. This highlights major government initiatives and standards for the battery charging infrastructure in India. The paper also covers ease of doing business, i.e., Battery Swapping System (BSS) which is convenient and less time-consuming.

Devjani Bhattacharya, Kumud Kumar Sharma
Real-Time Network Traffic Analysis for Threat Detection

Wi-Fi is now ubiquitous in most populated areas, and the way the devices communicate leaves a lot of “digital exhaust”. Usually, a computer will have a Wi-Fi device that’s configured to connect to a given network, but often these devices can be configured instead to pick up the background Wi-Fi chatter of surrounding devices. There can always be good reasons as well as bad ones for the same, but the matter is all about the intensions. So, now imagine how many packets are flowing in a network and how harmful or useful they can be. Keeping the bad part aside, this can be used for ethical purpose as done in this work. This work follows certain steps to detect, analyze and then finally visualize the pattern of the network protocols or the data packets flowing. It also revolves around the analysis and hence, can be detected on a real-time basis.

Yogesh Gupta, Amit Saraswat, Sunil Kumar Goyal
Machine Learning-Based DC Microgrid Control for Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

The use of Renewable energy sources to construct modern-day DC microgrids which have various implementations, one such implementation is an Electric vehicle charging station. The demand for EV is increasing throughout the world and the seamless transition of this kind in the automobile industry requires the construction of EV charging stations, maybe more in numbers than the conventional fuel stations. Therefore, a wide network of EV charging points needs to be created even in remote locations, the use of DC microgrids with grid integration seems to be a proper solution for this problem. This paper presents a machine learning-based energy distribution system for the DC microgrid to be implemented for EV charging station. The designed system is tested in MATLAB/Simulink environment and is compared with conventional control systems.

Anirudh Pratap, D. K. Palwalia, Mohit Tepan, Nikhil Jain, Anjali Kumari, Anil Mina
Tree Shaped Nature-Inspired Ultra-Wideband Antenna for Wireless Body Area Networks Applications

This paper describes a nature-inspired tree-shaped antenna with a defective ground structure for high-speed wireless communication at frequencies spanning from 1.79 to 4.16 GHz. The suggested antenna has a gain of 4.6 dB and an efficiency of more than 90%, making it suitable for wireless body area network applications, which are presently a prominent topic among researchers because of the COVID 19 therapy. Since the suggested antenna is simple, low profile, and planar, it is appropriate for industrial applications.

Laxmi Narayan Balai
Machine Learning-Based Model for Predicting Failure of Physical Machines in Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is a form of computing that makes use of the internet to provide a wide range of services and scalable computing resources. It is a commonly used technique because it enables the integration of software and hardware resources. However, when compared to traditional computer systems, the possibilities of letdown in a cloud-based system upsurge. One of the most important parts for achieving high dependability and accessibility for the cloud computing architecture is fault tolerance (FT). To achieve cloud computing reliability, failures must be investigated and rectified immediately. As a result, in this research, we investigated machine learning’s predictive capabilities by employing a variety of methods to improve the accuracy of failure prediction. We used machine learning (ML) and constructed a failure prediction model for forecasting physical machine (PM) failure in the cloud data center, as well as comparison-based testing on prediction accuracy. The procedures we considered are Support Vector Machine (SVM), K Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Gaussian Nave Bayes (GNB), and Random Forest. Precision, recall, F1-measure, and accuracy were used to measure the effectiveness of machine learning approaches. According to the simulation, KNN, SVM, and Random Forest performed well on the datasets.

Priti Kumari, Vandana Dubey, Meenal Jain, G. R. Mishra
Solar Inverter Equipped with a Battery Management System

This paper examines the development of solar power inverters and focuses on the integration of packaging and functionality in solar inverter technology. Efficiency and losses, as well as the mean time between failures and inverter prices, are the three most crucial metrics for assessing inverter technological advancements. High dependability, a long life, and lower costs are all correlated with high integration levels. The study discusses the current status of inverter design and trends toward higher functional and packaging integration. Regarding integration level, which will be defined by several metrics, many generations of medium power inverters are compared. The battery management system, a crucial component, is required for both hybrid and electric vehicles. The BMS completes the required tasks by integrating more than two processes, such as choosing the temperatures and voltages of the battery cells in a battery module as well as gathering the voltage and current of the battery, balancing the voltages of the cell, and figuring out the state of charge. This article will include the investigation on battery temperature, battery voltage, battery current, and cell voltage sampling. using a sensor to measure battery temperature, cell voltage, and cell balance. We'll talk about specialized integrated circuits. The difficulties with sampling the voltage across the many hundreds of cells in a Li-ion battery are solved by this technique. Based on the experimental data, we compare two methods for calculating the battery current integral findings and decide which is optimal.

Babu Naik Gugulothu, Moinuddin Pasha, P. Deepa, K. Y. Kusuma, Ponnam Naga Roopa
Optimal Power Sharing in a Meshed MTDC Grid Through Robust Current Flow Controllers

The two main challenges in meshed MTDC grids are protection from dc faults and managing the line power flows. In order to control the line power flow and the protection against dc faults DC current flow controllers can be used. The function of current flow controller is to control/balance the branch currents between the transmission lines in meshed multi-terminal HVDC grid system by increasing or decreasing the magnitude of the current as well as it is also possible to reverse the direction of current. However, the stability of the system may affect by the introduction of a DC current flow controller also increases the system size, overall cost, and complexity of the system. In this paper, the dynamic characteristics of the system with the introduction of a current flow controller on a four-terminal HVDC system have been discussed. The proposed scheme is simple and easily implemented and also it is very effective as it maintains the reliability security and stability of the system, whenever there is a change in load or if there is any fault in any line. To ensure proper power sharing and maintain the stability of the system time domain simulation is done on four terminals meshed MTDC grid in the presence of CFC by using MATLAB. The simulation result shows that the proposed system can effectively work by the introduction of a proposed optimal controller and application of current flow controllers which provide a solution to power flow issues in meshed MTDC grids.

Lokesh Garg, Sheetla Prasad
Design of EV Charging Station with Integrated Renewable Energy Sources

The increase of electric vehicles (EVs) is leading to an increase in electric vehicle charging stations, due to this spread the load on the existing power system is being increased and power quality disturbances are increasing. Using renewable energy is the best possibility to reduce stress and increase eco-friendliness. With the increasing electric mobility V2G/G2V is growing rapidly, V2G system helps in load leveling, voltage regulation, and improvement of grid stability. This paper introduces the detailed modeling of a multiport converter for EV charging by integrating renewable sources, to handle the sudden load disturbances the converter also incorporates a supercapacitor, which helps in overcoming frequency fluctuations, this helps in increasing battery life and reducing the energy storage system size. The detailed control system with all sources for improving stabilization such as power balancing, and voltage profile. The key aspects of the converter are less number of switches, a simple control structure, and balancing power between sources. Using renewable sources reduces the load on the power grid and the charging demands of EVs are fulfilled. To improve the efficiency of the converter, SiC devices are used, and the efficiency and power loss are compared by the simulation to the conventional Si devices. For different modes of operations, the simulation results are presented.

Devarakonda Ashwin Kumar, Natarajan Karuppiah
Impact on Solar Energy Generation with Dual-Axis Solar Tracking System Including Different Weather Conditions

The term solar energy refers to the radiation in light energy and the heat of the sun is received in high amounts. The solar energy that is received from the sun reaches the surface from the 6 surface or layers that travel from the sun to power the environment. Light from the sun travels 93 million miles per kilometer from the sun to the various atmospheric layers 51% of the solar energy is absorbed by the land and ocean and the remaining energy is transmitted from one form to another form that can be utilized in another form of the energy. The energy of the sun that is emitted in the daytime depends on the surface latitude angle which is a tilt on the surface. The solar energy of the sun is available in the form of radiation at different levels according to the time variation and location, earth’s surface that changes according to time to time, day by day, and year by year. This energy can be utilized by using semiconductor devices like PN junction semiconductor materials that are made of silicon, and germanium. Silicon semiconductor materials are utilized to fabricate the semiconductor chips and repair the computers and other electronic devices. Solar cells are made of semiconductor material for the production of energy this process at call fabrication. A p–n junction semiconductor device made of silicone is generally used to fabricate semiconductor chips for computers and other electronic devices. When sunlight hits the cells, the solar cell generates direct current (DC) electric power. SPV module is a single mono-block unit having a fixed number of solar cell strings (36, 72, etc.), which is the fundamental building block of SPV systems. It consists of Solar cell strings sealed between the layers of Ethyl Vinyl Acetate (EVA). Solar energy generation can be increased by the tracking of the solar Self through the solar tracking power system in terms of the dual axis. 18% efficiency at the solar system can be increased through the tracking system. Solar energy can be used for the heating of water, heating of the building, drying agriculture and animal products, electric power generation through Solar radiation through the sun, thermal power production, solar pumping, and utilization of electric vehicles through solar energy.

Rajendra Singh, Neeraj Tiwari
Semantic Normal Form for Performance-Critical Databases

Semantic Normal Form (SNF) compliant software is software that is immune to malignant change. SNF software extends and adapts to business needs without recourse to database restructuring or the rewriting of associated software. This stability eliminates most software maintenance costs while also enabling Just-in-Time systems implementation. SNF software is achieved largely because it embodies an SNF compliant conceptual database schema. SNF compliant database schemas consist of tables with a simple uniform structure; however, SNF schemas tend to have many more tables than non-SNF compliant versions. This means that SNF compliant schemas necessitate the frequent use of multiple query joins in data manipulation. This raises the question about the technical feasibility of building high-performance database transactions for SNF compliant systems. In this paper, we measure the performance premium for SNF compliant software by comparing the performance of an SNF system with a non-SNF version. The SNF version was indeed a little slower but a deeper analysis of both the comparison results and eld experience with industrial SNF systems suggests that not only is it possible to achieve high-performance SNF compliant systems, but that SNF compliance is particularly desirable for large complex performance critical databases.

Adil Khadidos, Alaa Khadidos, Yasser Ades, Mohammad Yamin
Wireless Charging for Electric Vehicles: A Review

In terms of performance and range, electric vehicles (EVs) have lately improved. Several commercial models are now on the market, and the number of EVs on the road is constantly rising. Although the majority of electric vehicles are currently charged via electric cables, the companies like Tesla, BMW, and Mercedes Benz have started to design and manufacture electric vehicles that are charged wirelessly and that do not necessitate the use of inconvenient wires. Wireless charging further broadens the scope of dynamic charging, which includes charging when driving. When this is discovered, EVs’ electric driving range will be unrestricted, and battery capability requirements will be drastically reduced. This has been emphasized and endorsed around the world, with the United Kingdom, Germany, and South Korea leading the way. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the literature on electric vehicle wireless charging. Wireless charging's key technological components are summed up and equated, including compensation configurations, coil styling, and connectivity. To boost the charging power, a novel way to using superconductivity materials in coil designs is examined, as well as their possible effects on wireless charging. Besides that, the health and safety risks associated with wireless charging, and the rules that regulate them, are addressed. From an economic aspect, the costs of various wireless charging technologies have also been summed up and analyzed.

Tushar Mehndiratta, Rakesh Kumar
Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch Problem Using Novel Wild Horse-Based Optimizer

This study presents the new strategy for ORPD issues for modern power system problems. ORPD is most essential for maintaining a stable, secure, and economic management of electrical power system. This ORPD problem is a highly constrained, mixed integer non-linear (MINLP) problem. In order to satisfy the active and reactive power restrictions, the primary goal of the ORPD problem is to reduce active power losses in the system. Numerous optimization techniques have previously been used to address this type of problem. In this work, four optimization approaches are applied for reactive power dispatch problem for the considered system. The optimization approached used for the ORPD problem are PSO, GA, MAPSO, and Novel algorithm named as Wild Horse Optimizer (WHO). These four algorithms are tested & evaluated for ORPD issues in IEEE-30 bus system. For load flow analysis MATPOWER software is used with MATLAB. Several comparisons have been made on account of computation time, Active and Reactive power savings, and performance comparison. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm converges quicker than other techniques and illustrates superior performance in comparison with others and is well efficient for reactive power dispatch problems.

Gaurav Gangil, Sunil Kumar Goyal, Amit Saraswat, Yeshpal Gupta
An Insight into Algorithms and Self Repair Mechanism for Embedded Memories Testing

This paper covers the critical review of algorithms related to Memory built-in self-test and repair based on key parameters including area overhead for spare register, memory row/column size, local bits, main memory sizes, testing time penalties, and repair rate. This paper reviews the concept of memories testing BIST and built-in self-memory repair BISR using different RA algorithms in brief. In MBIST March C, March C- and March LR are simulated for different Memory sizes. March LR shows better fault coverage and requires less testing time. For MBISR different repair redundancy algorithms are simulated for various cases of Spare row/column size. CRESTA shows the optimal repair rate as compared to other repair algorithms. In this paper, we have simulated the co-design of MBIST and MBISR March C, March C-, and March LR as base testing algorithms for MBIST and MBISR ESP with a spare row/column of one row and one column with a memory size of 6*6*1. With this implementation, we found that March LR requires less testing time and co-designing of hardware reduces the hardware penalty.

Vinita Mathur, Aditya Kumar Pundir, Sudhanshu Singh, Sanjay Kumar Singh
Rapid Protection System Using Single-End Current Data for Capacitive Compensated Power Transmission Network

This paper presents a new approach based on current data processing and characteristic extraction method to detect the fault in a capacitive compensated power transmission network (CCPTN). The scheme uses the transform in the level of the three-phase currents at the local bus of the CCPTN for fault detection and the WIs (wavelet indices) for phase categorization. The functioning of the scheme is extensively authenticated on the 500 kV CCPTN using MATLAB software. The simulations show that the scheme is tremendously important for the CCPTN.

Shoyab Ali, Annapurna Bhargava, Akash Saxena
Enhancement of Breakdown Voltage Using Trench Edge Termination Technique in SiC-Based Power Device

The development of technologies with high voltage and high frequency somewhat affects how comfortable modern society is. Wide bandgap semiconductors have taken the place of silicon-based devices because of their mature performance. However, edge effects are to blame for the premature collapse of wide bandgap semiconductor devices. The current work illustrates breakdown voltage increase in a Schottky diode based on SiC by adopting trench edge termination. In the structure’s trench, SiO2 was placed. The device structure has been replicated using the atlas module of the Silvaco TCAD program. There have been many models used for ionization, recombination, impact ionization, and mobility. It has been observed that the breakdown voltage rises to 100 V as a result of the electric field becoming stronger near the device’s edges. Using the trench termination, the edge electric field crowding has been found spreading away from the edges of the device and in the SiO2 layer. As a consequence, the trench edge-terminated device possesses a reverse breakdown voltage, which was increased to 500 V.

Ankit Panchal, Ekta Sharma, Vamshi Krishna Dasarraju, Suman
A Brief Review on the Barriers of Electric Vehicle Adoption and Present Scenario in India

Transportation is one of the most energy-intensive businesses in any nation. Because of carbon emissions, fossil fuel use, and other difficulties, the transportation industry is transitioning from IC engine-powered cars to electric vehicles (EV). EVs are eco-friendly and renewable energy technology that may provide an efficient transportation system without a catastrophic impact on natural resources. Despite government incentives, client demand isn’t rising. This suggests impediments to EV adoption. The review discusses an overview of electric cars, varieties of EVs, charging methods, challenges to mainstream EV adoption, the EV sector in India, and the future potential of EVs in Indian markets.

Satyaki Biswas, Sadasiva Behera, Nalin B. Dev Choudhury
Simulation of Battery Management System for Protection in Electric Vehicle Against the Battery Failures

The developed industries are heading toward the success path, where every industry researches and develops new gadgets to make day-to-day life more reliable and accessible. It can also be said that changes and developments in life bring positive merits with some negative merits too. Similarly, observing the automotive industry, it can be easily noticed how hard these industries have worked for a long time. Bringing the internal combustion engine to market and efficiently using available fuel was a good achievement. However, due to the increase in air and noise pollution rate from internal combustion engine vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles were developed by using both conventional fuel and electricity, which has drastically decreased air and noise pollution but could not reduce it to zero. So, after hybrid electric vehicles, electric vehicles are developed which are working on batteries. The main merits points of electric vehicles are that it doesn’t cause any harm to the environment, have less maintenance cost, and have high reliability. The de-merits are chances of battery failure or cells used, which leads to fire hazards. As it’s not easy to handle batteries if it fails, and the results can be dangerous. This paper will define the basic idea of what a battery is, the types of batteries, how batteries fail, the consequences of the battery failure, and the battery management system and thermal protection method. The battery management system is simulated in MATLAB to take care of the battery for complete protection as it will protect the battery from overvoltage, undervoltage, and temperature rise.

Sachin Paliwal, Amandeep Gill, Manjeet Singh
A Comparative Study of Deep Learning Methods for Short-Term Solar Radiation Forecasting

Energy and climate challenges have led to significant growth in solar power generation, and because of this, smart grids are increasingly utilizing solar power. The solar power is intermittent because solar energy is mainly dependent on radiation and other atmospheric factors. To ensure the reliable economic operation of micro grids and smart grids, precise forecasting of solar radiation is crucial. Deep learning techniques are proposed in this study to model the solar radiation production. Four artificial intelligence and deep learning-based forecasting models, the fully connected artificial neural network (ANN), the convolutional neural network (CNN), the long short-term memory network (LSTM), and the bidirectional neural network (Bi-LSTM) were examined for this study. To compare the prediction accuracy of all models, three performance evaluation metrics RSME, MAE, and R2 are used. The results obtained indicate that all four methods produce reasonable estimates of solar radiation generation. As a result of RMSE, MSE, and R2, the Bi-LSTM forecasting model offers the best estimate of forecasting accuracy.

Praveen Kumar Singh, Amit Saraswat, Yogesh Gupta, Sunil Kumar Goyal, Yeshpal Gupta
Electric Two-Wheeler BLDC Hub Motor Design, Modeling, and Performance in Real-Time Use

The push on electric mobility given by the government of India gained a lot of importance in the recent years with a subsequent growth in the electric vehicles especially two-wheeler focused. This brings an urgent need for the improvement of performance criteria in electric vehicles. Although electric vehicles are more efficient than conventional vehicles, the parameters like the efficiency of the electric motor, torque measurement, back emf, and speed of the electric vehicle and motor are to be continuously evaluated to hold the electric vehicles place at the top. In this paper, a deep research was done on the performance of a BLDC hub motor in both simulation and real-time application usage. As the stator and rotor of a brushless direct current motor play a vital role in deciding the performance, they were designed and later the modeling was done for the same using MATLAB and Simulink and the results are then compared to the experimental setup made for the torque measurement at corresponding speed, currents, and voltages.

Manikanta Akella, Sanjay Patil, Kiran Wani
A Comprehensive Review of Wireless Electric Vehicle Charger

The increasing number of inner flaming engine vehicles and these vehicles are released more harmful gases due to acid rain, effects on human health, air pollution, and global warming take place. These grave issues are reduced by promoting safer, cleaner, and copious efficient vehicles which are known as electric vehicles (EVs). This article represents a spacious contemporary review of the wireless power transfer methods, topology for EV wireless chargers, and future trends in wireless power chargers. First, Wireless power transfer methods are classified into magnetic gear wireless power transfer, capacitive wireless power transfer, inductive power transfer, and resonant inductive power transfer. Then, the generally used topology for EV wireless chargers is discussed in detail. In the end, future trends in wireless power chargers are also discussed.

Sandesh Patel, Shekhar Yadav, Nitesh Tiwari
Investigation of Control Algorithm for PMSM-Based Electric Vehicle Using Vehicle Dynamics

Concerns about the finite supply of fossil fuels have sparked a frenzy of effort in the hunt for alternate road transportation propulsion solutions. Furthermore, legislative efforts to minimize urban pollution, CO2 emissions, and city noise have made plug-in electric vehicles an appealing option to internal combustion engines. The driving of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is investigated and in order to produce continuous torque, sinusoidal stator currents are required for PMSM. This paper presents a mathematical analysis of the motor's operation using the dq axis model. Because of its amazing accuracy, rapid dynamic response, and small footprint, PMSM has now become popular in industrial applications. The speed of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor can be controlled in a number of ways. The vector control approach was employed to regulate the speed of the PMSM motor drive in this research. To construct the PMSM drive for speed control, the vector control approach uses a PMSM motor, inverter, speed regulator, and coordinate transformation. The design of Proportional Integral (PI) and Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) is used to regulate the speed of the PMSM.

Bharat Singh, Ankur Chowdhury, Vishal Mishra, Ankur Jain
Flexible Electronics for Electric Vehicles
Sunil Kumar Goyal
Dheeraj Kumar Palwalia
Rajiv Tiwari
Yeshpal Gupta
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Springer Nature Singapore
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