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2024 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

7. Form Tolerances

Author : Stefano Tornincasa

Published in: Technical Drawing for Product Design

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

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Abstract

It is possible to control four form tolerance types: straightness, flatness, roundness and cylindricity. The chapter covers all the concepts necessary to define specification operators (according to ISO 17450-2) and some procedures to establish the reference elements in order to define the deviation errors. Some terms related to form parameters are described such as peak-to-valley, peak-to-reference and reference-to-valley deviations. The ASME standards use the envelope requirements or Rule #1, according to which form tolerances are contained within the dimensional ones, and these tolerances are therefore only used with the purpose of limiting the error when the workpiece is produced with dimensions close to the least material condition.

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Footnotes
1
Circularity in the ASME standard.
 
2
According to Sect. 3.2.2 of ISO 12180-1 standard, a cylindricity surface is an extracted surface (type cylinder) intentionally modified by a filter.
 
Literature
1.
go back to reference Krulikowski A (2010) Alex Krulikowski’s ISO geometrical tolerancing guide. Effective Training Inc. Krulikowski A (2010) Alex Krulikowski’s ISO geometrical tolerancing guide. Effective Training Inc.
2.
go back to reference ASME Y14.5:2018 Dimensioning and tolerancing. Engineering product definition and related documentation practices. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. New York, USA ASME Y14.5:2018 Dimensioning and tolerancing. Engineering product definition and related documentation practices. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. New York, USA
3.
go back to reference ISO 12780-1:2011 Geometrical product specifications (GPS)—Straightness—Part 1: vocabulary and parameters of straightness ISO 12780-1:2011 Geometrical product specifications (GPS)—Straightness—Part 1: vocabulary and parameters of straightness
4.
go back to reference ISO 12781-1:2011 Geometrical product specifications (GPS)—Flatness—Part 1: vocabulary and parameters of flatness ISO 12781-1:2011 Geometrical product specifications (GPS)—Flatness—Part 1: vocabulary and parameters of flatness
5.
go back to reference ISO 12181-1:2011 Geometrical product specifications (GPS)—Roundness—Part 1: vocabulary and parameters of roundness ISO 12181-1:2011 Geometrical product specifications (GPS)—Roundness—Part 1: vocabulary and parameters of roundness
6.
go back to reference ANSI B89.3.1:1972 (R2003) Measurement of out-of-roundness. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, NY, USA, 2003 ANSI B89.3.1:1972 (R2003) Measurement of out-of-roundness. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, NY, USA, 2003
7.
go back to reference Humienny Z (2021) Can ISO GPS and ASME tolerancing systems define the same functional requirements? Appl Sci 11:8269CrossRef Humienny Z (2021) Can ISO GPS and ASME tolerancing systems define the same functional requirements? Appl Sci 11:8269CrossRef
8.
go back to reference ISO 12180-1:2011 Geometrical product specifications (GPS)—Cylindricity—Part 1: vocabulary and parameters of cylindrical form ISO 12180-1:2011 Geometrical product specifications (GPS)—Cylindricity—Part 1: vocabulary and parameters of cylindrical form
9.
go back to reference ISO 12180-1:2011 Geometrical product specifications (GPS)—Cylindricity—Part 2: specification operators ISO 12180-1:2011 Geometrical product specifications (GPS)—Cylindricity—Part 2: specification operators
Metadata
Title
Form Tolerances
Author
Stefano Tornincasa
Copyright Year
2024
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-51187-5_7

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