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07-11-2023 | Original Paper

From Helping to Helpful: a Social Network Examination of Workplace Helpfulness at Multiple Levels

Authors: Zitong Sheng, Andra Serban, Jose M. Cortina, Yimin He, Xiang Yao

Published in: Journal of Business and Psychology

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Abstract

Moving beyond the current emphasis on the frequency of helping, this study aims to emphasize the importance of help quality. Utilizing a social network design, this study incorporates both the help provider’s and recipient’s perspectives and develops a multilevel model to demonstrate the incremental validity of help quality over frequency in the prediction of key organizational outcomes (i.e., satisfaction and performance at both individual and team levels). We further identify servant leadership as a crucial predictor of help quality, more so than help frequency, at both levels. Data were collected from 416 nurses and 42 supervisors from a large hospital in Beijing, China. Results show that help quality significantly predicted the supervisor-rated performance of the help provider, the job satisfaction of the help recipient, and team satisfaction, after controlling for the effects of help frequency. Contrary to our expectations, help quality did not significantly predict team performance. Moreover, servant leadership was a stronger predictor of help quality than of help frequency at both individual and team levels. Our results suggest that organizations and managers should aim to cultivate employee helpfulness, instead of merely encouraging more helping behavior. Avenues for future research are discussed.

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Appendix
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Footnotes
1
The time interval of 2 months was requested by the organization from which data were collected.
 
2
In this study, we used recipients’ subjective evaluations of helpfulness as an operationalization of help quality. Correspondingly, we used scale anchors that ranged from “1 = very unhelpful” to “5 = very helpful” so that the full range of helpfulness can be captured. Although these two terms were used interchangeably in this manuscript, it is worth noting that the “low-high” range of help quality may not exactly match the “very unhelpful-very helpful” range of helpfulness, as recipients may perceive some help that is of low quality (e.g., incomplete information; Gray et al., 2020) as “a little helpful” instead of “unhelpful.” We want to note this important distinction, as low-quality help may only partially define unhelpful helping, and acknowledge that help quality may also be operationalized differently (e.g., reactive versus proactive helping, Spitzmuller & Van Dyne, 2013; appreciation, Lee et al., 2019).
 
3
We note that not all social network ratings fall under the performance appraisal domain and therefore not all rater trainings are relevant. Even so, some universal rules and best practices for ensuring rating consistency may still be beneficial.
 
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Metadata
Title
From Helping to Helpful: a Social Network Examination of Workplace Helpfulness at Multiple Levels
Authors
Zitong Sheng
Andra Serban
Jose M. Cortina
Yimin He
Xiang Yao
Publication date
07-11-2023
Publisher
Springer US
Published in
Journal of Business and Psychology
Print ISSN: 0889-3268
Electronic ISSN: 1573-353X
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-023-09923-6