This book provides an overview of the latest advances in applications of nanocomposites in wastewater treatment. This book is dedicated to recent developments in the application of polymer nanocomposites to wastewater treatment. Based on their morphology and tailored compositions, polymer nanocomposites provide powerful tools for environmental remediation via selective adsorption of contaminants in complex environmental matrices. The book reviews recent progress in this field, covering various nanocomposite fabrication routes and novel applications for pollutant sensing and detection. It includes discussion of different types of nanocomposites based on metal–organic frameworks and hydrogels, while also covering related topics such as nanocomposite membranes, photocatalysts, and bio-nanocomposites for pollution abatement. Ideal for researchers and engineers in the field, this collection of contributed chapters offers a timely review of current research in nanomaterials for cost-effective pollution control technologies.