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About this book

This reference work provides a comprehensive and authoritative overview of functional polymers and polymeric materials, ranging from their synthesis and characterization, to properties, actual applications and an outlook on future perspectives. Including over 30 comprehensive review chapters, all written by leading international experts, this reference is also a sound introduction to this exciting field. The book is carefully edited by an international team of experts in the field, ensuring complete coverage of the relevant topics and concise representation.

Functional polymers and smart polymeric materials play a decisive role for new innovations in all areas where new materials are needed. Optoelectronics, catalysis, biomaterials, medicine, building materials, water treatment, coatings, and many more applications rely on functional polymers. This work is a major reference for researchers, scientists, and practitioners working in any of these fields, or entering this vibrant research area.

Key topics of this reference work include:

Polymerization methods and polymer synthesis

Characterization and properties of new functional polymers and smart materials

Functional polymer composites and blends

Applications of functional polymers and smart materials: for electro-optics and optoelectronics, in biology and in medical research, as coatings and adhesives, for gas sensing, in functional membranes for separation or proton conduction and many more

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

1. Photo-polymerization

Abstract
The synthesis of functional polymers by photopolymerization thrives on the rich tradition of industrial photochemistry. Photo-induced polymerization can be broadly divided based on the initiation mechanism as radical, cationic, and anionic photopolymerization. A wide variety of initiators, photosensitizers, and polymerizable materials have been studied for various applications. This chapter is intended to be a primer to major concepts of photopolymerization. In the beginning of the chapter, physical aspects of light matter interactions are presented followed by photochemical pathways leading to reactions. In the subsequent sections radical polymerization is discussed by introducing different types of initiating systems and polymerizable materials. Within the section on radical polymerization, visible light polymerization and thio-ene photochemistry are also discussed. The section on thiol-ene looks at the fundamentals of thiol-ene reactions, their initiation, reactivity, and advantages over other radical driven polymerizations. Cationic polymerization is covered based on the material science of ionic and nonionic photoacid generators (PAGs). This section also discusses spectral broadening of reactivity in PAGs to visible wavelengths through electron transfer sensitization and free radical promoted cationic polymerization (FRPCP). Unlike radical and cationic polymerization there are little or no reports of commercial application of anionic polymerization. However, due to typical monomers employed in anionic polymerization and the control over the extent of polymerization afforded by this techniques makes it very attractive for functional applications. The section on anionic polymerization summarizes recent developments in this field. Finally in the section about two-photon initiated polymerization, we discuss the scope of nonlinear optical phenomena in photopolymerization.
Prem Prabhakaran, Kwang-Sup Lee

2. Polymer Functionalization

Abstract
This chapter provides an overview of the many facets of polymer functionalization. To build upon the basic foundation of polymer functionalization, some general considerations are outlined first. This includes various methods to synthesize functional polymers and an overview of reactions frequently employed in postpolymerization modification. Additionally a brief history of polymer functionalization dating back to the vulcanization of rubber in 1840 is discussed. Following the general considerations, the chapter is divided into specific functional groups and modern reactions. The functional groups discussed here include activated esters, anhydrides, isocyanates, and ketenes, oxazolones and epoxides, aldehydes and ketones, azides and alkynes, dienes, and dienophiles, tetrazines, halides, and thiols. To showcase the versatility of the functional groups, side chain modification and end group modification are included within each section. Finally, future prospects in polymer functionalization are briefly mentioned.
Lindsey A. Bultema, Xia Huang, Daniel D. Brauer, Patrick Theato

3. Electrochemical Polymerization

Abstract
Advances in molecular electronic devices such as sensors, organic solar cells, and organic light emitting diodes have increased the interest and research on electrosynthetic conducting polymers. This chapter focuses on electrochemical polymerization (or electropolymerization) as a cost-effective and easy-to-use method for the preparation of electrosynthetic conducting polymer films. Electropolymerized materials, characteristically, possess unique morphological, physical, electronic, and electrochemical proprieties which make them amenable to various applications. Electropolymerization is initiated by the oxidation of a monomer in an electrochemical cell, followed by the growth of the polymer film on the surface of the working electrode, which may be a carbonaceous, a metallic, or a conducting glass material. As the oxidation of the monomer is voltage- or current-induced, electrochemical polymerization is, therefore, a green chemistry methodology. Being devoid of the use of toxic oxidants, the technique ensures real-time controlled production of very high purity conducting polymer films. The films exhibit excellent electrical, electronic, magnetic, optical, and rheological properties. Polyaniline films in their pristine and doped forms and the films of other conducting polymers are discussed in this chapter.
Gertrude Fomo, Tesfaye Waryo, Usisipho Feleni, Priscilla Baker, Emmanuel Iwuoha

4. Polymer Processing and Rheology

Abstract
This chapter is devoted to the presentation of the fundamental rheological properties of polymers and their processing technologies. Measurements of the rheological properties offer a fast and reliable way to determine molecular weight distribution and long-chain branching, which, in combination with the processing conditions, have a decisive influence on the end-use product properties. Shear viscosity, elongational viscosity, normal stress differences, stress relaxation, and some other measures and rheological phenomena, of relevance to polymer processing, are discussed. The most widely used polymer processing technologies of extrusion and injection molding are discussed with some details. The discussion includes key features of equipment used and design and operation challenges. Brief descriptions are presented on calendering, compression molding, blow molding, thermoforming, rotational molding, fiber spinning, and additive manufacturing. It is argued that computer-aided flow analysis and rheological measurements are necessary for equipment design, troubleshooting, and optimization in the processing of thermoplastics.
Nickolas D. Polychronopoulos, John Vlachopoulos

5. Porous Coordination Polymers

Abstract
This chapter discusses about porous coordination polymers (PCPs) and/or metal-organic frameworks and mainly emphasizes the historical background, their synthesis, structural properties, and potential applications (mainly gas storage). We organize the gas storage application of PCPs into three sections – H2, CH4, and CO2 storage – in order to highlight the important concerns we must know before designing new functional MOFs. In the case of H2 storage application of MOFs, we have discussed four important parameters which effect their successful design for H2 storage application with examples from the literature, such as (1) H2 adsorption condition (pressure and temperature), (2) inclusion of reducing agents in the MOF, (3) effect of structural defect in MOF, and (4) effect of adsorption sites in the MOF structure (examples: MOF-177, Pt/AC/IRMOF-8, UiO-66(Zr), Yb-BTC). Further, we highlight the investigation results of methane storage application of MOFs, with appropriate examples such as PCN-14, M2(dhtp) [M: open metal = Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn; dhtp = 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalate], and UTSA-20. And then we discuss more details of various factors which we must take care before the successful design and synthesis of new MOFs for more CO2 storage such as: (1) the effect of open metal sites in the MOF, (2) the effect of the pore size and surface area of the framework, (3) effect of doping metals, (4) effect of amine functionalization in MOFs, (5) effect of nitrogen-rich MOFs, (6) effect of water molecules, with some important examples such as M-MOF-74 (M = Mg, Co, Fe, Zn, Ni), HKUST-1, etc.
Abdul Malik P. Peedikakkal, N. N. Adarsh

6. Polyurethane and Its Derivatives

Abstract
Polyurethane (PU) is one of the widely used materials with great potential for multipurpose applications due to their excellent physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. PU materials are widely being used in many applications all over the world. The targeted PU properties for different applications can be achieved by changing the base monomers and their ratios as well as different synthesis process. This chapter highlights the PU application, its chemistry, and its base monomers. The latest modification and new application of PU and its derivatives are also considered.
Mohammad Mizanur Rahman, Mohammad Mahbub Rabbani, Joyanta Kumar Saha

7. Dielectric Polymers

Abstract
Polymer-based dielectric materials have attractive features making them potentially promising alternatives to usually used inorganic and ceramic-based dielectric materials due to a number of reasons including (a) higher flexibility; (b) easy, cost-effective processing feasibility; and (c) attractive chemical stability along with readily changeable characters. However, one of the main disadvantages of this type of polymer dielectric is their lower thermal stability which limits their wider application potentials. In addition, usually polymer dielectric materials show low dielectric constants compared to inorganic dielectric materials. In addition, dielectric characters can be designed by introducing polarizable groups into polymer chains by increasing free volume by inducing porosity as well as copolymerization. Besides this, the value of dielectric constant can be effectively increased by synthesizing nanocomposites by introducing inorganic fillers into composite structure to acquire high dielectric constants. Dielectric polymers have many applications in electronics. For example, the performance of advanced polymer dielectrics is useful to realize high-power electronic circuits in a miniature form. However, these polymeric materials are required to fulfill different criteria (such as thermal, environmental, and electrical stability, low moisture uptake, high breakdown voltage or low leakage current, low dielectric constant, low loss tangent, high glass transition temperature, and low surface roughness) for their effective applications in different devices including in microelectronics. Many investigations have been reported on the use of polymer dielectrics and evaluated the feasibility of utilizing these materials for various applications. Briefly three types of polymer dielectrics (such as dielectric polymers, organic-inorganic material-based hybrid composites, and coated polymer dielectrics) along with other necessary elements are selectively discussed in this chapter. In addition, behaviors of dielectric elastomers are also briefly covered.
Shah Mohammed Reduwan Billah

8. Dendrimers

Abstract
Dendrimers are the new class of materials, characterized by the combination of compact molecular assembly and high number of functional groups, which can make them potential candidates in both medical and engineering applications. Thus, this chapter presents an overview of dendrimers, which includes the classification of dendrimers, different methods employed for the syntheses of dendrimers, and properties and applications of dendrimers. An attempt was also made to discuss the progress made in the variety of dendrimeric materials. A special attention was made in discussing the properties of dendrimers and their structures, which play predominant role in deciding the applications of dendrimers in various fields. During the review, we came to know that dendrimers can also demonstrate as novel carriers for drug delivery across the cell membranes and organ barriers such as blood-brain barrier (BBB) and have a host of applications in treating tumors and cerebral gliomas and delivery of drugs for specific site of a brain. This anticipates that a new era of research on the dendrimers would focus on the development of dendrimers-clusters to form multifunctional therapeutic systems, which could subsequently open a new path for clinical applications. At the end, while concluding, we have also discussed the future prospects of dendrimers for various applications. To compile this chapter and to provide adequate information to the readers, we have explored all the possible ways, such as research articles, reviews, books, book chapters, and Google sites.
Balappa B. Munavalli, Satishkumar R. Naik, Anand I. Torvi, Mahadevappa Y. Kariduraganavar

9. Surfaces and Interfaces

Abstract
Polymer surfaces and interfaces are present with all polymer materials. They determine many properties like optical appearance, wetting, and adhesion, but with blends and composites also for instance toughness, hardness, modulus, and elongation at break. A short outline of polymer surfaces at molecular scale is given with reference to special aspects of chain conformation and surface dynamics. The surface tension as a fundamental property of a surface is discussed and surface functionalization in particular by grafting of polymer brushes onto surfaces described. In this way, a very versatile surface functionalization and even responsive polymer brush surfaces can be obtained. They may be used to control wetting, adhesion, bio-functionality, catalytic activity, and sensing ability. The interface between polymers can be formulated on the basis of mean-field theory with introduction of an effective interaction parameter, which is related with interface width and fluctuations at the interface. Polymer blends, copolymers as compatibalizers, and composites are discussed as examples, where interfaces play an essential role. Several techniques for surface and interface characterization including scanning force and electron microscopy, photoelectron and IR/Raman spectroscopy, as well as x-ray and neutron reflectometry or scattering techniques are critically reviewed. Guidelines for resolution and typical information obtained are provided. The importance of surface and interface design for future high-tech devices and advanced materials is highlighted.
Manfred Stamm

10. Membrane Surface Modification and Functionalization

Abstract
Surface functionalization of membranes is one of the efficient techniques that can bestow these membranes with novel properties and transform them into valuable finished products. It has been widely applied to polymeric membranes in many fields and has progressed rapidly in recent years. The modified membranes have been widely used in various applications, such as in separation processes for liquid and gaseous mixtures (gas separation, reverse osmosis, pervaporation, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, microfiltration), biomaterials, catalysis (including fuel cell systems), and “smart” membranes. In this chapter, various approaches to the surface modification and functionalization of polymeric membranes are highlighted and reviewed. Also, the applications of the modified membranes will be discussed from the aspect of environmental stimuli-responsive gating membranes, antifouling membranes, adsorption membranes, pervaporation and reverse osmosis membranes, membranes for energy conversion, gas separation membranes, and biomedical membranes. A detailed overview of the usage of polyzwitterions and oxidative stability of surface modifiers to alter membrane surface charge will be outlined. Finally, recent advances and developments in surface modification techniques such as layer-by-layer assembly and chemical vapor deposition will be discussed.
Syed Mohammed Javaid Zaidi, Kenneth A. Mauritz, Mohammad K. Hassan

11. Fiber-Reinforced Composites

Abstract
Fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) are widely used in spacecraft, helicopters, aircraft, ships, boats, automobiles, chemical processing equipments, biomedical devices, sports items, buildings, bridges infrastructure, etc. Nowadays, more and more exciting development on advanced forms of FRC materials are happening across the world. Development of high-performance resin systems, incorporating carbon nanotubes and other nanoparticles, are one among them. Polymer fibers have numerous imperative applications apart from using as reinforcement in composite materials. They are widely used in packaging, flooring, rope, textile industries, etc. In this context, the study on fiber-reinforced composites is very much important and the chapter gives an insight on the fiber-reinforced composites from macro to nanoscale.
Ajithkumar Manayan Parambil, Jiji Abraham, Praveen Kosappallyillom Muraleedharan, Deepu Gopakumar, Sabu Thomas

12. Composites and Nanocomposites

Abstract
In general, a composite is usually made up of two or more materials having two or more phases with heterogeneous characters, where at least one is in a microscopic scale. In addition, a composite can be classified as a nanocomposite when at least one of the reinforcement dimensions is in the nanometer range (from 10 to 200 nm). Both composites and nanocomposites have many promising mechanical, thermal, electrical, optical, and other interesting properties that make them a field of current active research interest both in academia and industry. This chapter selectively covers both fundamental and applied research involved mostly with polymer-based composites and nanocomposites along with a brief discussion on the future research directions for further improvements on high-performance composites and nanocomposites for a variety of conventional and high-tech applications.
Shah Mohammed Reduwan Billah

13. Polymer Blends

Abstract
In this chapter, we have presented different aspects of polymer blends, from fundamentals to the synthesis, physical and chemical properties, and applications. Polymer blends are made from the combination of two or more polymer components, having staggering and incredible applications in numerous fields due to their advanced properties. A brief introduction of the polymer blends about its origination and development is presented in the first part of this chapter; then important polymer blend types and synthesis methods are summarized with a brief discussion about their thermodynamic properties. Different characterization techniques were also discussed which can be used to determine the morphological, structural, chemical, and mechanical properties of these materials. The thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties of different polymer blends are discussed considering some recent applications of polymer blends in different industries.
Ibrahim Khan, Muhammad Mansha, Mohammad Abu Jafar Mazumder

14. Conducting Polymers and Composites

Abstract
Conducting polymers (CPs) characteristically form polarons, bipolarons, or solitons and exhibit low band-gap energies. These properties make them to be suitable materials for applications in sensors, semiconductors, anticorrosion coatings, batteries, and display devices, among others. This chapter focuses on the electronics, electrochemistry, and processability of some commonly used CPs in the recent past – namely, polyaniline (PANI), polypyrrole (PPy), polythiophene (PTh), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), and polyfuran (PFu). Also included in the chapter are conducting dendritic star copolymers and polymeric nanocomposites incorporating single-walled and multiwalled carbon nanotubes.
Abd Almonam Baleg, Milua Masikini, Suru Vivian John, Avril Rae Williams, Nazeem Jahed, Priscilla Baker, Emmanuel Iwuoha

15. Shape-Memory Polymers

Abstract
Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are stimuli-sensitive materials capable of changing their shape on demand. A shape-memory function is a result of the polymer architecture together with the application of a specific programming procedure. Various possible mechanisms to induce the shape-memory effect (SME) can be realized, which can be based on thermal transitions of switching domains or on reversible molecular switches (e.g., supramolecular interactions, reversible covalent bonds). Netpoints, which connect the switching domains and determine the permanent shape, can be either provided by covalent bonds or by physical intermolecular interactions, such as hydrogen bonds or crystallites. This chapter reviews different ways of implementing the phenomenon of programmable changes in the polymer shape, including the one-way shape-memory effect (1-W SME), triple- and multi-shape effects (TSE/MSE), the temperature-memory effect (TME), and reversible shape-memory effects, which can be realized in constant stress conditions (rSME), or in stress-free conditions (reversible bidirectional shape-memory effect (rbSME)). Furthermore, magnetically actuated SMPs and shape-memory hydrogels (SMHs) are described to show the potential of the SMP technology in biomedical applications and multifunctional approaches.
Magdalena Mazurek-Budzyńska, Muhammad Yasar Razzaq, Marc Behl, Andreas Lendlein

16. Self-Healing Polymers: From Biological Systems to Highly Functional Polymers

Abstract
The self-healing phenomenon is well-known from nature. Since the last 15 years, several approaches were developed in order to transfer this behavior into synthetic materials and to enable the preparation of multifunctional polymers. The following chapter summarizes the different polymers and their corresponding healing mechanism and provides an overview of the current state of the art. Additionally, the healing of functions as well as the characterization of the self-healing behavior is provided. Furthermore, a short comparison between polymers and other material classes is presented. Finally, the first commercial available systems are summarized showing the way for future developments in this area.
Stefan Zechel, Martin D. Hager, Ulrich S. Schubert

17. Drug Delivery: Polymers in the Development of Controlled Release Systems

Abstract
This chapter comprises an overview of the basic elements that one must take into account when developing a new drug delivery system. It begins with an outline of traditional methods to deliver drugs, relating these to important considerations that must be taken into account when developing a drug delivery system, including the importance of controlling the drug concentration and location, and the properties of the device and the therapeutic. This chapter then continues by describing various types of polymeric delivery systems, including implants, hydrogels, and nanoparticles, microgels, and micelle nanomedicines. This chapter then concludes with a brief perspective on the potential of nanomedicine drug delivery systems; a much more thorough perspective can be found in Chap. 27, “Drug Delivery: Localized and Systemic Therapeutic Strategies with Polymer Systems.”
Scott Campbell, Niels Smeets

18. Conjugated Organic Polymers for Optoelectronic Devices

Abstract
Organic Light-Emitting Devices (OLEDs) have received much attention in the past two decades. The possibility of cost effective production of large area devices is the main attraction for doing research in this area. There has been a considerable progress in the development of materials and the device engineering for improving the efficiency of OLEDs. These significant developments have resulted in their commercialization. In this chapter we describe OLEDs. We discuss their working principles and the measurements that are normally made in these devices. We also discuss the different types of conjugated polymers which are used for specific purposes in these devices.
Shahid Pervez Ansari, Farman Ali

19. Electrochromic Polymers for Solar Cells

Abstract
Electrochromic materials have attracted a lot of research interest for their fascinating spectro-electrochemical properties and commercial applications. A large number of inorganic and organic electrochromic materials ranging from transition metal oxides, metal coordination complexes, viologen systems, and conducting polymers are available. Electrochromic conducting polymers are exciting new class of electronic materials with a huge potential in the rapidly growing area of plastic electronics due to their electronic and optical properties, ease of processing, low-power consumption, flexibility, and low processing cost. They consist of vibrant colors and can be processed under simple ambient temperature. In this chapter, the general field of electrochromism is introduced, with coverage of the classes, operating principle, the experimental methods used in their study, and applications of electrochromic materials. Some of the most important examples of the major classes of electrochromic conducting polymers are highlighted. It surveyed electrochromic conducting polymers with a focus on their chemistry, electrochemistry, stability, and ability to enhance the performance of solar cell device.
Suru Vivian John, Emmanuel Iwuoha

20. Textile Coatings

Abstract
Textile coatings usually provide material layers which adhere to the textile structures. A typical textile coating formulation generally contains polymeric binder(s) along with other additives (such as colorants, adhesion promoter, biocide, plasticizers, etc.) which are applied in the form of a solution or a dispersion or a paste or a similar fashion using a spreading technique onto a textile fabric. Different types of techniques are commonly used for textile coatings, for examples, spray coating techniques, the application of nanoscale technologies, biotechnology, and plasma technology. Certain coating technologies including digital coating technology have many industrial potentials in order to produce higher performance coated textiles with a variety of conventional and functional properties. Textiles with multifunctionalities are increasingly demanded as a part of advanced and future marketing strategies, for instance, garments and technical textiles for outdoor environments can have novelty and durable self-cleaning properties at the same time. Various ways are usually used to impart novelty and functionality into coated textiles. For example, sol–gel chemistry is one of many techniques which can be used to produce superhydrophobic coated textiles suitable for many high-tech and general application purposes. This chapter provides selective pieces of information on different types of popular textile coatings and related specific features which have pronounced impacts on the behaviors of coated textiles. It also briefly provides some selective pieces of information on different advancements in textile coatings in consideration to the applications of new advanced techniques as well as frequently used general coating techniques (such as spraying, padding, etc.) to produce high-performance coated textiles for conventional and high-tech applications.
Shah Mohammed Reduwan Billah

21. Anticorrosive Coating

Abstract
Protection of construction tools such as bridges, rails, ships, cars, engines, cargo, and storage containers against corrosion is significant. The scale-up of corrosion in a system can be prevented or at least minimized by altering the environment, changing the material properties, and/or protective coating. The main objective of this book chapter is to present and describe the different types of corrosion control methods in addition to the materials (organic, metallic, and inorganic) used as anticorrosive coatings and discuss the mechanism of different classes of anticorrosion protective coating (i.e., barrier, sacrificial, and inhibitive coating). Furthermore, some anticorrosive coating evaluation methods using outdoor exposure and laboratory tests have been discussed.
Mazen K. Nazal, Mohammad Abu Jafar Mazumder

22. Conducting Polymer Nanocomposites as Gas Sensors

Abstract
The great concerns regarding environmental and living beings protection together with the widespread requirements for highly accurate process monitoring have highlighted the need for the development of new and sensitive sensors. Conducting polymers and their nanocomposites have been used widely as sensing materials owing to their special redox chemistry. The electrical properties can be controlled easily by doping and undoping processes resulting into the generation of conducting and nonconducting states, respectively. The electrical conductivity also depends on the type and amount of filler (nanosize filler in some cases) used which produces the positive or negative carriers responsible for the conduction. Any type of interaction of these polymers that affects the number and movement of charge carriers affects the conductivity and is the main principle behind the gas sensing characteristics. Advances in nanotechnology allows for the fabrication of various conducting polymer nanocomposites using different techniques. Conducting polymer nanocomposites have high surface area, small dimension, and show enhanced properties, making them suitable for various sensor devices. This chapter presents the different types of gas sensors based on the conducting polymer (polyaniline, polypyrrole, and polythiophene)-based nanocomposites, their progress, and future scope of ongoing research in this research area. The factors that affect the performance of the gas sensors and the chemistry of the sensing process are also addressed.
Mohammad Omaish Ansari, Sajid Ali Ansari, Moo Hwan Cho, Shahid Pervez Ansari, Mohamed Shaaban Abdel-wahab, Ahmed Alshahrie

23. Polymeric Membranes for Natural Gas Processing: Polymer Synthesis and Membrane Gas Transport Properties

Abstract
Polymers are macromolecules made up of repetition of some simpler units called monomers. To the general public, polymers are used as consumer products in the forms of plastics, fibers, rubber, adhesive, paints, and coatings. Today, new areas of applications of polymers have emerged due to the continuous growth of new classes of polymers. Varieties of functional polymers have been developed for various applications including organic catalysis, separation, biotechnology, medicines, optoelectronics, photographic, building, and fuel. Natural gas separation using functional polymers is a new area of application where not much information is available. This work seeks to present an overview of the synthesis, preparation, and separation performance of functional polymers in natural gas separation.
Jimoh K. Adewole, Abdullah S. Sultan

24. Proton Conductions

Abstract
The importance of proton conductivity is enormous for biological systems and in devices such as electrochemical sensors, electrochemical reactors, electrochromic devices, and fuel cells. In the book chapter, the phenomenon of proton conductivity in materials was discussed with a special emphasis on five different types of conductive materials, namely, perfluorinated ionomers, partially fluorinated, aromatic polymers, acid-base complexes, non-fluorinated ionomers, and hydrocarbon. In a fuel cell, the proton exchange membranes (PEMs) have a profound influence on its performance. Many researchers have investigated the functionalization methods to solve the methanol crossover problem and to obtain low electronic conductivity, low electroosmotic drag coefficient, good mechanical properties, good chemical stability, good thermal stability, and high proton conductivity. The way forward of developing high-performance proton-conductive polymeric membrane via electrospinning for as fuel cells was also addressed.
N. Awang, Juhana Jaafar, A. F. Ismail, T. Matsuura, M. H. D. Othman, M. A. Rahman

25. Desalination

Abstract
Polymeric membranes are currently extensively investigated for water purification. Strong motivations behind this are due to their unique structural characteristics such as high mechanical, thermal, and chemical stabilities. They are also flexible in nature in such a way that one can easily fold them into hollow fiber or flat sheet. Based on such features, an excellent pollutant selectivity and permeability of water have been observed; thereby a remarkable separation capacity is expected. This chapter covers a comprehensive discussion on the fabrication of both synthetic and biopolymeric membranes for water desalination. Fundamental knowledge on structures, types, functionalizations, and optimizations of different advanced polymer-based membranes, especially microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), and reverse osmosis (RO), were discussed in details with their synthesis procedures. MF and UF membranes are suitable to retain larger organic and inorganic molecules, whereas NF and RO are popularly used to purify salty water. MF is usually prepared by cellulose acetate, polysulfone, poly(ether sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride). Secondly, UF membrane is made by polysulfone, poly(ether sulfone), poly(vinylidene fluoride), poly(acrylonitrile), and poly(etherimide). Thirdly, polysulfone, polyamide poly(vinylidene fluoride), chitosan, and aquaporin are the major building blocks for NF membranes. Finally, cellulose acetate, polysulfone, and aromatic polyamides are the major constituents of RO membranes. Carbon nanotube is highlighted as a part of polymers’ composites membrane with respect to improved or novel performance, and the potential implications of those developments for future membrane technology are discussed. Finally, some of the research gaps and future prospects of polymeric membrane technologies are also highlighted.
Rasel Das, Syed Mohammed Javaid Zaidi, Sayonthoni Das Tuhi

26. Enhanced Oil Recovery

Abstract
Worldwide energy demand has been increased in last few decades, and it is expected that it will increase up to 50% by the end of next decade. Oil and gas were major sources of energy in past, and it is expected that it will remain the primary source of energy in next few decades. Therefore, efforts are being made to upgrade drilling, completion, workover, and production operations to maximize the oil recovery at a lower cost. In last few decades, water-soluble polymers have been extensively used in different gas and oilfield applications. In the present chapter, we discuss the various types of polymeric systems that have been applied in various oilfield applications. These applications are mainly enhanced oil recovery, drilling fluids, and kinetic gas hydrate inhibition. Properties required for each application are also discussed and related to the chemical structure of the polymer.
Muhammad Shahzad Kamal, Abdullah S. Sultan

27. Drug Delivery: Localized and Systemic Therapeutic Strategies with Polymer Systems

Abstract
This chapter expands upon some of the basic concepts regarding drug delivery and takes a tour through various regions of the body that are commonly treated locally with controlled release systems, investigating current research and commercial strategies involving the use of polymeric systems within each region after briefly describing the biology and the typical biological targets of each region. This section includes drug delivery throughout the gastrointestinal tract and to the skin, lungs, brain, and eye, along with several others. The use of polymeric materials for systemic controlled release is then briefly described and thoroughly investigated in a case study on the most common target of systemically delivered nanomedicines: cancer. The chapter concludes with a perspective on where the field of drug delivery is headed in the future.
Scott Campbell, Niels Smeets

28. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials and Their Applications

Abstract
The organic-inorganic composites in addition to providing new alternate materials represent a class that exhibit novel, astonishing features, and their properties can be tailored to suit a particular application. These are developed by combinations of two or more materials that differ in form or composition on a macroscale. The matrix and the filler are two indispensable components of a composite. In this chapter, synthetic routes, viz., sol-gel, blending, and emulsion polymerization, classification, and application of organic-inorganic composites as ion-selective membrane electrodes has been discussed. The ion-selective electrodes provide simple, reliable, low cost, on-spot methods for the detection of heavy metal ions. The field of hybrid materials is vast open and promising and newer possibilities to improve their application are to be explored.
Rizwana Mobin, Tauseef Ahmad Rangreez, Hamida Tun Nisa Chisti, Inamuddin, Mashallah Rezakazemi
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