Skip to main content

About this book

This book highlights the current challenges for engineers involved in product development and the associated changes in procedure they make necessary. Methods for systematically analyzing the requirements for safety and security mechanisms are described using examples of how they are implemented in software and hardware, and how their effectiveness can be demonstrated in terms of functional and design safety are discussed.

Given today’s new E-mobility and automated driving approaches, new challenges are arising and further issues concerning “Road Vehicle Safety” and “Road Traffic Safety” have to be resolved. To address the growing complexity of vehicle functions, as well as the increasing need to accommodate interdisciplinary project teams, previous development approaches now have to be reconsidered, and system engineering approaches and proven management systems need to be supplemented or wholly redefined.

The book presents a continuous system development process, starting with the basic requirements of quality management and continuing until the release of a vehicle and its components for road use. Attention is paid to the necessary definition of the respective development item, the threat-, hazard- and risk analysis, safety concepts and their relation to architecture development, while the book also addresses the aspects of product realization in mechanics, electronics and software as well as for subsequent testing, verification, integration and validation phases.

In November 2011, requirements for the Functional Safety (FuSa) of road vehicles were first published in ISO 26262. The processes and methods described here are intended to show developers how vehicle systems can be implemented according to ISO 26262, so that their compliance with the relevant standards can be demonstrated as part of a safety case, including audits, reviews and assessments.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Introduction

ISO 26262 changes vehicle development in a way, nobody would have expected 10 years ago, when functional safety became a relevant topic in the automobile industry. During the early 21st century the first German (VDA) working group already started dealing with functional safety and when the first international working groups got founded in 2005 everybody was looking for a lean standard for product safety. In the following 10 years before the final publication of the ISO 26262, those working groups compiled 10 parts with about 1000 requirements.
Hans-Leo Ross

Chapter 2. Why Functional Safety in Road Vehicles?

It took a while until functional safety started to play a significant role in the automotive industry in comparison to other industries.
Hans-Leo Ross

Chapter 3. System Engineering

General process models often fail to answer the questions, how to enter the V-, the spiral- or the waterfall- process model.
Hans-Leo Ross

Chapter 4. System Engineering for Development of Requirements and Architecture

The ascending branch of the V-model has not always been intensively and systematically implemented in the development process of vehicle components. Crucial indicators for the automobile industry are methods such as statistical design of experiments (DoE) or an intensive validation. The descending area of the V-model has often been neglected. Writing specifications is not strength of automobile manufacturers.
Hans-Leo Ross

Chapter 5. System Engineering in the Product Development

The general approach of all system engineering standards is the realization of products based on their specification. In the context of a V-model it is the bottom of the V; quasi the end of the descending branch and the beginning of the ascending branch. The elements to be realized are technical elements of hardware or software. For hardware either electronic or mechanical a production process is necessary, for software mainly the tool-chain built also a kind of realization or production process to effectively build the software.
Hans-Leo Ross

Chapter 6. System Integration

Integration starts with the smallest elements and ends with the validation of the development targets. Electronic hardware could be considered to be ready after the placing of the components or parts on the printed circuit board and assembly of mechanical hardware such as connectors, housing, cooling devices, and harness etc. Software integration also starts with the smallest units according to the make files and liking until the entire embedded software could be integrated and flashed into the microcontroller.
Hans-Leo Ross

Chapter 7. Confirmation of Functional Safety

Especially due to legal requirements, especially liability requires confirmation and a certain level of approval for the product under development are “State of the Art”. In order to assure also for these confirmation sufficient or adequate transparence and traceability reports of the confirmations measures are required.
Hans-Leo Ross


Additional information

Premium Partner

image credits