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2021 | Book

Fundamentals and Innovations in Solar Energy

Editors: Dr. Sri Niwas Singh, Dr. Prabhakar Tiwari, Dr. Sumit Tiwari

Publisher: Springer Singapore

Book Series : Energy Systems in Electrical Engineering


About this book

This book provides recent trends and innovation in solar energy. It covers the basic principles and applications of solar energy systems. Various topics covered in this book include introduction and overview of solar energy, solar PV generation, solar thermal generation, innovative applications of solar energy, smart energy system, smart grid and sustainability, solar energy forecasting, advances in solar battery, thermal storage of solar energy, solar energy pricing, advances in hybrid solar system, solar system tracking for maximum power generation, phase change materials and its application, sensitivity analysis in solar systems, environmental feasibility of solar hybrid systems, regulatory implications of solar energy integration with grid, impact of the photovoltaic integration on the hydrothermal dispatch on power systems and potential and financial evaluation of floating solar PV in Thailand—a case study. This book will be useful for the students, academicians, researchers, policymakers, economists and professionals working in the area of solar energy.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction to Solar Energy
The sun is an ultimate source of energy, and all available forms of energies on earth, directly or indirectly, depend on it. It is a sphere of very hot gaseous substance having diameter of 1.39 × 109 m with an average distance of 1.5 × 1011 m from the earth. The sun has temperature (Ts) of 5777 K, and this temperature is maintained due to uninterrupted fusion reaction. Several fusion reactions have been proposed for production of the energy emitted by the sun; the most important being the one in which four photons of hydrogen unite to make helium (i.e., helium nucleus). The helium nucleus has less mass compared to four protons, which is converted to energy.
S. N. Singh, Prabhakar Tiwari, Sumit Tiwari
Chapter 2. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Generation
The prime source of life on earth is solar energy. Scientist has developed several ways to utilize this energy. Hence, several modern techniques are functioning to convert solar energy into other useful form of energy. Electrical energy is such an example of this transformation. In this context, solar photovoltaic (SPV) cells in a solar panel that turns solar energy (solar irradiance) into electrical energy (direct current electricity). Solar power is considered fully clean and renewable energy source. Thus, it can mitigate key issues, viz. energy demand and global warming. The implementation of solar technology will also greatly offset and reduce problems related to electricity stability and energy loss. This chapter aims to create a clear picture in the reader’s mind about solar photovoltaic considering all aspects related to electricity generation from solar technology. This chapter depicts a worldwide development of solar PV in terms of their perspective, existing strength, future scenario, drawbacks and benefits. This will clearly indicate the amount of solar energy essential to satisfy the world’s power needs in the near future.
Umesh Agarwal, Naveen Jain, S. N. Singh, Manoj Kumawat
Chapter 3. Solar Thermal Power Generation
The major part of the electricity generated comes from conventional coal-fired thermal power plants. The depletion of conventional energy resources and the adverse effects of the conventional power plants on the environment have triggered the efforts to explore the power generation from renewable energy resources. Most of the locations across the world receive adequate solar energy throughout the year, which makes it a viable source of energy for power generation. Harnessing solar energy for electric power generation is one of the growing technologies which provide a sustainable solution to the severe environmental issues such as climate change, global warming, and pollution. This chapter deals with the solar thermal power generation based on the line and point focussing solar concentrators. The detailed discussion on the various components of the solar field, such as concentrator, receiver is provided. The environmental aspects of solar thermal power plants have also been discussed. A comparative study of various solar collector technologies and their influence on the performance of the power generation is provided. This chapter also covers the recent developments in solar thermal technologies for power generation. In recent times, solar thermal technologies are integrated with conventional fossil-fuelled power plants as well as other renewable energy sources such as biomass, geothermal to improve its performance. The various challenges involved in hybrid solar power generation are also discussed.
Rajeev Awasthi, Shubham Jain, Ram Kumar Pal, K. Ravi Kumar
Chapter 4. Innovative Applications of Solar Energy
This chapter aims to highlight innovative applications of solar energy that are often overshadowed by conventional photovoltaics. Even though the applications discussed in this chapter are in the primitive stage of research and development, some of them show promising results under specific conditions. The applications discussed in the current chapter are classified into three major types: novel concepts, improvements in PV cells, and biomimetics. The innovations that are expected to have significant applications and are discussed. These applications, such as inspired by bio-mimicry and thoughtful ideas, have the potential to change the way we produce and consume energy. These can be promising to lead to the sustainable manufacturing goal, to support the mother nature.
Amandeep Singh, Janakarajan Ramkumar
Chapter 5. Smart Energy System
The solar energy systems are developing rapidly, thus necessitating flexibility in the system to make it future-proof and sustainable. This will ensure that intermittent nature of these renewable sources and significant variations in demand and supply can be taken care. The novel technologies with innovative solutions need to be incorporated to transform the electrical networks into smarter grids. The role of information and communication technology (ICT), Internet of Things (IoT), energy storage, intelligent control systems, and smart energy meters will be crucial in the development of smart energy systems. These smart energy systems will play vital role in improving renewables’ performance and exploitation with real-time balancing between supply, demand, and storage. Besides, it will also help in energy efficiency, reducing energy waste, peak curtailment using demand-response management, reduction in system’s overall cost, better network control, enhanced performance and reliability of power system with optimal planning of the transmission and distribution systems, and implementation of microgrids with additional distributed generation (DG), etc. In real world, different energy sources and technologies exist, and together fulfills the global energy demand. A smart energy system, therefore, should consider the integration of different energy infrastructure, which may include the production, conversion, storage, and consumption of different energy sources in an intelligent manner. Transportation and storage are going through a revolutionary transformation phase, where a lot of research has been devoted on different aspects to make them an affordable reality. All these lead to new challenges and opportunities, such as charging infrastructure, power quality, frequency response with reducing system inertia, etc. Our current energy system simply cannot map the demands from homes and businesses accurately, and a data-driven approach with smart energy meters may resolve the problem with the use of digital technology to actively monitor the generation and consumptions patterns at root levels. This chapter aims to introduce the concept of smart energy systems (SES). Accordingly, it presents the basic concept of smart grid, issues in integration of renewable energy sources, features of the smart energy systems from the recent literature and challenges ahead in this domain. Finally, it also discusses some models of SES and their relative comparison.
Sachin K. Jain, S. N. Singh
Chapter 6. A Holistic Review of Smart Grid Contribution Toward Energy Sustainability
As per International Energy Agency (IEA), extensive implementation of Smart Grids is vital to attaining a reliable and sustainable energy future. IEA believes that the Smart Grid can perform an important function to enable clean energy technologies because the present tendencies in the supply and usage of energy are becoming increasingly unsustainable. The following are the key recommendations by IEA:
  • Enabling technology;
  • Deploying in developing countries; and
  • International collaboration.
An increase in energy requirement and climate change has put sustainable development in focus which is reflected in United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. The assimilation of clean and sustainable energy generation, optimal transmission and distribution, and optimal utilization based on Smart Grid technologies is the essential path to sustainable development. Current deficiencies in the sustainable energy supply chain are the irregularity in the generation and low utilization efficiency of the power system. This chapter discusses the role that Smart Grid systems play to achieve energy sustainability. Among other things, a Smart Grid system helps achieve sustainable electrical energy initiatives by:
  • Improving utilization of renewable sources of energy;
  • Optimal storage of renewable energy output;
  • Increasing consumption efficiency; and
  • Flexible transmission and distribution.
To sum up, a Smart Grid makes renewable energy sources sustainable by resolving the inherent deficiencies introduced by these sources.
Saad Umer Khan, Akhtar Kalam
Chapter 7. Short-Term Solar PV Generation Forecast Using Neural Networks and Deep Learning Models
Accurate short-term forecasting of renewable-based generating sources is an essential tool for plants owner and system operator in order to take informed operational decisions. This chapter presents various neural network (NN) and deep learning (DL)-based approaches to forecast the solar PV generation. The random vector functional link (RVFL) model, a variant of NN and long short-term memory (LSTM), a DL-based model are developed to forecast solar PV generation considering a realistic dataset of solar PV plants at IIT Gandhinagar campus. Application of DL-based LSTM and NN-based variants of RVFL models for forecasting solar PV generation for both clear sky and cloudy day is carried out, and a performance comparison between LSTM, RVFL, and wavelet decomposition (WD)-RVFL-based solar PV forecasting algorithms for clear sky is presented. On analysis, it was found that DL-based LSTM model performs better than variants of NN-based RVFL models. As a result, the drawback of shallow NN models over DL models are highlighted. At last, the need for sophisticated DL models over shallow NN models to solve the problem of renewable energy forecasting is stressed.
Shivashankar Sukumar, Naran M. Pindoriya, Sri Niwas Singh
Chapter 8. Off-Grid Solar Lighting Testing and Reliability
Solar photovoltaic (SPV) LED appliances, e.g., street lights are used in households, roadway lighting all over the countryside area where electricity availability is not proper. This can minimize electricity bills, and being off-grid, it does not depend on grid availability. These LEDs are specially constructed with battery, tested, and certified as per national and international standards. SPV street light installed in the field should work efficiently, but climatic conditions affect the system's long-term durability reliability. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that the features provided to SPV LED should be highly reliable in its performance and operation. The light should be maintained in an adequate condition with proper security of theft. In this chapter, details about the off-grid LED lighting system are explained. It includes the characterization of PV module in the field and balance of system of lighting systems also.
Supriya Rai, Birinchi Bora, Chandan Banerjee, Arun Kumar Tripathi
Chapter 9. Thermal Energy Storage for Solar Energy
The abundant presence of solar energy on the earth’s surface makes it a viable source for many engineering applications. The solar energy systems have enormous potential to provide a clean and eco-friendly solution to atmospheric degradation. The diurnal and intermittent nature of solar energy is one of the major challenges in the utilization of solar energy for various applications. The thermal energy storage system helps to minimize the intermittency of solar energy and demand–supply mismatch as well as improve the performance of solar energy systems. Hence, it is indispensable to have a cost-effective, efficient thermal energy storage technology for the prudent utilization of solar energy. In this chapter, the multidimensional efforts have been made to explain the various thermal energy storage technologies used in diverse applications of solar energy. An in-depth discussion has been provided on the technological evolution of sensible, latent, and thermochemical energy storage systems. The various types of thermal energy storage materials and their thermophysical properties are provided for a wide range of temperatures. In this study, numerous solar applications of thermal energy storage technologies are discussed extensively, explaining their design and performance parameters. The description of recent developments of thermal energy storage technologies has also been included to represent the current trend of research in this area.
Shubham Jain, Sumeet Kumar Dubey, K. Ravi Kumar, Dibakar Rakshit
Chapter 10. Solar Energy Pricing
As an alternative option, solar energy has shown its high level of potential, seen as efficient and environmentally friendly source. The chapter focuses on two major aspects of solar energy pricing: (i) equipment-related factors and (ii) financing costs. One of the reasons for choosing a few components is due to their main contribution in price of raw material, different components such as PV module, installation, handling cost, as they constitute major cost in determining the electricity tariff (so-called solar energy pricing). Other components governed and helped in reducing solar energy pricing due to various financial approaches of estimations, outlook of stakeholders, and government schemes. In addition, literature shows that photovoltaic power systems will play a key role in electricity generation in the future. In this context, levelized tariff (solar pricing) of using the proven technology, through the life cycle assessment has shown many fruitful results, whereby prices found decreasing drastically over the last few years. Because price analysis is very important for energy marketing, in this chapter, a review of the cost potential factors on solar energy pricing and a reflection on related factors is shown. Further, by dissecting specific examples of competitively determined Indian solar tariff into its respective constituents, it illustrates their relative contributions to overall RE tariffs. Lastly, this chapter highlights areas that represent opportunities for increasing the competitiveness of solar energy pricing in the years to come and discusses policy measures for accelerating future tariff reduction from solar energy.
Vivek Soni, Nitin Singh
Chapter 11. Advances in Hybrid Solar System
The electric power industry is moving toward a deregulated structure from the conventional centralized structure. The renewable energy sources (RES) penetration fastens the restructuring. Among the various RESs available, the solar photovoltaic (PV) is considered as the candidate in this chapter. Along with the advantages, solar PV power production exhibits stochastic nature due to its environmental dependency. The solar PV hybridized with several other RESs to form the hybrid power system (HPS) that mitigates the issues created by its environment dependency. The various HPS such as solar PV-grid, solar PV-battery, solar PV-wind, solar PV-fuel cell, solar PV-diesel, solar PV-diesel-fuel cell, solar PV-diesel-battery, and solar PV-battery-grid are reviewed in this chapter. Several maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technologies for mitigating the intermittency effect are discussed. Control algorithms have been introduced recently to cope with the issues related to solar PV hybrid power systems. This chapter investigates various conventional and derived topologies of DC-DC/DC-AC converters for solar PV applications and the standards for solar PV integration. Finally, a simulation model of the solar PV system using MATLAB®/Simulink is provided for better understanding the operation and control of the solar PV HPS. A cost optimization of solar PV HPS is investigated in this chapter using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER) Pro software.
P. Vipin Das, Navneet K. Singh, Rakesh Maurya, Asheesh K. Singh, Sri Niwas Singh
Chapter 12. Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Renewable Energy System Using a New Method Based on Turbulent Flow of Water-Based Optimization (TFWO) Under Partial Shading Conditions
In this chapter, turbulent flow of water-based optimization (TFWO) inspired based on whirlpools created in turbulent flow of water is used to solve the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of photovoltaic systems in partial shading conditions. The TFWO is used to determine the optimal duty cycle of the DC/DC converter with the objective of maximizing the extracted power of the photovoltaic system. The capability of proposed method is evaluated in different patterns of partial shading to achieve global optimal power. The simulation results showed that TFWO is able to track the global maximum power point (GMPP), successfully in PSC and also fast climate changing. The TFWO has a better tracking capability with faster tracking speed and accuracy than particle swarm optimization (PSO) in obtaining the GMPP. Moreover, the results indicate that the use of buck–boost converter led to faster and more accurate access to the global optimal point than the system equipped with boost converter. The results showed that photovoltaic system with boost converter cannot obtain global maximum power in climate changing condition and limited the efficiency of the MPPT algorithm, while the photovoltaic system with buck–boost converter could be tracked GMPP due to its wider operating area.
Shohreh Nasri, Saber Arabi Nowdeh, Iraj Faraji Davoudkhani, Mohammad Jafar Hadidian Moghaddam, Akhtar Kalam, Saman Shahrokhi, Mohammad Zand
Chapter 13. Phase Change Materials and Its Applications
A "phase" is an important physical identity of any material. Pure materials undergo phase transition when the heat is absorbed or released at a constant temperature known as melting or boiling point temperature. This phase transition is associated with "latent heat", which researchers are trying to exploit in multiple ways for different applications. The temperature range for these applications is such that selected materials undergo a phase change. Thus, their latent heat comes into play. There are various applications of these phase change materials (PCMs) from low-temperature passive heating/cooling and thermal management to high-temperature storage for solar thermal systems. PCM implementation requires knowledge of their types, properties, thermal characterization procedure, and property enhancement techniques, to map their suitability for a particular application. An assessment follows their implementation. There are different models for simulating the phase change process for different configurations, for assessing the impact of PCM incorporation. PCM caters to a vast arena of thermal applications and is used for either to enhance thermal cooling performance or to enhance thermal efficiency by wisely exploiting the energy storage potential. Here, we present mathematical modeling and different computational approaches for studying PCM-based systems. The general and most preferred practices in PCMs are discussed along with the different approaches of handling computational grids. Various methods based on discerning the energy equations are discussed along with phase field and volume of fluid methods. Also, the sophisticated commercial/research-based tools available for modeling the phase change materials are detailed. Such a comprehensive overview will be helpful for researchers/engineers looking to realize PCM, especially for energy and building applications.The later part of the chapter provides a comprehensive review of PCMs, followed by a detailed description of various applications and research prospects. This study discusses both heating and cooling applications of PCMs. PCM implementation in buildings can result in energy savings of up to 30%. PCMs application for thermal regulation of batteries, electronic circuits, and photovoltaic module are also discussed. Heat transfer enhancement techniques required to increase PCM dispatch ability, with suitable case studies, have been discussed in detail. The application of PCM in wearable devices to sustain extreme temperatures is still uncharted and can prove to be handy for thermal management and providing sustainable solutions. PCM implementation for solar thermal applications as high-temperature storage material has been discussed in this present study. In summary, this chapter provides a holistic review of different PCM applications and their modeling. It highlights the research, required to be carried out to overcome the shortcomings of PCM implementation to form a feasible solution for various problems. This study also highlights the importance of PCMs in energy conservation, thus contributing to a reduction in CO2 emissions and climate change.
Anirudh Kulkarni, Rajat Saxena, Sumit Tiwari
Chapter 14. Sensitivity Analysis in Solar Systems
This chapter deals with the application of sensitivity analysis to solar systems which have the potential to mitigate some of the contemporary issues prevalent throughout the globe. The purpose of such analysis is having enhanced thought of the associations between input parameter and output parameter and improved communication from modelers to decision makers by making recommendations more credible as well as understandable. One-factor-at-a-time (OAT) technique has been employed which involves moving one input variable, keeping others at their baseline (nominal) values, then, returning the variable to its nominal value, and then repeating for each of the other inputs in the same way. Further, sensitivity figures have been calculated as the ratio of percentage change in output to the percentage change in input and compared. Higher the sensitivity figure, higher will be the impact of the corresponding input variable over output of the system. It helps the designer of the solar system as the designer knows in advance the relative importance of particular input parameter on the output of the solar system. Based on discussion, susceptive conclusions have been presented.
Desh Bandhu Singh, Sumit Tiwari, Sanjay Kumar
Chapter 15. Environmental Feasibility of Solar Hybrid Systems
This chapter includes environment feasibility of solar hybrid systems. In this regard, drying system with PVT air collector has been studied in details. It is seen that the market has different types of PV modules (a-Si, CdTe p-Si, c-Si, and CIGS) are available in the market. Further, thermal modeling has been explored to calculate the thermal energy (TE). Weather-related data has been taken from IMD, Pune, for yearly analysis. Various temperatures, namely outlet air from collector, cell, drying chamber, and crop surface have been calculated through thermal modeling developed for the system. Further, energy payback time (EPBT) for 100% PV area with different PV technologies used on flat plate air collector-integrated drying system found between 3.2 and 1.59 years. Environmental feasibility has also been evaluated for various solar PV cell technologies integrated with the system.
Sumit Tiwari, Prabhakar Tiwari, V. K. Dwivedi, G. N. Tiwari
Chapter 17. Impact of the Photovoltaic Integration on the Hydrothermal Dispatch on Power Systems
The amount of electricity generated by traditional power plants accompanied by the non-conventional renewable resources has increased significantly in the latest years in Honduras. This is leading to a different dispatch operation that guarantees the lowest cost, optimizing the water resource installed and operated in the Honduran power system. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect on the operation of the Honduran power system with the incorporation of photovoltaic (PV) generation and to compare the operation prior to the installation of such generation. Finally, it is proposed that the optimal hydrothermal dispatch of the system allows us to reduce the marginal costs of operation in a medium-term study horizon. To achieve this objective, in this study the operation of the electric system will be simulated using the Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) software that allows us in a study horizon to estimate the function of future costs with optimal hydrothermal dispatch optimization.
Walter A. Carranza, Wilfredo C. Flores, Harold R. Chamorro, Margarita M. Diaz-Casas, Roozbeh Torkzadeh, Francisco Gonzalez-Longatt, Wilfredo Sifuentes, Vijay K. Sood, Wilmar Martinez
Chapter 18. Potential and Financial Analysis of the Floating PV in Hydropower Dams of Thailand
Solar power is one of the most widely fascinated renewable energy sources because of its cleanliness, simplicity, abundance, and sustainability. During 2014–2018, the cumulative global floating photovoltaic (FPV) installed capacity has been growing exponentially. The advantages of reducing evaporation, increasing efficiency, and the utilization of the existing infrastructure and the installation of large-scale FPV in hydropower dams have attracted attention. In this work, the FPV systems in Thailand’s hydropower dams are evaluated for their potential power production and economic benefits. Further, the potential energy production was carried out in five cases here. For water surface coverage of 2% and 2.5% on average, the annual energy production was estimated to be 5771 GWh, and 7648 GWh, respectively. The total requirement of the installed capacity of the FPV, to replace the annual hydropower production (about 5511 GWh), could be introduced at 3758 MWp. The installation of the FPV systems covered 5% and 10% of the surface area. It was able to produce the highest electric power, which was more than the energy produced from the existing hydropower plants about 3.5 and 7 times, respectively. All five cases of potential energy production were considered for financial analysis. The highest financial benefit was found in the condition that FPV covers 10% of the surface area. As a result, it was expected to produce 40,096 GWh of electricity per year. This equals the amount of GHG reduction of approximately 24.22 million tCO2/year. The annual water evaporation reduction of 335.55 million m3/year is worth for agriculture about 27.85 million USD and the electricity production of 50,461 MWh. Based on the evaluation of various financial indicators, namely NPV, IRR, payback period, benefit–cost ratio (BCR), and electricity production cost (LCOE), the economic analysis results can ensure that all the FPV projects studied are profitable. The installation of the FPV system with 170% of DC to AC ratio can obtain more profits in NPV than a facility with a DC to AC ratio of 125%; however, the installation costs rose by about 30%.
Wanwisa Peanpitak, Jai Govind Singh
Chapter 19. Voltage Fault Ride-Through Operation of Solar PV Generation
Solar PV (SPV) resource-based distributed generation units with installations ranging from few kW to hundreds of MW are an immediate solution to meet the ever-increasing energy needs. Voltage fault ride-through (FRT) operation is an emerging requirement for SPV units that ensures reliable operation of the utility grid. This chapter discusses different aspects pertaining to the voltage FRT operation of the SPV generating units. The present grid code pertaining to the voltage FRT operation of SPV units for different countries is presented followed by the description of the IEEE 1547-2018 standard. The recent addition in this standard like provision for multiple FRT operation, abnormal performance categorization of generating units, and multiple performance regions within the ride-through characteristics is emphasized. The structure and control of a conventional double-stage SPV unit are elucidated with an analysis of response of the SPV unit for both high and low voltages at the network interface during symmetrical faults. The possible solutions for both control and structural changes required to facilitate the voltage FRT operation of SPV units are explained. A detailed methodology for retrofitting the existing PV units with crowbar circuit option or energy storage option is presented along with the design examples considering practical scenarios. Finally, a control strategy is presented in synchronous reference frame for facilitating the voltage FRT operation of the SPV unit along with the simulation case studies for both high- and low-voltage ride-through operations of the retrofitted SPV unit.
Bonu Ramesh Naidu, Prabodh Bajpai
Fundamentals and Innovations in Solar Energy
Dr. Sri Niwas Singh
Dr. Prabhakar Tiwari
Dr. Sumit Tiwari
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Springer Singapore
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