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2023 | Book

Fundamentals of the Radiolocation and Radionavigation

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About this book

The book presents principles of operation of radar and radionavigation systems. The group of radar systems includes: primary and secondary radiolocations, bistatic and multistatic systems. They are illustrated with relevant examples of calculation and applications. The issues of increasing the range of the radar systems are presented together with the matched filtering of the used signals. Other discussed issues are methods for eliminating interfering signals and researching methods of 3D space. Various methods of the monopulse radiolocation are presented in Chapter 12. In Chapters 13–18 terrestrial and satellite radionavigation systems are under discussion. The terrestrial systems are: Loran C, Decca Navigator and Omega. The TRANSIT is an example of a hyperbolic satellite system. The stadiometric systems GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO, BeiDou, IRNSS and QZSS are discussed together with differential systems augmentating of them. The ILS, MLS and TLS supporting the landing of aircrafts are discussed in Chapter 17. The prospects for replacing of them with satellite systems augmentated by appropriate reference ground-based stations (GBAS) are also analyzed. Various beacons and ranging devices used in aviation are described in the Chapter 18. This book is intended primarily for students and engineers interested in radar, radionavigation and aerospace engineering.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Basics Principles of the Radiolocation

Frontmatter
Chapter 1. Radiolocation and Its Basic Principles
Abstract
The essence of radiolocation as a research field within telecommunications is explained by its name derived from the English words “radio” and “location”. In the simplest terms, it can be defined as a research field dealing with the detection and location of objects distant in space, using radio waves. The word “radar” is closely associated with radiolocation, referring to most of the devices used to detect objects and determine their location.
Stanisław Rosłoniec
Chapter 2. Determining the Object’s Position by Radiolocation Methods
Abstract
Despite the fact that electromagnetic phenomena have accompanied mankind since the beginning of time, it was not until the second half of the nineteenth century that people became aware of their presence and the theoretical fundamentals of electromagnetism were established.
Stanisław Rosłoniec
Chapter 3. Reflective Surface of the Detected Objects with Monostatic and Bistatic Radar Systems
Abstract
At the core of active radiolocation with a passive response is the phenomenon of secondary electromagnetic wave radiation. This phenomenon occurs whenever an electromagnetic wave encounters an obstacle (object) on its path with electrical and magnetic properties different from the corresponding properties of free space expressed by \(\varepsilon_{0}\), \(\mu_{0}\) and \(\sigma_{0} = 0\).
Stanisław Rosłoniec
Chapter 4. Range Equations of Primary and Secondary Radar Systems
Abstract
The concept of the range equation is understood as a mathematical dependence describing the influence of various parameters of the radar system (its energy potential), the RCS of the object and propagation conditions of the maximum distance (range) \(R_{\max }\) between the radar station and the object, at which the object is still detectable.
Stanisław Rosłoniec
Chapter 5. Bistatic Radar Systems
Abstract
A monostatic (single-positioned) radar system is a primary radar system (active with passive response) with transmitting and receiving antennas placed in the same location. In other words, the distance between the phase centers of these antennas is disproportionately small in comparison to the distance determination accuracy.
Stanisław Rosłoniec
Chapter 6. Multistatic Radar Systems
Abstract
One of the fundamental principles of modern radiolocation is the use of possibly all properties of an echo signal containing information about an object from which the echo signal was reflected. In case of the object observed by a multistatic system, this information may be contained in: the object’s distance from the transmitter, the distance differences of the object from the receivers distant from each other and the frequency differences of the echo signals (following from the Doppler effect) received by individual receivers.
Stanisław Rosłoniec
Chapter 7. Standard Methods for Extending the Range of Radar Station
Abstract
One of the effective methods of extending the range of a radar station includes increasing the ratio of the echo signal power \(s(t)\) to the interference (noise) power \(n(t)\), which enables to extract a desired signal. This can be achieved either by an appropriate selection of receiver bandwidth or by exploiting the statistical properties of the white noise and the cross-correlation function for the received signal and a copy of the probe signal.
Stanisław Rosłoniec
Chapter 8. Theoretical Basis of Matched Signal Filtration
Abstract
This chapter discusses the basic concepts and mathematical forms of describing the problem of matched filtering of signals used in radiolocation and in radionavigation.
Stanisław Rosłoniec
Chapter 9. Filters Matched to the Typical Radar Signals
Abstract
Radar signals which occur as a sequence of high frequency \(N\) pulses do not allow for a large detection range with sufficient resolution by a radar station. According to a general principle, in order to obtain large range, one should use high energy probe signals, for instance with a long duration \(T_{0}\). On the other hand, in order to provide a sufficient resolution at a distance, the probe signal should be as short as possible.
Stanisław Rosłoniec
Chapter 10. Basic Methods for Eliminating Spurious Signals
Abstract
During the reception of a radar signal, a number of spurious signals usually appear and their impact on the quality of a desired signal reception is difficult to determine by a single coefficient. The energy criterion which determines the ratio of the spurious power to the power of the desired signal (at the receiver’s input) that facilitates a regular operation of the radar station is most frequently used for this purpose.
Stanisław Rosłoniec
Chapter 11. Searching the Three-Dimensional Space with Radar Devices
Abstract
The directivity pattern displacement in the azimuth plane can be implemented as follows, i.e. by the omnidirectional (mechanical) antenna rotation or electronically, in the case of scanning in a narrower sector \(\phi {}_{\min } \, \le \phi \le \phi_{\max }\).
Stanisław Rosłoniec
Chapter 12. Methods of Determining the Angular Coordinates of an Object by Monopulse Radar Devices
Abstract
In radiolocation and radio navigation, the determination of the angular coordinates of an object is referred to as a direction finding and direction-finders correspond to the devices implemented in this process. Direction-finders used in the initial period of radiolocation development had one receiving channel.
Stanisław Rosłoniec

Basic Principles of the Radionavigation

Frontmatter
Chapter 13. Basic Terms of Radionavigation and Object Position Determining Methods
Abstract
Broadly defined navigation corresponds to a scientific and technical discipline related to the relocation process of land, sea, airborne and space objects in (3D) space. Since this process takes place in real time, a four-dimensional space, including three geographical coordinates and their determination time, is considered. These coordinates should be explicitly defined and specified in the assumed reference system.
Stanisław Rosłoniec
Chapter 14. Ground, Hiperbolic Radionavigation Systems
Abstract
As mentioned before, considering hyperbolic radionavigation systems, the position lines can be described as the hyperbola branches, which are the geometric locus of the points.
Stanisław Rosłoniec
Chapter 15. Satellite, Doppler Radionavigation Systems
Abstract
The second half of the previous century brought one of the most significant achievements in radioelectronics, namely, the development of the first and second generation of satellite radio navigation systems.
Stanisław Rosłoniec
Chapter 16. Satellite Navigation Systems
Abstract
Satellite radionavigation systems are most frequently associated with the term GPS, which is an abbreviated name of the commonly used GPS—NAVSTAR system (Global Positioning System—Navigation Signal Timing and Ranging). Despite an unlimited access to its Standard Positioning Service (SPS), knowledge of the GPS organizational structure, principles of operation and mathematical methods of processing the measured pseudo-ranges is not common.
Stanisław Rosłoniec
Chapter 17. Aircraft Landing Aid Systems
Abstract
The fundamental task of air radio navigation is to provide a safe flight of an aircraft (mainly an airplane) on a given path with the required accuracy and time.
Stanisław Rosłoniec
Chapter 18. Radio Beacons and Distance Measuring Equipment Supporting Flight and Landing of the Aircrafts
Abstract
The present chapter discusses the topic of VHF Omni Directional Range (VOR, D-VOR). The first discussed radio beacon refers to a phase radio beacon, operating according to a phase method. Next the principle of operation of radio beacon using the Doppler effect is discussed, which is known as Doppler VOR beacon. The last and the most precise radio beacon is a pulse radio beacon, i.e. operating according to the amplitude-pulse method.
Stanisław Rosłoniec
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
Fundamentals of the Radiolocation and Radionavigation
Author
Stanisław Rosłoniec
Copyright Year
2023
Electronic ISBN
978-3-031-10631-6
Print ISBN
978-3-031-10630-9
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-10631-6