Skip to main content

2023 | Book

Future Automotive Production Conference 2022


About this book

This book comprises the proceedings of the conference “Future Automotive Production 2022”, which took place in Wolfsburg.

The conference focused on hybrid lightweight design, which is characterized by the combination of different materials with the aim of improving properties and reducing weight. In particular, production technologies for hybrid lightweight design were discussed, new evaluation methods for the ecological assessment of hybrid components were presented and future-oriented approaches motivated by nature for the development of components, assemblies and systems were introduced.

Lightweight design is a key technology for the development of sustainable and resource-efficient mobility concepts. Vehicle manufacturers operate in an area of conflict between customer requirements, competition and legislation. Material hybrid structures, which combine the advantages of different materials, have a high potential for reducing weight, while simultaneously expanding component functionality. The future, efficient use of function-integrated hybrid structures in vehicle design requires innovations and constant developments in vehicle and production technology. There is a great demand, especially with regard to new methods and technologies, for "affordable" lightweight construction in large-scale production, taking into account the increasing requirements with regard to variant diversity, safety and quality.

Table of Contents


Innovative and Smart Production

A Quantitative Method for the Investigation of Digitized Surfaces After Fine Milling Machining
Due to increasing efforts to shorten the time to market of new vehicle models, press tooling is under increasing competitive pressure. The manufacturing of press tools for high-quality body components depends on a large extent on the quality of the tools active surfaces as free-form surfaces. The use of non-contact optical measurement methods to digitize the tool surfaces creates high-density point clouds that have great potential to improve the manufacturing process through their analysis. In this paper, a method for the analysis of these point clouds is presented, which combines the qualitative and quantitative analysis of active surfaces, to enable conclusions about the process strategy and allow further optimizations to achieve cost and time savings. It is demonstrated on the example of a test specimen with characteristic elements of a press tool for vehicle body components. A parameter SQ is defined, which describes the area percentage inside of tolerance limits, acting as a quality parameter for the manufacturing result. The used test specimen achieves a SQ value of 93.9%. The robustness of SQ is investigated by a variation of the tolerance limits and a possible applicability to other components outside of vehicle body components is considered. Furthermore the distribution of the shape deviation is evaluated to determine whether too much or too little material removal causes the deviations, as well as in which angles it mainly occurs. It can be shown that the qualitative analysis of the false color image can be confirmed by the quantitative results of the proposed method. Based on this, optimization measures for the machining process are derived.
Maik Mackiewicz, Jannik Backhaus

Technologies for Circularity

Fatigue Life of Refurbished Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics
This study contributes basic knowledge in the field of fatigue testing for refurbished fiber reinforced thermoplastics (FRTP). In a first step quasi-static tensile test were performed. From the tensile tests stress amplitude levels are retrieved for fatigue tension-tension test with a stress ratio of R = 0.1. Fatigue tests for four load levels were performed and S-N-curve for the virgin material was derived. In the next step, again fatigue tension-tension tests were performed but the maximum load was reduced to 20% of static strength and the material tested up to 1.2E6 cycles, to simulate one life cycle. After the long life fatigue tests the specimen were refurbished. The process was defined by using a heated press. The specimen were placed in a tool to keep the shape and then temperature and pressure were applied on the specimen, to melt the plastic and close possible delamination or micro cracks in the matrix material. The refurbished specimens were again fatigue tested on the same stress levels which were applied to the virgin material. It could be shown that a refurbishment of long life fatigue material and an evaluation of an S-N-curve for refurbished material is possible. Especially for high cycle fatigue, the S-N-curves are in a close range so that the use of refurbished material seems possible.
Dennis Weintraut, Florian Kraft, Justus Freeden, Robert Meltke
Manufacturing of Lightweight Parts by Sandwich Foam Injection Moulding using Recycled Thermoplastics
Reinforced, high-performance thermoplastics may have moduli of elasticity of up to 40 GPa, depending on the filler content. The filling materials can thereby consist of secondary raw materials such as recycled carbon fibers. By combining these highly stiff materials with unreinforced but material-compatible and foamable thermoplastics, excellent and complex lightweight sandwich structures can be realized in a one-shot process using the sandwich foam injection moulding technology. The core and top layers of these structures are usually made of two different components (2-C). The process is both reproducible and cost-efficient for high production volumes. The foaming process is carried out either by adding a chemical blowing agent or an inert gas at supercritical conditions. The resulting composite consists of a short-fiber reinforced high-modulus material in the outer layer and an unreinforced foamed material in the core. Due to the low requirements on performance, odour as well as surface properties, recyclates are particularly well suited for the use as core material. Three sources of recyclates are presented in the paper, which have been the scope of the specific studies: A) Polyolefin mixed fraction from household waste, B) PET (polyethylene terephthalate) waste flakes, and C) polyamide waste. Depending on the source mentioned, dedicated lightweight structures with specific properties may be produced—with applications in particular market segments. A suitable example in this context is the sandwich foam injection moulded functional support structure for the electro-mobility automotive industry with a design suitable for foam injection moulding. Moreover, a significantly higher specific stiffness was achieved with this semi-structural component compared to an existing reference structure.
Annerose Hüttl, Mathias Kliem, Ralf Utescheny

Functional Structures

Innovative Design Concept for the Safety of Battery Housing
The automotive production is a very energy- and resource-intensive industry. For that reason, it is important to rethink many structures from the state of the art with the aim of generating a more environment-friendly future, for example by means of circular economy. In order to achieve this aim, a vehicle platform with a long service lifetime is required. The design of future parts should be much more modular to have the possibility of replacing parts easily, if needed. This basic approach is followed in a research project regarding the design of battery housings for electrical vehicles. One of the main research objectives in this project is to reduce the mass while increasing the lifetime and the crash safety of a modular battery housing for electric cars. Especially for the side crash the sill structure is essential. Therefore, an innovative modular concept was developed, which uses multiaxial fiber-reinforced crash tubes. To manufacture these tubes in a close to series production, the pultrusion process was used and technically adapted. This paper presents the findings of the design, process layup, manufacturing steps, and results of an adapted pultrusion process to produce load adjusted crash tubes made of fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP).
Claudia Drebenstedt, Marcus Knobloch, David Löpitz, Elisa Ruth Bader, Patryk Nossol
Thermocouple Fabrication by Cold Plasma Spray
Fraunhofer IST and University of Applied Sciences and Arts (HAWK) have recently developed a Cold Plasma Spray (CPS) coating technique providing for superior assembly of microsensors and other delicate substrates or devices. In CPS systems pulsed voltages at low currents ignite transient arc discharges that result in thermally moderate plasmas. Further, CPS allows for the use of air or nitrogen as plasma gas and provides a considerably gentle coating deposition process enabling the metallization of heat-sensitive or mechanical-weak objects. This is in contrast to conventional High-Temperature Thermal Plasma Spray or High Velocity Oxygen Fuel Spraying. The CPS process extends to a myriad of delicate surface applications, including the fabrication of electrically conductive bars and thermal sensors such as accurate thermocouples. These elements can be deposited onto thin polymer foils, e.g., ≤10 µm-thick PET, glass optics, or organic coatings; the so-called “cathodic dip paint” which is common in the automotive industry. Moreover, depending on the substrate, the CPS process allows for device extensions permitting robot-based metallization without the need for masking. The hereinafter presented work elucidates the fabrication of thin-film thermocouples by means of the unique CPS plasma spray process at Fraunhofer IST with emphasis on two use-cases.
N. Mainusch, D. Scholz, J. Linkmann, T. Abraham, W. Viöl

Life Cycle Engineering

A Variability Model for Individual Life Cycle Paths in Life Cycle Engineering
Life cycle properties are becoming increasingly important for the success of a product. They are determined during development, but their impact—and thus value—only becomes apparent in later life cycle phases. Life cycle engineering is concerned with designing such product properties in early stages of design. However, the life cycle paths of individual products from the same product type increasingly diverge, due to differing product usage, personalization and software or hardware updates. The expected and realized value of certain life cycle properties might vary greatly within the same type of product. Thus, this paper addresses how such individual life cycle paths can be made accessible to product system designers in the context of LCE, to evaluate and determine valuable life cycle properties. A meta model is developed to describe divergent life cycle paths of individual products and investigate, how to identify the possible, future life cycle paths in early stages of design and how to incorporate them in LCE. The approach is applied to the design of a door panel for passenger cars. Suitable life cycle properties and their associated designs were evaluated and determined, with respect to the expected, individual life cycle paths.
Lukas Block, Maximilian Werner, Helge Spindler, Benjamin Schneider
Increase the Ressource Efficiency by Evaluation of the Effects of Deep Rolling within the Design and Manufacturing Phase
Car manufacturers are currently facing the same challenge as all manufacturing companies: To increase the resource efficiency associated with their products. However, the demands are somewhat higher for car manufacturers: They must reduce greenhouse gas emission during their cars’ use phase. But it is not enough if only the use phase is adapted, but as a manufacturer, the OEMs must also include the emissions during production into their considerations. The consequence of this will be that the supply chain has to increase the resource efficiency. Resource efficiency can be increased by lightweight design of components. An idea that has been implemented for many years is lightweight construction by using the design of surface integrity. By optimizing surfaces and near surface regions, the service life of dynamically loaded components can be increased by introducing compressive residual stresses. Processes used for this are processes such as deep rolling or machine hammer peening. However, the effects of these processes directly on the reduction of part weight and the resulting effect on the production chain have not been investigated sufficiently. Within this paper, the possibilities of lightweight construction by deep rolling will be investigated based on an experiment and on literature data. For this purpose, dynamic loading tests are carried out on three different component states and thus a weight saving with the same service life is enabled. Subsequently, an evaluation of the material weight reduction is performed. These investigations will be the base for further investigation regarding a possible CO2 emission reduction along the production chain.
Oliver Maiß, Karsten Röttger, Kolja Meyer

Bio-based Material

Approaching a Smart, and Sustainable Interior for Future Mobility Solutions
Electrification and automated driving functions will have an enormous influence on automobiles of future generations, resulting in particular in an increased focus on the interior. New operator concepts as well as free time gained through autonomous driving will require new solutions and offerings for vehicle interiors. In addition, increased requirements for sustainability and the reduction or neutrality of CO2 emissions of materials, manufacturing processes and final products will have a massive impact on the design of future vehicles. A modular interior is thought off for different usage scenarios for one vehicle: the mobile office for the daily trip to work or to a meeting, a bulk purchase or group excursion or the transport of goods in between times. Competencies in renewable raw materials, their processing and component functionalization are bundled for the design of future passenger car interiors and light commercial vehicles. The aim is to develop quickly replaceable components which, on the one hand, allow the interior to be adapted to its respective purpose, having a long service life thanks to robust surfaces, and, on the other hand, guarantee repair and maintenance during the continued use of the vehicles in order to reduce vehicle downtimes. In this paper the development of an interior demonstrator for future mobility will be shown.
Torben Seemann, Claudia Burgold, Sergey Stepanov, Marvin Christopher Vincenzo Omelan, Sebastian Stegmüller
Fast Curing Biobased Epoxy Hardener for RTM Applications
Efficient lightweight solutions becoming increasingly important in the automotive industry. Since the trend of using sustainable electric engine drives is ongoing, the CO2 impact of car components is becoming more important for the overall aim to produce a CO2 neutral mobility until 2050.
So far, for automotive components almost exclusively carbon fibre reinforced plastics have been used in lightweight construction. Natural fibres offer an ecological alternative for non- or semi-structural car body parts. They exhibit, however, lower stiffness and strength than carbon fibres, but mechanical properties are sufficient for many applications for car body parts. Due to their naturally grown structure, natural fibres dampen sound and vibrations better. Their lower tendency to splinter can help reduce the risk of injury in the event of an accident. In addition, they do not cause skin irritation during processing.
The overall aim of the project is the development of a sustainable biosourced natural fibre reinforced epoxide for a car door. The research approach is a fast curing bio-sourced epoxy system for RTM (Resin Transfer Moulding) applications with a glass transition temperature >100 ℃ of the natural fibre reinforced composite. Due to its chemical structure, the bio-based epoxy resin has a tough elastic behaviour, which could offer advantages in the crash test. Among the used chemistry for the bio-sourced material, the kinetics of the bio-sourced resin will be considered and brought into relation of the whole production process. Additionally, data of dynamic thermomechanical analysis of the material will be presented.
Stefan Friebel, Ole Hansen, Jens Lüttke
Investigation on the Bond Performance in Hybrid Wood-Plastic Components
Sustainable resource and energy management are essential aspects for the change of industrial products and processes of the coming years. The demand for resource-saving and sustainable products is increasing in many production areas. As a renewable resource with a wide range of properties, bio-based materials, such as wood, play a key role in this context. For the development of sustainable, lightweight as well as load-bearing structural components, the use of wood veneer shows great potential. Due to the microscopic structure of wood as cellulose fibers embedded in a lignin matrix, it is comparable to the structure of fiber-reinforced plastic semi-finished products such as tapes or organo sheets. In order to be able to serve a similar field of application as plastic-based semi-finished products, however, the wood-based product must meet the requirements in terms of functionalization, mechanical properties and process integration during production. One way to meet the specific conditions is to combine layered wood veneers together with plastic applications by means of wood-plastic hybrid components. The resulting plywood serves the function of bearing the load, while the plastic structure, e.g. ribs, ensures a sufficient stiffness of the part. Its structural integrity is mainly determined by the bond strength of the wood-plastic interface. The bond strength in turn depends on the type of plastic used, on the conditioning of the plywood and on the process parameters during overmoulding. In the context of this work, the bond strength between beech wood-veneers and different plastics polypropylene is investigated. Therefore, rib specimens are manufactured in an overmoulding process with varying parameters. Afterwards, the bond strength is determined in a rib pull-off test and the influence of the variation parameters is investigated.
Vicky Reichel, Werner Berlin, Tim Ossowski, Yvonne Phung, Klaus Dröder

Generative Manufacturing

Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Sources for Additive Manufacturing
Adhesion plays a central role in additive manufacturing (AM) processes like Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM). The printed part needs sufficient adhesion to the build plate. The adhesion in between the printed material layers defines the mechanical strength of the component. Post-processing processes such as painting or bonding require good chemical coupling, as does the combination of different materials (FDM of different polymers, integration of metal inserts).
Unfortunately, sufficient adhesion is not given for all material combinations. An interesting and flexible possibility to influence the surface chemistry and thus the chemical bonding are surface functionalization by using atmospheric pressure plasma technologies. These have been used for many years with great success for the surface treatment of polymers. Depending on the plasma parameters used, it is possible to clean and etch surfaces, to functionalise surfaces with reactive chemical groups, to deposit layers or to cross-link polymers. While this is already used for treatment of 2D and 3D substrates in many applications, the integration of new functionalities by plasma into additive manufacturing processes is of great interest. This allows new functionalities to be integrated into 3D-printed components and simplifies further processing.
At the Fraunhofer IST various approaches of small atmospheric pressure plasma sources are under development which can be easily integrated into the additive manufacturing process. Small point-shaped plasma modules for the sequential treatment of defined areas were built-up and integrated into commercially available FDM printers. With these plasma sources, the plasma treatment of defined areas of the components is possible during 3D printing. Integrated plasma sources enable moreover the in-situ treatment of internal surfaces which are subsequently no longer accessible for other treatment processes. This can create new products and expand the scope of additive manufacturing.
Thomas Neubert, Kristina Lachmann, Lara Schumann, Veysel Zeren, Tim Abraham, Michael Thomas
Design Freedoms of Lattice Structures for Interlock Bonding
Additive manufacturing (AM) enables new design freedoms that are often not fully utilized for complexity and price reasons. Lattice structures are one use case of AM that, despite being frequently utilized in lightweight design, is not commonly used in other areas. Bonding low adhesion materials through interlocking lattice structures uses the design freedom of AM in a new and innovative way, however the design of these structures is highly complex and the mechanical behavior is not easily understood. In order to completely tap into design potentials of such structures, it is first necessary to understand the design freedoms of lattice structures in general to then apply this knowledge to bonding by interlocking lattices specifically. This publication aims to show how lattice structures are designed in a fast and repeatable manner in a CAD environment and tries to show the design freedoms of these lattice structures. These insights are then applied to the use case of bonding by interlocking. It is shown that by using interlocking lattices, the bonding strength of bonds for low adhesion polymers can be significantly increased while achieving low standard deviations, even compared to established methods of increasing bonding strength like plasma pre-treatment.
Raphael Freund, Fynn Matthis Sallach, Thomas Vietor

Factories of the Future

Assisted Facility Layout Planning for Sustainable Automotive Assembly
Decisions in factory layout planning can be considered multi-dimensional and complex since they need to cope with numerous partially conflicting boundary conditions and objectives. However, they do have a significant impact on long-term efficiency and flexibility. Due to rising needs in this area, an assisted solution for optimizing factory layout planning is required. Generative Design (GD) is a summarizing term for iterative, mostly nature-analogue approaches that support an efficient analysis of large design spaces, allowing to effortlessly achieve mathematically optimized solutions not usually achievable by traditional methods. Although there have been decades of research on the underlying principles, generative planning of spatial arrangements for manufacturing facilities still lacks behind its potential. Therefore, the proposed paper will begin with a structured overview of terminology and different factory planning requirements, followed by possible mathematical approaches for facility layout planning problems (FLP) in manufacturing. Special attention is drawn to sustainability aspects, defining the requirements to be considered in an automated design and including empirical knowledge in complex scenarios. The paper finishes with the derivation of identified future research areas.
Marian Süße, Antje Ahrens, Valentin Richter-Trummer, Steffen Ihlenfeldt
Assembly and Through Life Services in the Context of Urban Cloud Manufacturing
Platform economy enables entirely new value creation processes with remarkable resistance to crises compared to centralized production systems. Acknowledged samples in commerce, travel accommodations, and creative media platforms are well known. Samples in production technology are, despite the potentials in platform economy, still rare. Its application in complex production systems must contribute to individualized product and process design and realization. Thus, research and development on structuring and utilization in a platform-supported production economy are required. We propose the framework “Urban Circular Cloud Assembly and Services (Urban CIRCLAS)”, which is developed for granularization and order-specific ad-hoc new combination of operating resources, processes and workers. The Urban CIRCLAS framework contains handling technology, measurement technology, manual and automated assembly systems as well as a cloud-based IT infrastructure for demonstration of feasible circular production samples in an urban context. This paper presents the concept, potential and challenge of the Urban CIRCLAS framework. It highlights how users such as freelancers or small companies combine and upgrade their know-how and capabilities to realize innovative product and process designs, which meet established industry standards. This is elaborated by three scenarios with different requirements. Based on the outcomes, potential application and research areas enabled by the Urban CIRCLAS framework are discussed. As a result, important insights can be gained from the concept of the Urban CIRCLAS.
Aydan Oguz, Pinar Bilge, Arne Glodde, Sina Rahlfs, Franz Dietrich

Design and Simulation

AI-Based Performance Prediction and Its Application on the Design and Simulation of Cooling Plates for Battery Electric Vehicles
With the increasing focus on the electrification of personal mobility, shortened development cycles with high cost pressure have to be managed quicker than ever in the Automotive Industry at minimal development cost. As a global automotive supplier, Mubea develops novel manufacturing technologies for new products in the electric powertrain. One example in the battery case of battery electric vehicles is the thermal management system of the traction batteries - a key factor in the battery case. As a new production technology for this product, the Mubea Rollbonding Process of aluminum offers several advantages, such as a high design freedom of the channel structure. For the product development – even though Mubea consequently makes use of automated simulation workflows – the turn-around time of a single CFD performance evaluation is still high. Therefore, our goal is to use all the historic simulation results from past projects to build a predictive model that allows the prediction of simulation results in real-time. However, given the high freedom in the design space allowed by the Rollbonding process, standard Machine Learning approaches, based on parameters, are not suitable. Hence, there is the need to directly process 3D geometries as such. Using historical engineering data, the unique deep learning approach of Neural Concept is able to predict unseen designs in seconds rather than hours, directly from the raw CAD file. This innovative approach allows Mubea to iterate faster and shorten the response time on customer enquiries. In conjunction with other design disciplines and manufacturing data, we look forward to have not only an AI-based design evaluation but also a tolerance-aware design optimization. In this paper we present an innovative strategy to utilize historic simulation results, and the corresponding 3D geometries, to predict the performance of new designs instantaneously. After explaining the underlying approach, first results are discussed. It can be shown that with as little as 100 training samples, this approach is able to deliver predictions with sufficient accuracy and over 90 % of lead-time reduction. Finally, we explain how Neural Concept and Mubea are collaborating to embed this approach in the Mubea design and simulation environment.
Niklas Klinke, Stefan Buchkremer, Lutz-Eike Elend, Maksym Kalaidov, Thomas von Tschammer
Innovative Module Design with Actice and Passive Cooling of Traction Batteries
The shift toward electromobility requires innovative solutions for battery design and the associated peripherals in order to increase the efficiency and safety of electric vehicles and increase sustainability. This major challenge was taken up by a consortium of five Fraunhofer institutes as part of a research project. The goal was to develop new designs and manufacturing technologies for e-mobility applications, which would then be implemented in a resource-efficient battery module demonstrator. This module demonstrator (Fig. 1) initially consists of two identical cast aluminum half-shells with integrated copper channels for active cooling of the battery cells. These halves are bonded together via fire retardent fiber composite side panels (right, left and back). The adhesive used is thermally releasable, allowing easier disassembly. The module lid is attached to the front face and consists of a metal foam sandwich, which is infiltrated with phase change material (PCM). The PCM serves as a passive cooling system for the power electronics located on the backside of the lid, enabling thermal load peak flattening and increased temperature homogeneity within the power electronics. The heat stored in the PCM can be released to the environment or be removed via the active cooling system subsequent to the peak loads. The overall cooling management of the module thus also allows very heat-intensive charge and discharge cycles. Thin fire protection materials are located between the cells to prevent thermal propagation in the event of a thermal runaway of a cell. Several modules can be interconnected to form a stable unit that can be expanded as required.
David Löffler, Rico Schmerler, Markus Grünert, Jan Clausen, Simon Schmidt
Contribution to the Optimization of Metal-Composite Lightweight Structures in Context of Digital Linked Development Processes
Hybrid metal-composite structures offer high potential in lightweight engineering. These hybrid structures bring advantages in strength, stiffness and weight. These hybrid structures are predestined for highly stressed elements such as car body parts. The combination of the different materials leads to a complex process in the design as well as in the manufacturing phase with a multitude of adjustable and interacting parameters. This publication focuses on a deep understanding of the hybrid component to further support the development and digital observed manufacturing process. A stiffness-to-weight improvement for the structure is presented. Potentially relevant parameters are identified from a wide range of geometric variables in each structural element. They were used to set up a parameterized model in SolidWorks and perform a CAD-based parametric FE simulation in ANSYS Workbench. The generated results are used to perform a sensitivity analysis to identify relevant parameters. These key parameters can be readjusted in the design process and provide the basis for a Digital Master in terms of geometry parameters.
Fabian Folprecht, Felix Bonn, Daniel Reinhold Haider, Sebastian Spitzer, Maik Gude

Reports from the Research Clusters

Cluster of Excellence Living, Adaptive and Energy-Autonomous Materials Systems (livMatS)
The Cluster of Excellence “Living, Adaptive, and Energy-autonomous Materials Systems” (livMatS) develops bioinspired materials systems that adapt autonomously to various environments and harvest clean energy from their surroundings. The intention of these purely technical—yet in a behavioral sense quasi-living—materials systems is to meet the demands of humans with regard to pioneering environmental, sustainability and energy technologies. The societal relevance of autonomous systems and their sustainability thus plays a crucial role in their development within the framework of livMatS. The current contribution provides an overview of the vision, research agenda and research goals of livMatS.
Thomas Speck, Monika E. Schulz, Anna Fischer, Jürgen Rühe
Potentials and Design of a Virtual Production System for Intelligent Battery Cell Manufacturing
The increasing worldwide demand for lithium-ion batteries is no longer an estimated forecast, but a fact. Observable trends, such as the increasing variety of battery cell formats and materials, present enormous challenges for the design of production processes. Many cause-effect relationships can be seen in the individual manufacturing processes, but are not yet properly or only partially understood. To meet these requirements and challenges and to ensure effective manufacturing, intelligent processes are needed in battery cell production. Methods of digitization, artificial intelligence and the use of digital twins offer a high potential to optimize the processes both in commissioning and in operation. These methods can be applied within a virtual production system for process optimization in battery cell manufacturing. In this paper, the potential of a virtual production system for battery cell manufacturing is discussed. Further, the design of a suitable infrastructure consisting of standardized interfaces, data models and process models is provided. The result is a system that offers the possibility to virtually quantify cause-effect relationships, to test optimization approaches along the entire process chain of battery cell production and to apply recommendations for action to the real production system. The process step of cell assembly is considered as an example. Here, the simulation model and the associated data model are specified.
Kamal Husseini, Hans Thomas Augspurger Hernández, Dominik Mayer, Jürgen Fleischer
Future Automotive Production Conference 2022
Klaus Dröder
Thomas Vietor
Copyright Year
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN

Premium Partners