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About this book

These proceedings are based on the 2013 International Conference on Future Information & Communication Engineering (ICFICE 2013), which will be held at Shenyang in China from June 24-26, 2013. The conference is open to all over the world, and participation from Asia-Pacific region is particularly encouraged. The focus of this conference is on all technical aspects of electronics, information, and communications

ICFICE-13 will provide an opportunity for academic and industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of FICE. In addition, the conference will publish high quality papers which are closely related to the various theories and practical applications in FICE. Furthermore, we expect that the conference and its publications will be a trigger for further related research and technology improvements in this important subject.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Communication System and Application

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Dispersion Managed Optical Links with Randomly Distributed Residual Dispersion Per Span for 960 Gbps WDM Transmission

The possibility of implementing the randomly distributed residual dispersion per span (RDPS) in optical links with optical phase conjugator (OPC) for 960 Gbps WDM transmissions is studied and discussed. It is confirmed that RDPS of each fiber spans should be randomly selected to ensure that the deviation of the accumulated dispersion between two transmission sections with respect to OPC was set to be small, for example, RDPS of each fiber spans are randomly selected to ensure that the accumulated dispersion at each transmission sections are to −10~20 ps/nm for optical link with net residual dispersion (NRD) of 10 ps/nm. It is also confirmed that the best NRD in optical link with the randomly distributed RDPS is ±10 ps/nm rather than 0 ps/nm. Consequently, the randomly distributed RDPS is possible by applying the best NRD into optical link specified with the optimal combination condition of random RDPS.

Seong-Real Lee

Chapter 2. In-Band MAC-Layer Sensing for the Cognitive Radio Networks

Channel sensing in the cognitive radio networks is a very important function to avoid collision with primary users. MAC-layer sensing determines key parameters for channel sensing such as available sensing period and sensing duration. The sensing period and sensing duration affect on the data transmission. The shorter sensing period increases the sensing accuracy and reduces the possibility of packet collision with primary users. However, it can reduce the data transmission time and decrease the system throughput. Therefore, one of the important roles of MAC-layer sensing is to determine the sensing period. In this paper, we evaluate the sensing period to minimize the missing probability and interference probability to the primary users.

Xiang Gao, Hyung-Kun Park

Chapter 3. Design of Circular Patch Microstrip Antenna for 2.4 GHz RFID Applications

This paper discusses about the design of circular patch microstrip antenna for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags application in the microwave band. Circular microstrip patch antenna is designed with a rectangular slot with the addition of 45° rotation in antenna patch and feed line to use for electric current feed. The dimensions of microstrip antenna obtained through computation, and then performed simulations. The design of microstrip antenna using fiberglass epoxy material -FR-4 with dielectric constant (εr) = 4,5. Based on simulation results, the antenna shows the maximum performance at 2400 MHz with return loss < −10 dB and VSWR < 2. Return loss and VSWR consecutive minimum of −31.37 dB and 1.056; the gain value is 1.399 dBi with 83.4 MHz of bandwidth and the shape of the radiation pattern of the antenna is directional.

Yuwono Rudy, Adiguna Baskoro, Achmad Dahlan Erfan

Chapter 4. Vitalization of E-Marketplace to Strengthen Trade Between Korea and China in Electronic Commerce

A concept, Electronic Commerce, began its existence as computerization and information communication technologies improve rapidly all over the world. Since many business transactions are performed on the Internet, rapid transactions could be performed with no time and space limitations. Electronic commerce among enterprises could make purchasing cost low, make stock management efficient, and make logistics system efficient. First of all, we check three concepts of electronic commerce, mobile commerce, and electronic marketplace. The goal of our research is to understand characteristics of small and medium sized enterprises and problems of e-marketplace, to refer to successful cases of e-marketplace, and to propose solutions to make efficient Korea–China Business-to-Business Trade.

Sangwon Lee, Hyun-Chang Lee, Seong Jin Park, Chan Yong Jin, Seong-yoon Shin

Chapter 5. Marketing and Inventory Managements in Smart Phone Environment

The smartphone technology has brought enormous changes into enterprise management and government operation. The environment of business has also changed. In order to meet increasingly fierce competition, the businesses could collect more effective information and respond flexibly to various changes. In addition, the enterprise management is in more urgent need of smart office than ever. Therefore, in this chapter, we examine the market of smartphone so as to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of company affairs, keep up with the development of information technology, and realize sustainable development, especially the flexible use of the basic mobile device smartphone. After studying on concepts of ERP and smart phone, we perform an experiment by use of m_Bizmaker to realize applications on ERP.

Seong-yoon Shin, Hyun-Chang Lee, Sangwon Lee, Chan Yong Jin, Chenlin Xu

Chapter 6. Relationship Between Car Color and Car Accident on the Basis of Chromatic Aberration

In choosing a car, we consider car performance, design, price, and safety as the most important things without reference to accident occurrence probability. We first studied on the concepts of advancing color and receding color as well as relationships with car accidents. Consequently, advancing color causes less accidents since the color looks closer than it actually is. And receding color causes more accidents since the color looks farther than it actually is. And we classified car colors into seven ones such as black, white, blue, green, silver, red, and yellow. Each representative color includes its detailed colors corresponding to its domain. We also proposed accident occurrence probabilities ordered by each color. The descending order is blue, green, white, red, black, silver, and yellow. The rate of relationship with 74.64 % is high than that of disrelationship with 25.36 %.

Seong-yoon Shin, Yang-Won Rhee, Dai-Hyun Jang, Sangwon Lee, Hyun-Chang Lee, Chan Yong Jin

Chapter 7. Feasibility Study of 32 Trellis-Coded OFDM Waveform for Tactical Information Communication

In this paper, the applicability of 32 trellis-coded OFDM waveform is studied for the tactical information communications system in NCW (Network Centric Warfare). In order to reduce received SNR in BER 1.0E

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6 conditions, we proposed a 32-TCM. We also applied OFDM technologies such as timing recovery, carrier recovery, and equalizer, in order to reduce robust channel impairments caused by non-LOS environments where a signal is not received from another system. Simulation results show that coding gain of a 32 trellis-coded OFDM waveform has about 7 dB and 2 dB, compared to single-carrier 16-QAM waveform and OFDM (16QAM) waveform in tactical communication environments, respectively.

Byounggi Kim, Cheolhun Na, Sangjin Ryoo

Chapter 8. Quantization Error According to Bit Truncation Method in 4k-FFT Algorithm

In this paper, we compare a quantization error performance of FFT algorithm according to bit truncation method. 4k-FFT algorithm of OFDM is proposed and implemented in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). We analyze the quantization error performance according to bit truncation method. Measured results show the maximum quantization error of 6.042152/6.067595 (real/imaginary value in 12 stage MSB truncation), 3.112953/2.627594 (real/imaginary value in 12 stage LSB truncation), 0.006065/0.005448 (real/imaginary value in 6 stage LSB/6 stage MSB truncation) in 1st method. And measured results show the maximum quantization error of 0.001464/0.00129 (real/imaginary value in truncation after FFT) in 2nd method.

Sangjung Ra, Dongjoon Choi, Namho Hur, Sangjin Ryoo, Cheolsung Kim

Chapter 9. Channel Compensation of Variable Symbol Timing Offset in Non-synchronized OFDM System

In this paper, we propose the method of channel compensation with phase rotator (PR) when there is variable symbol timing offset (STO) in non-synchronized orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system. Because the symbol timing of OFDM symbols is estimated within cyclic prefix (CP) interval, a STO occurs and makes the received quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) symbols rotated. These rotated QAM symbols can be compensated with frequency domain equalizer (FEQ). However, because the drift of symbol timing occurs in non-synchronized OFDM system, symbol timing should be estimated every OFDM symbols. Thus, the STO of the first OFDM symbol can be different from it of other OFDM symbols. PR compensates the phase difference caused by STO differences of OFDM symbols before FEQ. We show that the uncoded-bit error rate (BER) between the synchronized OFDM system and the proposed non-synchronized OFDM system is the same under additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and multipath channel.

Jae-Ho Lee, Dong-Joon Choi, Nam-Ho Hur, Whan-Woo Kim

Chapter 10. Comparison of Job Scheduling Policies in Cloud Computing

Cloud Computing, as the new computing paradigm, provides cost-effective IT operations. In order to efficiently utilize the tremendous capabilities of the Cloud, efficient virtual machines (VMs) allocation and job scheduling mechanism is required. This paper presents an adaptive job scheduling and VM allocation method with threshold. Several scheduling policies are applied. The aim is to achieve effective resource utilization as well as saving users’ cost. SimPy is used to build the simulation model.

Yang Cao, CheulWoo Ro, JianWei Yin

Chapter 11. Robust Observer Based Model Predictive Control of a 3-DOF Helicopter System

Helicopter systems are characterized by highly nonlinear dynamics, multiple operating regions, and significant interaction among state variables. In this paper, an observer based model predictive control (MPC) scheme with successive linearization is presented, for a 3 degree of freedom (DOF) helicopter system. All control simulations were performed under the conditions of noisy measurements. To illustrate the advantage by using unscented Kalman filter (UKF) as the observer, the performance of UKF based MPC is compared with those of MPC algorithms using linear filters and extended Kalman filter (EKF). The simulation results have shown that for this application the UKF-based MPC has superior performance, in terms of the disturbance rejection and set-point tracking.

Yujia Zhai

Chapter 12. Improving Cell Phone Based Gait Identification with Optimal Response Time Using Cloudlet Infrastructure

In this paper, we propose an improved gait identification based on signal collected from mobile sensors (e.g. accelerometer, magnetometer). Based on the observation from previous works, we found that there are restrictions which could negatively affect the efficiency of the system when it is applied in reality. For example the installation error has never been considered well. Additionally, performing identification tasks on mobile devices with limited resource constraints is also a big challenge. In this paper, we propose our own identification method which achieves better accuracy than previous works by taking a deep look at processing steps in gait identification issue. Moreover, the interaction between our identification model and human interaction is improved by minimizing the time delay to perform identification. To do this, the VM-based cloudlet infrastructure is also constructed to perform assigning computation tasks from mobile to nearby powerful PCs that belong to the cloudlet. From initial experiment, the archived accuracy of our identification model was approximately 98.99 % and the response time was reduced by 95.8 %.

Thang Hoang, Viet Vo, Chuyen Luong, Son Do, Deokjai Choi

Chapter 13. Logical Analysis of Discrete Event System Using Compositional Minimization

Logical analysis of a system is an indispensable process for high quality and reliable system development. In this paper, we propose an analysis method based on compositional minimization for DEVS models. For the purpose of logical analysis of DEVS models, Communicating Discrete Event Systems (CDEVS) model was defined, which enables representing the nondeterministic behavior of systems. As a means of systematic proof technique, two operations named composition and minimization were defined. These operations are compatible with the meaning of the communication semantics of DEVS models. Repetitive composition and minimization of component models produces a new CDEVS model that has the same input output responses to an environment. As the conformation criteria between the specification and the implementation, equivalence relation has been used.

Wan-Bok Lee

Chapter 14. Accurate Indoor Positioning Technique Using RSSI Assisted Inertial Measurement

An indoor positioning technique based on the inertial measurement of the object and the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) measured from an active RFID tag placed on the object is presented. The inertial measurement complements the inaccuracy of the RSSI measurements, especially when the object is far away from RFID reader. Correspondingly, a strong RSSI reading when the object is near a RFID reader provides accurate information about the location of the object. This information could then be used to amend the position estimated from the inertial measurement. Experiment has shown that the proposed technique provides better positioning accuracy.

Wallace Wong, Lin Shen Liew, Chean Hung Lai, Llewellyn Liu

Networking and Services

Frontmatter

Chapter 15. An Efficient Access Control Mechanism for Application Software Using the Open Authentication

As the cloud service is developing, technologies such as virtualization/big data processing is being proposed, but security accidents are occurring constantly. Therefore, companies which are afraid of disclosure of their main data build their own private cloud service. However, in the virtualization software, it is difficult to control the execution of application software and there are also other issues, such as system resource waste, repeated user login execution. Hence, this paper considers executing application software in accordance with the user privilege, by using the Open Authentication and the virtualization technology. For this purpose, a proposed system was designed and implemented, and it was verified by simulation that the proposed system reduced the system resource usage and could execute application software on Web according to the user privilege. Our proposed scheme can support another private cloud service such as SaaS more efficiently.

Seon-Joo Kim, Jin-Mook Kim, In-June Jo

Chapter 16. Tracking Multi-Objects in Web Camera Video Using Particle Filtering

This paper presents new methods for efficient object tracking in web camera video sequences using multiple features and particle filtering. Particle filtering is particularly useful in dealing with nonlinear state space models and non-Gaussian probability density functions. We develop a multi-objects tracing system which considers color information, distance transform based shape information and also nonlinearity. We examine the difficulties of video based tracking and step by step we analyze these issues. In our first approach, we develop the color based particle filter tracker that relies on the deterministic search of window, whose color content matches a reference histogram model. A simple HSV histogram-based color model is used to develop this observation system. Secondly, we describe a new approach for moving multi-object tracking with particle filter by shape information. The shape similarity between a template and estimated regions in the video scene is measured by their normalized cross-correlation of distance transformed images. Our observation system of particle filter is based on shape from distance transformed edge features. Template is created instantly by selecting any object from the video scene by a rectangle. Finally, in this paper we illustrate how our system is improved by using both these two cues with nonlinearity.

Yang Weon Lee

Chapter 17. Mutual Authentication Scheme for Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is known as one of the big next things in Information Communication Technology world. Cloud computing offers a lot of cost and efficiency benefits to the business, but it also introduce significant security vulnerabilities. Data security always becomes a big concern whenever customers lose physical control on their data. Sensitive data processed outside the enterprise need to be assurance that they are only accessible and propagate to the privileged users. In this paper, we proposed a mutual authentication that allow cloud user and cloud remote server to authenticate each other as we believed it is crucial to protect not only the server but also the legitimate users from security threats. Unlike one way authentication, in mutual authentication, client must proves its identity to server and the server must proves its identity to client before any access have been granted or any application traffic is sent over the client–server connection.

Shirly Lee, Tae Yong Kim, Hoon-Jae Lee

Chapter 18. A Novel Algorithm for Detection of Elephant Flows: Landmark-LRU with Recycle

Along the trend of ever increasing Internet traffic, flows that occupy network bandwidth heavily over long period of time become serious threats. Elephant Flows, the nickname for these flows, have critical impact to network performance in terms of both delivery time and fairness. They raise complicated issues for management of Internet traffic and services. Identifying these flows efficiently in core network has been an important problem. The Least Recently Used (LRU) and the Landmark LRU schemes are two of the most efficient methods exist. We propose a cache update algorithm, to further improve the Landmark LRU scheme. The proposed scheme improves the accuracy of detecting elephant flow while maintaining efficiency of Landmark LRU. We verify our algorithm by analysis and simulation on wireless network traces captured on university environments.

Yunki Choi, Jinoo Joung

Chapter 19. ISPM: An Improved Secure Payment Mechanism to Prevent the Black Hole Attack and Selfish Node in WMN

The existing receipt-based mechanisms only concerned with selfish nodes, but it lack of concern for the internal attacks and fail to prevent unsafe routing to establish. In this paper, an improved secure payment mechanism (ISPM) is proposed to prevent the black hole attack and selfish node in WMN. ISPM can effectively reduce the nodes selfish behavior with the timer that contained in each mesh node. In addition, the mesh nodes saved receipt is also used to against black hole attacks. Instead of requesting all mesh nodes in the forwarding path submitted the receipt to the accounting center (AC), only one mesh node need to submit the receipt to AC in ISPM. Our analytical and simulation results demonstrate that ISPM has lower packet loss rate and higher throughput than the traditional receipt-base payment mechanism.

Junguo Liao, Junwen Li

Chapter 20. Analysis of Internet Banking Security Crack Through Messenger Hacking

The messenger is a free information and communication means for easy information exchange with acquaintances connected to the Internet during ordinary work process. Therefore, acquaintances (automatically) connected while the Internet is connected are people well known to a messenger user. This study relates to an analysis of online banking security crack made in the following process: a hacker hacks messengers, for example, NateOn, MSN and the like, to become close to victims as if the hacker is a close acquaintance, and then sends a hacking tool (keylog, remote monitoring, etc.) in the manner of social engineering. The hacker uses the hacking tool to steal personal online banking information including hacked person’s bank account, ID, PW, certificate, security card information and the like and then to withdraw cash balance of the target account. This study also aims to find elements vulnerable to personal Internet banking transaction hacking to develop security measures for the relevant vulnerability in order to enhance secure and safe Internet banking transactions of people by preventing Internet banking security cracks.

Dea-Woo Park, Kyong-Ha Roo

Chapter 21. Routing Approach in IPv6 Ubiquitous Internet-Based Home Automation Network

Internet-based home automation system allows home owners to monitor and control connected devices in the home using any Internet enabled device. The home’s low power and low data rate, control and monitoring needs are catered for using 6LoWPAN. The home’s high data rate needs are met by the Wi-Fi standard. IPv6 routing is implemented to facilitate interconnection between heterogeneous 6LoWPAN, Wi-Fi, outside IPv6 networks. There are two types of routing which need to be considered: routing inside a 6LoWPAN, routing between a 6LoWPAN and another IP home automation network. In this paper we analyze and discuss the available routing solutions proposed to support interconnection and unique requirement over IPv6 ubiquitous Internet-based home automation network. For Wi-Fi and connection to outside IPv6 home automation network, it can use the existing routing protocols because of long-standing and well-established. For 6LoWPAN, unique routing requirements of home automation networks is challenging, especially in 6LoWPAN networks with low-power and lossy radio links and battery-powered nodes. Important requirements include energy consumption, memory uses, mobility, scalability, and so forth. Briefly, not all routing requirements of home automation applications met by the available routing protocol, although the vast majority can fulfill.

Ardiansyah Musa Efendi, Oh Seung Kyo, Ali Fahmi Perwira Negara, Thang Hoang, Deokjai Choi

Chapter 22. A Network-Based IP Mobility Management Scheme with IPv4/IPv6 Dual Stack Support

This paper proposes a mobility management scheme, called Access Independent Mobile Service with IPv4/IPv6 Dual Stack Support (AIMS-DS), which supports high-quality mobility service for IPv4/IPv6 dual stack nodes in heterogeneous wireless networks. The proposed scheme provides a mobile node with a fast and reliable handovers through network-based mobility control, separation of control and data planes, and cross-layer interworking. It addresses seamless mobility issues in the IPv4/IPv6 coexisting networks such as home address binding management and IP-in-IP tunneling between different address systems. The performance evaluation results show that the proposed scheme has superiority and more practicality compared to the existing approaches in terms of handover latency, packet loss and packet delivery latency.

Kyoung-Hee Lee, Hoe-Kyung Jung, Hyun-Woo Lee, Sung-Kuen Lee, Youn-Hee Han

Chapter 23. Network System Based on M2M for Efficient Visual Information Service

Current visual information is, as an information delivery mediator of information society, playing a very important role and its applied fields are growing exponentially. However, existing network system collecting and providing visual information requires human to act in awareness and transmission of data and causes data delay. In this paper, proposes network system replacing part processed by human awareness through combining M2M technology on the network system that collects visual information in order to solve the problem. The proposed system compares information from mobile devices captured on visual device and data for visual information requested by each server and sets the route visual information is transferred. As a result of test in environment to fit M2M major component with development of M2M devices using AVR, we could learn that only visual information matching content saved on M2M application server database built using transferred data from several servers among visual data collected continuously is transmitted to the server requesting information.

Min-Ho Jeon, Chang-Heon Oh

Chapter 24. A Study of Technical Strategy for Tourism Social Network Services from the Viewpoint of Acceptance Decision Factor

In this paper, we intended to analyze the relationship among tourist’s acceptance decision, perceived value, satisfaction and continuous use for social network service. For this study, the self-administered questionnaire for 199 tourists was employed. As the result, the positive relationships among the above-mentioned factors are found. The technical strategy from this result could be suggested that the positive feedback of customer acceptance decision factors further encourages customers continuous uses of tourism SNS. Therefore tourism SNS providers should consider social aspects in its user retention.

Hyun-Jee Park, Young-Ha Kim, Am-Suk Oh

Chapter 25. Web Based CDN Structure for Smart Devices

The rapid growth of telecommunication technology has led to the development of many smart devices. In particular, the smartphone market has been growing rapidly following the development of third-generation telecommunication technology. As a result, most people are expected to use a smartphone within a few years. Furthermore, the market for smart devices such as tablets and smart TVs are growing rapidly. Therefore, most people are expected to own various smart devices within a few years. However, current Contents Delivery Network (CDN) network systems are focused on a desktop PC platform, which can be problematic for smart devices. In this paper, we analyze the performance of Web browsing speed in smart mobile devices. Through this results, we propose web based CDN network structure.

Yu-Doo Kim, Il-Young Moon

Intelligent Information System

Frontmatter

Chapter 26. A New User Adaptive Pointing and Correction Algorithm

In this paper, we propose a new user-adaptive pointing and correction algorithm applied in the field of smart sensing. The error from the accelerometer sensor’s output must be carefully managed as the sensor is more sensitive to data change compared to that of gyroscope sensor. Thus, we minimize noise by applying the Kalman filtering to data for each axis from the accelerometer. In addition, we can also alleviate hand tremor effectively by applying the Kalman filter to the data variation for x and y. In this study, we obtain a tilt compensation by applying the compensation algorithm on acceleration of the gravity of the extracted data. Moreover, in order to correct the inaccuracy on smart sensors due to the rapid movement of a device, we propose a hybrid genetic approach.

Jung-Jae Jo, Young-Chul Kim

Chapter 27. Design of Real-Time MAC Protocol for Road Traffic Status Provision Using Sensor Networks

In ubiquitous environment, sensor networks that sense and transmit sensing data without human intervention will become more important. If sensors are installed for detecting vehicles and measuring their speed on the road and that information is given to drivers in real-time, it will be very effective for enhancing safety and controlling traffic on the road. In this paper, we proposed a new reliable and real-time sensor MAC protocol between AP and sensor nodes in order to provide real-time traffic information using ubiquitous sensor networks. The proposed MAC allocates one TDMA slot to each sensor node on the IEEE 802.15.4 based channel structure, introduces indirect communication via a relay for distant sensors, and adopts a frame structure that supports retransmission in case of errors. In addition, the proposed MAC protocol synchronizes with AP by using beacon and adopts a hybrid tracking mode that supports economic power consumption in various traffic situations. We implemented a simulator of the proposed MAC by using sim++ [

1

] and evaluated various performances. The simulation results show that the proposed MAC protocol reduces the power consumption and reveals excellent performance in real-time application systems.

Whoijin Jung, Jae Yong Lee, Byung Chul Kim

Chapter 28. Enhancing Document Clustering Using Reweighting Terms Based on Semantic Features

This paper proposes a new document clustering method using the reweighted term based on semantic features for enhancing document clustering. The proposed method uses document samples of cluster by user to reduce the semantic gap between the user’s requirement and clustering results by machine. The method can enhance the document clustering because it uses the reweighted term which can well represent an inherent structure of document set relevant to a user’s requirement. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves better performance than related document clustering methods.

Sun Park, Jin Gwan Park, Min A. Jeong, Jong Geun Jeong, Yeonwoo Lee, Seong Ro Lee

Chapter 29. Time-Delay Neural Network with 3 Frequency Bands Based on Voiced Speech Discrimination in Noise

Information on the time variation in a speech signal is significant when training a neural network for the speech signal input. Therefore, this paper proposes a time-delay neural network with 3 frequency bands based on voiced speech discrimination in the condition of background noises. The effectiveness of the proposed network is experimentally confirmed based on measuring the correct discrimination rates for speech degraded by various noises.

Jae Seung Choi

Chapter 30. Linear Prediction-Based Reconstruction of Electrocardiogram with Premature Ventricular Contraction for Heart Rate Variability Analysis

A method to detect the locations of premature ventricular contraction (PVC) and reconstruct electrocardiogram (ECG) is proposed in this work. The ECG reconstruction is based on the linear prediction method. For the sake of known ground truths, a set of PVC beats was synthetically inserted to ECG from the MIT-BIH normal sinus rhythm database. The experimental results show that the heart rate variability (HRV) measures derived from the reconstructed ECG’s are very close to the ground truths in both time domain and frequency domain. The comparison to the methods commonly used by experts, i.e., removing the abnormal RR intervals or averaging RR intervals before calculating the HRV measures, also shows the better performance by the proposed method.

Nipon Theera-Umpon, Panyaphon Phiphatkhunarnon, Sansanee Auephanwiriyakul

Chapter 31. EDISON Platform: A Software Infrastructure for Application-Domain Neutral Computational Science Simulations

This paper describes the design and implementation details of the EDISON platform for computational science simulations. Along with an overview of the EDISON platform, we provide an in-depth explanation of the Science AppStore framework used to acquire application-domain neutrality and the virtualized computing resources/job management framework that provides user authentication, on-demand resources provisioning, simulation/job lifecycle control, and file input/output services, etc. To evaluate the usefulness and functionality of the EDISON platform, as a pilot study, we have applied the EDISON platform to a nano-physics service environment.

Jung-Lok Yu, Hoon Ryu, Hee-Jung Byun, Jongsuk Ruth Lee, Kumwon Cho, Du-Seok Jin

Chapter 32. Application of Web Search Results for Document Classification

In this chapter, we propose a method applying Web search results to the document classification for the purpose of enriching the amount of the training corpus. For the query that will be submitted to a Web search engine, the proposed method generates the Web query based on the matching score between words in documents and the category. Experimental results show that the Web query based on the higher ranked words can improve the document classification performance while the Web query based on the lower ranked words makes worse the document classification performance.

So-Young Park, Juno Chang, Taesuk Kihl

Chapter 33. Similarity Measure Design for Non-Overlapped Data

Study on similarity measure on fuzzy sets (FSs) for the case of non-overlapped data was proposed, and analyzed. Comparison with similarity measure on overlapped case was done. Different approach to similarity measure was analyzed, and adequate similarity measure on non-overlapped data was designed by considering neighbor information. With artificial data rational calculation results were obtained.

Sanghyuk Lee

Chapter 34. A Vehicle Recognition Using Part-Based Representations

The vehicle recognition consists of two steps; the vehicle region detection step and vehicle identification step based on the feature extracted from the detected region. Among the linear transformations, the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) and non-negative tensor factorization (NTF) can be used in part-based representation. So we can utilize the local features of a car as a basis vector. In this paper, we propose a feature extraction using NMF and NTF suitable for the vehicle recognition, and verify the recognition rate. We show that the proposed feature is robust in the urban scene where occlusions are frequently occur.

Myungseon Hwang, Hyunchul Kang

Chapter 35. Wind Turbine Performance Monitoring Based on Hybrid Clustering Method

Due to the largely increasing demand for electrical power, other sources of energy have to be sought and wind power is one of those. Wind farms from around the world have continued to thrive due to its cost-effectiveness and benefits. However, an utmost concern for wind farm operators is to keep the turbines in good working conditions in order to produce power at the most optimal level. For wind turbines, a maintenance activity can be very costly; therefore, it should be carried out from a well-guided decision. An accurate monitoring of a turbine’s performance is instrumental for detecting a potentially deteriorating state. In this paper, we present a performance monitoring system for wind turbines based on ANFIS, a hybrid neuro-fuzzy system. By taking advantage of the combined strengths of neural networks and fuzzy inference systems, an accurate modeling of wind turbine performance is established. Its performance is evaluated using actual SCADA and it proves to be a favorable alternative to conventional modeling techniques.

Frank I. Elijorde, Daesun Moon, Seokil Ahn, Sungho Kim, Jaewan Lee

Chapter 36. Intelligent Road Control and Monitoring

A cloud service “Green Wave” (the intellectual road infrastructure) is proposed to monitor and control traffic in real-time through the use of traffic controllers, RFID cars, in order to improve the quality and safety of vehicle movement, as well as for minimization the time and costs when vehicles are moved at the specified routes. A set of innovative scientific and technological solutions, including for solving social, human, economic and environmental problems associated with creation and use of a cloud for monitoring and management is developed. All of these technologies and tools are integrated into the automaton model of real-time interaction between monitoring and management clouds, vehicles and road infrastructure. Each car has a virtual model in a cyberspace—an individual cell in the cloud, which is invariant with respect to drivers of vehicles.

Vladimir Hahanov, Wajeb Gharibi, Ka Lok Man, Eugenia Litvinova, Svetlana Chumachenko, Olesya Guz

Multimedia and Digital Convergence

Frontmatter

Chapter 37. Improvement in Waterproof Effect of Speaker Enclosure

Currently, demands for the outdoor broadcasts and concerts are increasing. Due to certain circumstances of outdoor spaces, loud speakers can be easily damaged by rain, which might cause unnecessary vibration and noise. In this paper, experimental approaches to improve waterproof-effect of the movable loud speaker have been investigated. Acoustic experiments to study the water-proof effect of enclosure based on the three different types of material were performed. Analyzing and comparing acoustic characteristics such as the frequency and sound pressure, we have shown that FRP has the most outstanding performance on the water-proof effect of loudspeaker. Also, these results represent that water-proof loudspeaker can be manufactured for mass products.

Han-Kil Kim, Seung-Eui Yang, Hoe-Kyung Jung

Chapter 38. An Adjustment Method of a Convergence Point for Zoom-In on a Dual Lens Stereoscopic Camera

Recently, even non-professional photographers are using a dual lens stereoscopic camera which allows for convenient stereoscopic photography. The necessity for the research comes up, since the dual lens stereoscopic camera can cause visual discomfort during zoom-in due to the fixed convergence point. We propose a method based on which a convergence point can be adjusted to prevent visual discomfort during zoom-in for a dual lens stereoscopic camera. First, the relational model is classified into nine kinds and defined, depending on locations of focus, object, and convergence point. And then, the method to minimize visual discomfort is suggested by adjusting convergence point on the given model.

JongSoo Ha, ChaeHoon Ban, DaeWoong Kim, Tatsuro Ishii

Chapter 39. Reliability-Based Selective Encoding in Pixel-Domain Wyner-Ziv Residual Video Codec

In order to overcome the performance limitation of the conventional DVC schemes, this paper presents a reliability-based selective encoding scheme based on the pixel-domain Wyner-Ziv residual (PDWZR) video codec. At the decoder, the unreliability of the previously reconstructed WZ frame is investigated and then, by exploiting temporal correlations, the reliability of side information is estimated in a block unit. Then, the location information of the unreliable blocks is provided to the encoder side and thus it enables the encoder to selectively encode the frame difference signal in pixel-domain Wyner-Ziv residual encoder. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme performs better than the DISCOVER scheme as well as the H.264 intra-mode coding scheme.

Jin-soo Kim, Jae-Gon Kim

Chapter 40. A Mobile Navigation System with Vibration Flow

This paper presents a navigation system which makes a traveling vibration along the surface of a mobile device in order to haptically provide the way to go to a user. By controlling the vibrations generated by multiple motors, we develop 2D vibration flow which originates from one point and gradually propagates to other points on a surface of a navigation system. We construct a mobile navigation system prototype and conduct experiments using the prototype in order to investigate that the proposed system creates the direction with only vibration feedback. The experiment clearly verifies that the proposed system efficiently presents the way to go to users with only vibration flow.

Sang-Youn Kim, Gilho Song

Chapter 41. A Design and Development of Korean Traditional Board Game on Android Environment

Recently smartphones have become widely used, as various applications including games have been developed and the application market has become more and more increasing. While many studies to capitalize on the state-of-the-art device are being conducted, however, there are few studies or application developments on Korea’s traditional games. This paper examines the processes to develop Konu, Korea’s traditional board game, into an Android based application. To this end, this paper first explains differences between developing games on the PC and smartphones, observes smartphone applications and Konu, examines the system of Konunori and finally compares a well-known Omok application with Konunori to show advantages.

Yang-Jib Kim, Seung-Woo Kang, Teuk-Seob Song

Chapter 42. Study on the Librarian Helper Robot System Implementation

This paper suggests improved model of librarian helper robot to diminish librarian workload such as book loans and book returns. The existing unmanned book lending system performs book search and book return at the fixed location. Our system provides book-search through DB, mobile robot control through the Zigbee communication, scanning the RFID tag attached to the book. In the experiment, five-axis multi-joint robot is controlled through Zigbee communication and server PC manages all of the information. The recognition rate about wanted book was about 98 %. Our mobile robot has brought the book exactly to designated place. Through experimentation, we confirmed that suggested model can be applied to the library.

Sang-Gug Park

Semiconductor and Communication Services

Frontmatter

Chapter 43. Device Degradation Under High Gate and Drain Bias Stress in IGZO Transistors

The device degradation in InGaZnO thin film transistor has been investigated experimentally under high gate and drain bias stress. The transfer curve was positively shifted and the threshold voltage was increased after high gate and drain bias stress. This may be attributed to the trapped electron charges resulted from the injection of channel hot electrons. The threshold voltage shift is more significant after high gate and drain bias stress than after high gate bias stress. The device degradation can be predicted by the monitoring of the gate current. The device degradation is the most significant under high gate drain bias stress and light illumination at elevated temperature.

Hyun Jun Jang, Seung Min Lee, Jong Tae Park

Chapter 44. 2D Analysis of Breakdown Voltages for Device Dimension of Double Gate MOSFET Using Nonlinear Doping Profile

The breakdown voltages for double gate MOSFET have been analyzed using nonlinear doping profiles in channel by applying 2D analytical solutions for potential distribution. Since the potential distributions based on Poisson equation show the change of potential distribution for width direction is trivial for double gate MOSFET, 2D analysis is reasonable. One of the short channel effects is low breakdown voltage. The breakdown voltages for double gate MOSFET have been investigateed for the change of channel length, channel thickness, gate oxide thickness and doping profile with Gaussian distribution as nonlinear function, using Fulop’s avalanche breakdown model. As a result, we know the breakdown voltages have greatly changed for device dimension and doping profile.

Hakkee Jung, Dongsoo Cheong

Chapter 45. Analysis on Off-Current of Double Gate MOSFET for Composition of Forward and Backward Current

This paper has analyzed the change of forward and backward current for channel doping concentration and structures to analyze off-current of double gate (DG) MOSFET. The Gaussian function as channel doping distribution has been used to obtain the similar results, compared with experimental ones, and the two dimensional analytical potential distribution model derived from Poisson’s equation has been used to analyze the off-current. The off-current has been analyzed for the change of projected range and standard projected range of Gaussian function with device parameters such as channel length, channel thickness, gate oxide thickness and channel doping concentration. As a result, this research shows the off-current has greatly influenced on forward and backward current for device parameters, especially for the shape of Gaussian function for channel doping concentration.

Hakkee Jung, Jongin Lee

Chapter 46. A HW/SW Co-Design Implementation of Viola-Jones Algorithm for Driver Drowsiness Detection

There have been various recent methods proposed in detecting driver drowsiness (DD) to avert fatal accidents. This work proposes a hardware/software (HW/SW) co-design approach in implementation of a DD detection system adapted from the Viola-Jones algorithm to monitor driver’s eye closure rate. In this work, critical functions of the DD detection algorithm is accelerated through custom hardware components in order to speed up processing, while the software component implements the overall control and logical operations to achieve the complete functionality required of the DD detection algorithm. The HW/SW architecture was implemented on an Altera DE2 board with a video daughter board. Performance of the proposed implementation was evaluated and benchmarked against some recent works.

Kok Choong Lai, M. L. Dennis Wong, Syed Zahidul Islam

Chapter 47. Analysis of Subthreshold Characteristics for Doping Concentration of DGMOSFET Using Series Form of Potential

In this paper, subthreshold characteristics have been presented for DGMOSFET, using the analytical model based on series form of potential distribution. The analytical potential distribution model of Poisson equation, validated in previous researches, has been used to analyze transport characteristics. Threshold voltage roll-off and drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) are very important short channel effects (SCEs) for nano structures since those determine ON/OFF of MOSFETs. Since the threshold voltage is reduced by drain voltage in short channel and smaller gate voltage can cause a strong inversion, DIBL plays an important role in digital applications. We have investigated the DIBL and threshold voltage characteristics for variation of doping concentration from 10

21

to 10

25

m

−3

. As a results, the smaller channel thickness and the higher doping concentration become, the higher the threshold voltage becomes. We know DIBL is decreasing with decreasing channel thickness.

Jihyeong Han, Hakkee Jung, Ohshin Kwon, Choonshik Park

Chapter 48. A Parasitic-Insensitive Charge Transfer Circuit for Capacitive Sensing Based on Switched Capacitor Integrator

This paper introduces a parasitic-insensitive charge transfer circuit based on a switched capacitor integrator. The parasitic-insensitive charge transfer circuit includes four switches to eliminate parasitic capacitance. The degradation of sensitivity caused from parasitic capacitance was simulated with standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology and compared with that of a parasitic-sensitive charge transfer circuit. It can be concludes from the results, that even without the need of complicated circuits and additional touch schemes, the parasitic-insensitive can be effectively used in capacitive sensing for touch devices, such as a touch screen panel.

Hyeop-Goo Yeo, Eu-Sung Jung, Seung-Min Jung

Chapter 49. Calculation 15-Fold Integrals by Method of Optimal Coefficients for Small Values of the Numbers of Knots Quadrature Formulas

Were a founded sets optimal coefficients and is calculated importance’s 15-fold integral with small importance’s of the number of knots quadrature formulas for the reason influences of their importance on accuracy of the calculation. The revealed particularity for

N

< 600, concluding in forming the miscellaneous amount groups set coefficients, which give alike importance of the integral

J

, as well as not for all these

N

founded sets allow to calculate the integrals with good accuracy. It is determined that the calculation of the integral with good accuracy is possible for small values of the number of knots quadrature formulas

N

.

Saule Zamanova

Chapter 50. Effect of the Filler on the Physico-Mechanical Properties of the Polyimide Composite Materials

Studied the effect of content of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) in the polyimide (PI) on the physical and mechanical properties of the polymer compositions. Found that an increase concentration of PET leads to changes in the morphology of polymer films. At the same time, the morphology of the polymer film compositions is more or less mesoporous.

A. D. Muradov, G. S. Suyundikova, A. G. Kunsafina

Chapter 51. Strong Self-Pulsations in a Multi-Electrode Distributed Feedback Laser Integrated With an Electro-Absorption Modulator

Strong self-pulsation in GHz range in a dual-electrode distributed feedback (DFB) laser with an electro-absorption modulator is presented. The result shows the potential of a single on-chip device with an optical source and modulator in microwave photonics application such as microwave/millimeter wave generation, optoelectronic oscillator and optical signal processing.

Jun-Hyung Cho, Seo Weon Heo, Hyuk-Kee Sung

Chapter 52. Radiation Modification of the Structure of Nanosized Metal Powders

The structure of nano-sized copper powders, before and after irradiation with high-energy electrons in the dose range 1–10 Mrad, has been studied using the methods of electron microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and X-ray photography. New structural phases with different lattice types and parameters have been detected.

M. Zh. Buranbaev, B. A. Aliev, U. P. Koztaeva, G. Partizan, Zh. Entibekov, Zh. Nakysbekov, M. Aitzhanov

Chapter 53. Effect of Low-Temperature Annealing on the Optical Properties of Composite Material, the System “Polyimides: YBa2Cu3O6,7”

Studied the effect of low temperature annealing on the optical properties of pure polyimide film and polyimide polymer compositions (PI) filled with finely dispersed powder. YBa

2

Cu

3

O

6+x

(YBCO) concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 wt%. Found that low-temperature annealing decreases to 3–6 % the coefficient light transmittance in the polyimide film and the change in optical density is not observed, which is caused by the decrease in concentration of free ions in the structure of the polyimide film. Low-temperature annealing of the “PI-YBCO” leads to a partial recovery of the optical properties of the polyimide film.

A. D. Muradov, S. S. Kumarova, Zh. K. Sakhiyeva

Chapter 54. Preparation and Application of PZT Films in Microelectronics

The paper describes conceptual framework for understanding the behavior of piezoelectric materials by emphasizing important relationships between internal structure and properties of thin films. It attempts to present a general picture of the piezoelectric material nature and the mechanisms that act upon, modify, and control their properties. The development of PZT materials in the form of films on the conception of multiphase structure has been carried out in this paper. Metal alkoxide solutions and PZT powder suspensions were used for thin films preparation by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique. Specific features of the EPD method were considered. Microstructure of the films was examined as well as their physical properties.

S. Timishenkov, V. Vodopyanov, Yu Stepanova, Yu Cherkasova, N. Korobova

Chapter 55. Study of the Stress–Strain State in the Bare Crystals in Technology Implementation of Internal Mounting

Studies and modeling of the stress–strain state and strength reliability of materials, connections and design elements were carried out. Recommendations for reducing stress concentration inside construction in the implementation of internal mounting technology were made.

Timoshenkov Sergey, Dolgovykh Yu, A. Titov, K. Tikhonov, D. Vertyanov

Imaging and Biomedical Engineering

Frontmatter

Chapter 56. A Micro-Scale Solar Energy Harvesting Circuit with MPPT Control for Self-Powered Systems

In this paper a micro-scale solar energy harvesting system with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control using a miniature photovoltaic cell of which the output is less than 0.5 V is proposed. The MPPT control is implemented using linear relationship between the open-circuit voltage of a main solar cell and its Maximum Power Point (MPP) voltage such that a pilot solar cell can track the MPP of the main solar cell in real time. The proposed circuit is designed in 0.18 μm CMOS process. The designed chip area is 1370 × 900 μm including a load charge pump and pads. Measured results show that the designed system can track the MPP voltage changes with variations of light intensity. The designed circuit with MPPT control provides load with MPP voltages even though the load is heavy such that it can supply more energy when the MPPT control is applied.

Eun Jung Yoon, Chong Gun Yu

Chapter 57. Multi-View Stereoscopic Image Synthesis Algorithm for 3DTV

In this paper, we propose a multi-view stereoscopic image synthesis algorithm for 3DTV system using depth information with an RGB texture from a depth camera. The proposed algorithm synthesizes multi-view images which a virtual convergence camera model could generate. To furnish the motion parallax cue in each synthesized view, spatial and rotational transformation techniques were applied to foreground layer, and a new occlusion filling process was applied to both the foreground and background layers, as well. To add a stereoscopic depth cue to each synthesized view as a reference (left), we also generate a corresponding right view based on a virtual parallel camera model. Experimental results showed that the performance of the proposed algorithm is better than those of conventional methods.

Hyunjun Choi, Youngho Seo, Jisang Yoo, Dongwook Kim

Chapter 58. Cell Image Segmentation by Contour Following Method with Directional Angle

This paper proposes the new method based on contour following method with Directional angle to segment the cell image into the nuclei. The object image was the Thyroid Gland cell image that was diagnosed as normal and abnormal (two types of abnormal: follicular neoplastic cell, and papillary neoplastic cell), respectively. The nuclei were successfully segmented by proposed method in this paper. Improved method of digital image analysis required in basic medical science for diagnosis of cells was proposed. The object image was the Thyroid Gland cell image with difference of chromatin patterns. To segment the cell nucleus from background, the region segmentation algorithm by edge tracing was proposed. After construct a feature sample group of each cell, experiment of segmentation was executed with any verification cells. As a result of experiment using features proposed in this paper, Get a better segmentation rate than previously reported papers. And this method gives shape to get objectivity and fixed quantity in diagnosis of cells. The methods described in this paper can be used immediately for discrimination of neoplastic cells.

Cheolhun Na, Sangjin Ryoo, Suyeong Kim, Seongjun Kang

Chapter 59. Performance Improvement of Vehicle Tracking Using Parts Features Adaboost

In this paper, we proposed that the efficient detection system using Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) camera video of accidents, such as falling objects, pedestrians, stop vehicle and inverse vehicle in tunnel. Vehicle detection using Object parts features Adaboost in Region of interesting (ROI). We proposed method better than general training method, at least 0.505 (%) up to 12.97 (%) higher in test video.

Jingyu Do, Jangsik Park, Hyuntae Kim

Chapter 60. A Study on the Selection of ROI and Trace Under the Multiple Object Environments

This paper is for the trace technology of the object after choosing a specific object as ROI (region of interest) about the object detection with background separation technique and the detected object. Here, the modified AMF is proposed as an effective background separation technique. This method allows to choose ROI region effectively against the image including a variety of objects, by the combination of covariance matrix using regional dispersion size after separating the background and object with the improved AMF. In the result, the modified AMF is strong on noise like the minute movement from illumination change in aspect of pixel accuracy. CAMShift algorithm against selected ROI region is used to trace the detected object more effectively. As a result, it is found that processing time increases.

Gwangseok Lee, Gangin Hur, Youngsub Kim

Chapter 61. Edge Detection Using Modified Directional Coefficient Mask in AWGN

Image segmentation is required for the analysis of images and edge is one of the essential elements of image segmentation. Edge contains image information and it is applied in various fields of image processing. Typical methods of edge detection include Sobel, Prewitt and Roberts method and such methods have the advantage of simple realization and fast processing speed as they process images with mask in spatial area. However, when images are degraded by the addition of AWGN, an error of detecting edge in noise areas occur. Therefore, in this paper a new edge detection algorithm with excellent edge detection characteristics which effectively removes AWGN is proposed.

Chang-Young Lee, Nam-Ho Kim

Chapter 62. An Intra Prediction Hardware Architecture with Low Computational Complexity for HEVC Decoder

In this paper, hardware architecture with shared operation unit, common operation unit and fast smoothing decision algorithm is proposed to reduce computational complexity of intra prediction in HEVC decoder. The shared operation unit shares adders computing common operations in smoothing equations to remove the computational redundancy and pre-computes the mean value of reference pixels for removing an idle cycle in DC mode. The common operation unit uses one operation unit to generate predicted pixels and filters predicted pixels in all prediction modes to reduce the number of operation units for each mode. The decision algorithm uses only bit-comparators instead of arithmetic operators. The architecture is synthesized using TSMC 0.13um CMOS technology. The gate count and the maximum operating frequency of the architecture are 40.5 k and 164 MHz, respectively. The number of processing cycles of the architecture for one 4 × 4 PU is one cycle and about 93.7 % less than the previous one.

Hongkyun Jung, Kwangki Ryoo

Chapter 63. A Color Gamut Mapping System Using the RGB Primaries and White-Point Correction for a Wide Gamut Display Device

Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are considered to be among the best flat panel display technologies owing to their wide viewing angles, high-speed response, high resolution, and simple structure. OLEDs exhibit a wide color gamut exceeding 100 % of the national television system committee (NTSC) sRGB gamut ratio. However, most movies and images are made to comply with standard specifications of the sRGB color gamut. If a sRGB image is displayed on a wide gamut display, the color tone will be distorted. In this paper, we propose a color gamut mapping system using the CIE-1931 XYZ color space for digital image processing. White point and RGB primaries correction provide color gamut correction for different measurement devices of the color gamut. An evaluation using images shows that the proposed system can convert a wide color gamut such as that of OLEDs to the color gamut of the user’s choice without color distortion.

Kyounghoon Jang, Hosang Cho, Hyunjung Kang, Bongsoon Kang

Chapter 64. A Region of Interest Labeling Algorithm Using Three Mask Patterns

Labeling is one of the most basic and important processes in image analysis, which is used to identify detached objects by assigning the same number (labels) to all adjacent connected pixels in a binary image. Labeling algorithms have long been studied, and a variety of algorithms have been developed. Two scans method is easy to implement hardware. The two scans method requires memory for 1-D and 2-D tables to perform labeling. In this paper, three masks are used to assign label values to minimize memory usage, and an algorithm to increase computation speed by separating the inputted image into regions of interest and non-interest is proposed. As a result of experiment that is continuous image of 100 frames, Assigned provisional label is that conventional algorithm is 7657, [

9

] is 14665 and proposed algorithm is 5710. Processing times is required of conventional algorithm 341.6 ms, [

9

] 621.328 ms, proposed algorithm 275.18 ms. To verify the performance of the proposed algorithm, an experiment has been performed using a variety of binary images.

Hosang Cho, Kyounghoon Jang, Changhoo Kim, Bongsoon Kang

Chapter 65. Multi-Factor Authentication Process Using More than One Token with Watermark Security

Authentication is the process of verifying a user’s credentials when they are requesting services from any secure system. A simple authentication only involves a username and password, which can be easily deciphered. Hacking technologies have become more diversified and advanced, security and authentication have become unable to rely on ID and password-based authentication alone. Single-factor authentication using an ID and password has been found to be vulnerable to malware attacks, replay attacks, offline brute force attacks, key logger trojans, dictionary attacks and shoulder surfing. Adding a strong factor will reduce the chances of the user’s identification from being hacked. This paper proposes a new multifactor authentication scheme, which combines with hard token, password and biometric token with watermark image. Compared with the previous schemes this scheme has higher security in remote authentication and lower communication complexity.

Arjun Kumar, Hoon Jae Lee

Ubiquitous Sensor Network

Frontmatter

Chapter 66. Energy Based Interference Avoidance Scheme in Ubiquitous Medical Environments

WLAN and WPAN technologies will play an important role in ubiquitous healthcare application. In this paper, we propose an energy based interference avoidance scheme in ubiquitous medical environment using 2.4 GHz unlicensed industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) bands. This paper focuses on the coexistence of WLAN (IEEE 802.11b) and WPAN (IEEE 802.15.4) in the 2.4 GHz band. In the proposed scheme, we propose a new energy detection (ED) estimation scheme to detect interference from another network. The experiment and simulation results show that the proposed system improves coexistence performance required for ubiquitous medical environments.

Jin-Woo Kim, Myeong Soo Choi, Yeonwoo Lee, Beommu Kim, Seyeong Maeng, Seongmin Jeon, Shyuk Park, Seong Ro Lee

Chapter 67. Technical Analysis of Stock Trading Point in Electronic Commerce

In the past, numerous studies said that the capital market in electronic commerce is efficient so investors cannot get the revenue with using the fundamental analysis or technical analysis. Nevertheless, many investors are still using technical analysis and believe that they can get the revenue. The purpose of this study is to predict and meet with stock prices by using the technical analysis through some basic terms, patterns, understanding of secondary indicators, and case studies. The contents of this study contains bar chart, candle chart, trend analysis and moving averages, investment strategy by Granville as well, using patterns and indices analysis to predict how stock changes and to catch a point of dealing stocks as the most commonly used various techniques, the case studies of short and long-term trading using the technical analysis, and summarization, conclusion, and limitations of this study.

Jinwon Park, Sangwon Lee, Chan Yong Jin, Hyun-Chang Lee, Do Goan Kim, Seong-yoon Shin

Chapter 68. ADC Design for Neural Acquisition Application

A high precision sigma delta analog to digital convertor (SDADC) for neural signal acquisition application is presented in this paper, which has been fabricated in AMI 0.5 um standard CMOS process. The ADC achieves 85 dB SNR in a second older with 256 oversampling rate (OSR) architecture. Behavior level modeling is adopted to shorten the design cycle and provide reference specifications for circuits design. In circuit design, class-AB output structure ensures the enough output range and slew rate of the system requirement. The whole system consumes 0.7 mA current and occupies 0.9*0.5 mm

2

area.

Ruoyuan Qu, Zhe Guo, Na Liu, Yueyang Chen, Xinghua Wang

Chapter 69. Design of Microstrip Patch Antenna Using Inset-Fed Layered for Metallic Object in u-Port

In this paper, an industrial RFID layered microstrip patch antenna is designed using an inset feed method in order to improve recognition rates in a long distance as tags are attached to metal objects by improving a problem of feeding power in fabricating metal tags and reducing effects of metallic objects. The inset feed shows a distinctive characteristic that has no separation between emitters and feed lines differing from a structure with the conventional inductive coupling feed. This structure makes possible to produce a type that presents a low antenna height and enables impedance coupling for tag chips. Although it shows a difficulty in the impedance coupling due to increases in the parasite capacitance between a ground plane and an emitter in an antenna according to decreases in the height of a tag antenna, it may become a merit in designing the tag antenna because the antenna impedance can be determined as an inductive manner if a shorted structure is used for feeding power. Therefore, in this paper the microstrip patch antenna is designed as a modified type and applies the inset feed in order to reduce effects of metallic objects where the antenna is to be attached. Also, the antenna uses a multi-layer structure instead of using a single layer. That is, a metal plate is inserted to the contact between an emitter and a ground plane for preventing a decrease in its characteristics.

Chan-Hong Park, Jong-Dae Park, Byeong-Ho Park, Myung-Dong Kim, Yong-Seok Choi, Hyeon-Kyeong Seong

Chapter 70. An Analysis on the Effects of Cluster Leadership Rotation Among Nodes Using Least Temperature Routing Protocol

The area of body sensor networks has recently attracted many researchers due to its potential to revolutionize medicine. These sensors are usually implanted inside the human body and communicate among themselves. In the process of receiving, processing or transmitting data, these devices produce heat. The temperature produced by these sensor nodes might damage tissues surrounding the devices if exposed for a prolonged period of time. This paper seeks to improve and evaluate two protocols—Least Temperature Routing and Adaptive Least Temperature Routing protocol—by implementing clustering as well as a leadership rotation algorithm that was also previously proposed. The researchers used Castalia to simulate a basic BAN cluster composed of 6 nodes. To simulate all nodes sending data to one sink node, a throughput application was used. Simulations with leadership rotation showed significantly lower energy consumption compared to a set up with no leadership rotation.

Nico Encarnacion, Hyunho Yang

Chapter 71. Performance Analysis of Tag Identification Method Based on Multi-Reader Using Anti-Collision Algorithm

This study suggests the tag identification method which uses a radio frequency identification (RFID) system based on multi-reader to minimize tag collision and to reduce the tag authentication time. The proposed method analyzes the tag recognition time by applying the binary search algorithm and the adaptive group separation (AGS) algorithm. The result of the performance analysis shows that the proposed method reduces the tag authentication time by 40 % compared to the previous single-reader configuration method. Futhermore, it draws the most efficient number of readers according to anti-collision algorithm and suggests effective multi-reader methods.

Bong-Im Jang, Chang-Su Kim, Hoe-Kyung Jung, Yong-Tae Kim, Gil-Cheol Park

Chapter 72. Segregated Lightweight Dynamic Rate (SLDR) Control Scheme for Efficient Internet Communications

This paper proposes an effective Segregated Lightweight Dynamic Rate Control Scheme (SLDRCS) over the internet. Based on the feedback analysis of the current approaches, we found that the indicator of the congestion is only the queue length. It only captures a partial indicator of delay and loss in feedback mechanism. This may result in an ineffective way in controlling the network when congestion control occurs. Therefore, we suggest multiple congestion indicators to adapt inside this scheme to fully control the average delay and loss from bidirectional of sender to receiver. The behavior of next event packet being control using discrete event simulation tool with First Come First Serve (FCFS) scheduling policy and we code this algorithm into C programming language. Through the simulation results, our Segregated Lightweight Dynamic Rate Control Scheme (SLDRCS) guaranteed high improvement in packet drop and average delay under various congestion level and traffic load conditions compare with the current approach.

T. O. Ting, H. C. Ting, Sanghyuk Lee

Chapter 73. Remote Sensing of Asian Dust at DaeJeon Station in NIES Lidar Network

To examine the optical characteristics of Asian dust, more than 20 lidars has been operated in NIES lidar Network. In DaeJeon station (127.34E, 36.33N), two wavelengths (532 nm/1064 nm) depolarization lidar has been applied since 2010. This lidar system is mainly consists of high power Nd:Yag laser, 300 mm telescope, and optical spectrometer with vertical and parallel depolarization channels at the two wavelengths. For the analysis of Asian dust, the particle depolarization ratios at both wavelengths were retrieved with the assumption of the mixing condition of aerosols and molecules and then the ratio between 532 nm and 1064 nm depolarization ratios was calculated. Also the ratio of backscattering coefficient between the 532 nm and 1064 nm backscatter coefficients were achieved with the depolarization ratio. To know the spatial and temporal variation of the Asian dust occurred in spring of 2011, the results of the depolarization ratios and backscatter coefficients from the lidar measurements at DaeJeon station were compared with the results measured from other lidar stations in the NIES Network. The result of backward and forward trajectory analysis coincided well with the results of lidar measurement in the Network.

Chan Bong Park, Young Woo Lee, Atsushi Shimizu, Nobuo Sugimoto

Chapter 74. Transmission Range Determination with a Timeslot-Based Energy Distribution Scheme for Solar-Energy Harvesting Sensor Systems

Solar energy is an inexhaustible supply which can potentially allow a sensor system to run forever, but there are several issues in optimally using the harvested energy, such as the periodic property of charging cycle and the uncertainty of available solar energy. Since solar energy can be harvested periodically, our aim is to use this energy for enhancing the routing performance of the sensor network, not just to minimize the energy consumption to extend the network lifetime. Therefore, we propose a node-level adaptive transmission range determination algorithm which can periodically and locally determines the topological knowledge range of each node based on an allocated energy budget for the timeslot. The proposed algorithm can help the node to find the better next-hop node to which the sensory data is routed, while using the harvested solar energy efficiently.

Dong Kun Noh

Chapter 75. A New Algorithm for Solving the Energy Conservation Equation Based on ADI Method

The explicit finite difference (EFD) method is used for calculating the casting temperature field during solidification. Because the time step is limited, the computational efficiency of the EFD method is lower. In order to improve the computational efficiency, a fourth-order in space and second-order in time model based on the equivalent specific heat method and the alternating direction implicit (ADI) method is established. The degree of similarity between the simulation results and experimental results is analyzed quantitatively by the hamming distance (HD). The results show that the simulation results of this high order mathematical model are close to the experimental results.

Xiaofeng Niu, Zhongping Que, Weili Cheng

Chapter 76. Sensor Prioritization and Decisive Sensing: A Conservative Power Saving Scheme for BSNs

The emerging field of BSN, which centers on the human body, is attributed to the huge success of sensor utilization in assistive applications. With a sensing environment much different with that of a conventional WSN, a BSN has to be designed in a way which is focused on the power-constrained nature of body sensors. Thus, it is important that the network is well-coordinated in terms of measuring and transmitting data so as to minimize power consumption and prolong network lifetime. In this paper, we propose a power saving scheme which ranks sensors based on the priority level of the body parameters they measure and is used by the coordinator as a basis for deciding the parameters required for monitoring or diagnosis. The experimental results show that a BSN based on the proposed approach has much lower power consumption compared to conventional sleep/wakeup techniques.

Frank I. Elijorde, Hyunho Yang, Jaewan Lee

Chapter 77. A Study of Optimal Path Availability Clustering Algorithm in Ad Hoc Network

An optimal availability path clustering algorithm is proposed that can be used to select location of head node for context-awareness parameters in ad-hoc network. The head node of optimal location is important to conserve the energy according to the clustering in path routing algorithm. We have problems when routing to elect the relay node from the member node clustering for energy efficiency in protocols. The existing LEACH algorithm shows how to elect the head node among member node has probability energy distribution function based on the management of the head node that to sustain optional cycle. However the condition of the distance between relay node(u) and destination node (v) location including context-awareness parameters could not sufficient reflection. The factors using relay node could not adaptive relay node and could not containing the probability distribution function to select relay node location parameters in this case. In particular, to solve the problems from the LEACH-based hierarchical clustering algorithms, this study define the location for context information status of node condition and the residual energy to choose the topology of structure adjacent nodes. This proposed Energy Conserving Optimal path Schedule (ECOPS) contextual information algorithm that has contributed topology protocols for head node selection. The algorithm content the head node replacement condition and select the candidate head node in the optimal path. This method has efficient energy conservation between the paths of the member nodes. The new head node election shows as the entire node lifetime and network management technique improving the network lifetime and efficient management the simulation results.

Young-jun Oh, Dong-keun Oh, Kang-whan Lee

Chapter 78. Localized Positioning Method for Optimization Path Availability Clustering Algorithm in Ad Hoc Network

We propose the energy-efficient routing range-free based on the distance information parameters considering Ad hoc network Localized Positioning System (ALPS) algorithm. This paper suggests the ALPS algorithm for hierarchical cluster units to provide location information for the proposal method. The proposed algorithm is also to provide the position for final purpose of the study based on the location parameters generating. The conventional DV-hop is compared with optimized energy consumption for sustainable path algorithm in this paper works.

Young-jun Oh, Dong-keun Oh, Kang-whan Lee

Chapter 79. Performance Analysis of Routing Algorithm Based on Link Quality in Wireless Sensor Networks

Wireless sensor network (WSN) is used for an environment that enables an user to collect information in its surrounding. But this system has a disadvantage that a node usually requires a large quantity of energy consumption, since the collected information is transmitted to user via wireless link. For such a reason, it is required that a new scheme should be implemented using link quality indication (LQI) and hop count scheme to allow the user to estimate the quality of wireless link in order to employ highly reliable and energy efficient link system. The purpose of this work lies within a pursuit of standard deviation routing algorithm that selects a path with small LQI standard deviation value after calculating individual LQI value of the path in order to create energy-saving routing environment. Then, this new scheme we are going to propose in this work is to be compared at RF output level of −25 , −10, −7 dBm with conventional ones such as minimum-LQI, hop-LQI weight, cumulate-LQI. According to the result of research, the algorithm proposed in this work showed more superior than the conventional algorithms did in terms of the number of flowing-through nodes and the rate of retransmission. Therefore, it is concluded that the efficient reduction of energy consumption becomes possible if LQI standard deviation routing algorithm is introduced to wireless sensor network system with limited quantity of energy consumption allowed.

Hyun-Jun Shin, Chang-Heon Oh

Chapter 80. Low Latency and Collision Avoidance MAC Protocol in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

In this paper we propose a low latency and collision avoidance MAC protocol in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs). In WMSNs, sensor nodes generally send video and audio streams, still images, and scalar sensor data [

1

]. These data usually is bursty and time critical. So a certain level of quality of service is necessary for these data. The proposed MAC protocol uses modified IEEE 802.15.4 beacon frame to support burst data transmission. In the proposed MAC protocol, a sender node can send its data packet to any receiver node in wake up state so that packets can be transmitted fast. And receiver nodes wake up in different time slots to receive packet from sender node correctly. Results have shown that our MAC protocol outperforms other protocols in terms of data packet delivery delay and throughput.

Seong Cheol Kim, Hyun Joo Park, Jun Heon Jeon

Chapter 81. A QoS and Throughput Enhancement MAC Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

In this paper we propose a MAC to suport QoS(Quality of Service) and to enhance the transmission throughput in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). In the proposed QEMAC (QoS and Throughput Enhancement MAC) protocol, sender nodes send transmission request (TR) packets with QoS requirements and amounts of data to be transmitted to the receiver nodes using CSMA/CA MAC protocol. And the receiver node assigns slots according to the packet priority, network topology, and the amount of traffics using TDMA. And using flexible frame size, packet collision probability can be decreased and packet transmission delay can be reduced. Using QEMAC we get the enhanced throughput and QoS support by lowering the duplicated slot assignment.

Seong Cheol Kim

Database and Internet Application

Frontmatter

Chapter 82. The Proposed on Model-Based User Interface Modules

The user interface technology is a technique which can apply UI according to an user’s choice. Recently, researches about interface for the user’s convenience are being conducted. For this, the W3C have various ongoing researches in order to offer N-screen service in various device environments, to give consistent service, and to support UI adaptation service based on the user’s preference. In this paper, we studied the basic model-based user interface technology to develop UI for the user’s convenience. This will ensure the methods to apply web application and also be used to apply the next-generation web application.

Chul-Hyun Hwang, Zhu Jiang, Sung-Han Kim, Seung-Yun Lee, Hoe-Kyung Jung

Chapter 83. A Study on Design and Implementation of the Web-Based Real-Time Video Communication System

Real-time video communication technology using a web browser is emerging. In this paper, we studied this real-time communication technology using a web browser. Also we designed and implemented a web-based real-time video communication system. In this system, it is possible to do real-time video communication in a web browser using RTC API and HTTP/web Socket’s through the web servers of different web browsers. This can be used in all terminals that allows the use of a web browser in every environment connected by a network. Also, it can be utilized in the field of visual communications of the limited environment.

Tae-Hak Ban, Chang-Su Kim, Hoe-Kyung Jung

Chapter 84. Comprehensive Analysis of Data Clustering Algorithms

We have given a comprehensive comparative analysis of various clustering algorithms. Clustering algorithms usually employ distance metric or similarity matrix to cluster the data set into different partitions. Well known clustering algorithms have been widely used in various disciplines. Type of clustering algorithm used depends upon the application and data set used in that field. Numerical data set is comparatively easy to implement as data are invariably real numbers. Others type of data set such as categorical, time series, boolean, and spatial, temporal have limited applications. It is observed that there is no optimal solution for handling problems with large data sets of mixed and categorical attributes. Some of the algorithms can be applied but their performance degrades as the size of data keeps on increasing.

Deepti Gaur, Seema Gaur

Chapter 85. The Student Safety Network Service System Using the Location-Based Services of Smartphone

As the Internet and mobile communication technology develop rapidly, demands on mobile phones and the use of location information using PDA are increasing and diverse services utilizing those location information are coming out nowadays. The service providing the related information by identifying the location automatically is called Location-Based Service (LBS). LBS, including GIS, GPS, Telematics, is considered as the inclusive concept, with all kinds of services providing location-related information using particular platforms such as mobile terminals. This paper, after saving pre-registered students’ movement course and business places harmful to them into students safety network service system, by using location-based service and searching students’ movement, considering the degree of breaking away from their regular course, the access to and their stay in crime-crone area, provides the comparative analysis of the system and suggests the ways for safe students guidance.

Chang-Su Ryu, Chang-Wu Hur

Chapter 86. Design of an Inventory Management System for Refrigerated Warehouses on Mobile Environments

It is an important job to manage the storing/unstoring state or the inventory state of logistics efficiently and accurately at the inventory management system for refrigerated warehouses. Since the inventory management system is running on the legacy system which is the closed client–server system, the maintenance of the system is costly and labor-intensive. Also, the inventory management system does not provide any services to the cosigners and the consigners should use phones or faxes to place or obtain orders. Thus, the business process becomes inefficient and inaccurate because the old-fashioned management system requires human involvement. In this paper, we design and implement the mobile framework to provide various services for a consigner with a mobile device. If a consigner requests the job or the information of logistics with a mobile device, the mobile framework connects to the legacy system and processes the job or retrieves the related data from the legacy system. Since the consigner is able to check the inventory state and handles the orders directly without any human involvement, the management for the refrigerated warehouse becomes more accurate and efficient.

ChaeHoon Ban, DongHyun Kim, DaeSoo Cho, Jinoh Choi, Jindeog Kim, Sungwoo Ahn

Chapter 87. The Design of XML-Based Software Information System Schema and Development of the Standard for Information Processing

Recently, various advance information in industry sectors address the importance of software’s which emphasized as a key capacity element of IT convergence in a diverse environments. Therefore, the necessity to enhance the availability of excellent software resources by making the database is also highlighted. Thus, this study aims to design the methods to establish a database for software resources effectively so that XML-based software information system schema can be designed and implemented, and the standard for software information system management can be developed.

Chang-Su Kim, Min-Kyo In, Kang-Chan Lee, Seung-Yun Lee, Hoe-Kyung Jung

Chapter 88. A Study on Learning Achievement Improvement Based on SLL Program

Universities have keenly required solutions to systematically support and strategically use self-directed teaching–learning for education angled towards students. The study aims to instill self-motivated learning and enhance academic achievement through a 3-phase self-directed learning class program herein.

Kie Sung Oh

Chapter 89. A Performance Test of Query Operation on Encrypted Database

Database security techniques are available widely. Among those techniques, the encryption method is a well-certified and established technology for protecting sensitive data. However, once encrypted, the data can no longer be easily queried. The performance of the database depends on how to encrypt the sensitive data, and an approach for searching and retrieval efficiencies that are implemented. In this paper we analyze the database queries and the data properties and propose a suitable mechanism to query the encrypted database. We proposed and analyzed the new database encryption algorithm using the Bloom Filter with the bucket index method. Finally, we demonstrated the superiority of the proposed algorithm through several experiments that should be useful for database encryption related research and application activities.

Ji Hong Kim, Tony Sahama, Sung Yong Kim

Chapter 90. Similarity Measure Design on Big Data

Clustering algorithm in big data was designed, and its idea was based on defining similarity measure. Traditional similarity measure on overlapped data was illustrated, and application to non-overlapped data was carried out. Similarity measure on high dimension data was obtained through getting information from neighbor data. Its usefulness was proved, and verified by calculation of similarity for artificial data example.

Sanghyuk Lee, Yan Sun

Mobile Communication

Frontmatter

Chapter 91. MDDI Protocol Implementation for Mobile System

In this paper, I propose how to implement a MDDI protocol packet generation method in software. MDDI protocol is widely used in the display device. MDDI protocol packets are generated by software within micro processor. This method needs the minimum hardware configuration. In order to implement this method, I design a hardware platform with a high performance microprocessor and a FPGA. The packets generated by software within microprocessor are converted into LVDS signals, and transmitted by the hardware within the FPGA. This study suggests the benefits of the way software can easily create a variety of packet. But, the proposed method takes more time in packet transmission compared to the traditional method. This issue still remains as a future challenge, which can be soon improved.

Seung-Han Ryu, Byeong-Kwon Lee, Hoe-Kyung Jung

Chapter 92. Practical Signal Models for Orthogonal Code Hopping Multiplexing Systems

In this paper, we propose three received signal models in orthogonal code hopping multiplexing (OCHM) systems for exactly evaluating performance. In the conventional studies,

synergy

effect in OCHM was not considered even though it can improve the system performance. We investigate the synergy effect on the system performance through the multi-user link level simulation for each case.

Bang Chul Jung, Tae-Won Ban, Kil-Young Sung

Chapter 93. Energy Efficient Data Transmission Mechanism in Wireless Sensor Networks

In dense deployments of sensor nodes in a Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), sensors are spatially correlated and they may sense same information and send the same information to its sink node. So each sensor node wastes energy in transmitting redundant data. Furthermore, sensor nodes near sink node may treat more data and use more energy than other node. In this paper we propose a energy efficient data transmission mechanism which reduces redundant data transmission and saves node energy. Using modified RTS control frame of IEEE 802.11 MAC and direction information of received data packet, each sensor node may drop its measured redundant data. Results have shown that our data transmission mechanism outperforms other mechanisms in terms of energy saving and amount of data traffics.

Seong Cheol Kim, Jun Heon Jeon, Hyun Joo Park

Chapter 94. An Enhanced Network Coding Scheme for Mobile Ad-hoc Network

Generally, in network coding, relay nodes mix the content of different packets to a single coded packet and broadcast the coded packet on the wireless medium. Network coding is expected to improve throughput and channel efficiency in the wireless multi-hop network. Prior researches have been carried out to employ network coding to wireless ad-hoc network. In this paper, we proposed an enhanced practical network coding scheme for wireless ad-hoc network. In our design, intermediate nodes identify one-hop bidirectional flows for network coding decision. It could make decoding failure probability to zero at neighbor nodes. We expect that the proposed algorithm shall improve decoding success rate of network coded packet. From the simulation, the proposed network coding scheme achieved better performance in terms of coding gain and packet delivery rate than traditional network coding scheme.

Kwan-Woong Kim, Yong-Kab Kim, Byun-Gon Kim

Chapter 95. IDS Scheme for Blackhole Attack on MANETs

Blackhole attack is one of typical intrusion to routing function on Mobile Ad-hoc Network(MANET)s. Blackhole attacking may cause severe transmission performance deterioration of network, because of absorption of all packets be delivered to destination and all routing messages be propagated to nodes on MANETs. Detecting and avoiding of blackhole attacking from malicious is very important to keep network performance. In this paper, an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) scheme for blackhole attack on MANETs is suggested with pre-routing. Transmission performance of this suggested scheme is shown with NS-2 simulations.

Young-Dong Kim, Dong-Ill Kim

Chapter 96. Physical Forensic Acquisition and Pattern Unlock on Android Smart Phones

Since the Android operating system was released by Google in 2007, it has developed to the top smart phone sales around the world. Meanwhile, Android has also designed many measures of security protection for the users, and the pattern lock is one of the most popular ways on Android smart phones. However, this kind of function may be seen as a protection way to criminals. Therefore, there comes the need of physical acquisition and unlocking the pattern lock on Android devices for digital forensics. This research is based on the process of mobile forensics provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology, which is designed for physical acquisition, images making and pattern unlock when the Android smart phones are under the pattern lock. The evidence and images can be analyzed through computers and it can increase the capability of restoring the deleted data, and the unlocked mobile can be used to do logical acquisition.

Yuan-Chi Tsai, Chung-Huang Yang

IT Fusion Technology

Frontmatter

Chapter 97. A New Distance Metric Based on Class-Space Reduction

The ultimate goal of research regarding classification is to improve accuracy. Classification accuracy highly depends on overlapping areas among classes of the dataset. In general, a wider overlap area produces less classification accuracy. In this study, we suggest a new distance metric based on class-space reduction to improve classification accuracy. Proposed distance metric has same effect to rescale training/test data by moving data points in the direction of the center point of the class that the data points belong to. By conducting experiments using real datasets, we confirmed that many cases of new dataset generated by class-space reduction improved the classification accuracy for some classification algorithms.

Byungjoon Park, Sejong Oh

Chapter 98. A New Criterion of Mutual Information Using R-value

Mutual information has wide area of application including feature selection and classification. To calculate mutual information, statistical equation of information theory has been used. In this paper, we propose a new criterion for mutual information. It is based on R-value which captures overlapping areas among classes in variables (features). Overlapping area of classes reflects uncertainty of the variables; it corresponds to the meaning of entropy. We compare traditional mutual information and R-value on the context of feature selection. From the experiment we confirm that proposed method shows better performance than traditional mutual information.

Taegoon Han, Youngbok Hong, Sejong Oh

Chapter 99. Command Fusion Based Fuzzy Controller Design for Moving Obstacle Avoidance of Mobile Robot

In this paper, we proposed a fuzzy inference model for navigation algorithm for a mobile robot, which is intelligently searching the goal location in unknown dynamic environments using sensor fusion, based on situational command using an ultrasonic sensor. Instead of using “physical sensor fusion” method which generates the trajectory of a robot based upon the environment model and sensory data, “command fusion” method is used to govern the robot motions. The navigation strategy is based on the combination of fuzzy rules tuned for both goal-approach and obstacle-avoidance. To identify the environments, a command fusion technique is introduced, where the sensory data of ultrasonic sensors and a vision sensor are fused into the identification process.

Hyunjin Chang, Taeseok Jin

Chapter 100. The Consideration of GPS Jamming Signal Due to Propagation Path Loss

The paper is considered on the loss of GPS jamming signal due to propagation path. The parameters related to the additional loss are estimated under possible assumptions to investigate the propagation phenomenon which may affect to the range of jamming against receivers. The simple scenario is adapted in order to estimate the effective propagation range. Several distinct results are shown for analyzing the jamming characteristics due to propagation path loss.

Kwangsoob Ko

Chapter 101. On Development of an Open Platform for High Performance Computing Services: Design of TCAD Meta-Data Schema and Its Application to Computational Nanoelectronics

Modeling researches via simulations with aid of high performance computing services (HCPS) have been intensively performed to solve various applied science and engineering problems. As a result, there has been a huge increase of the needs for HPCS platforms, which can make simulation-based research easier to be accessed by students and researchers. A HPCS platform can be composed by components such as preprocessors, technology computer-aided-design softwares (TCAD SWs), visualization tools, computing resource managers, and job schedulers. As no standardized schema to interoperate these components in HPCS platforms have been proposed so far, most of current HPCS platforms provide functionalities to support particular TCAD SWs in particular scientific areas. Here, we discuss the XML-based design of the meta-data schema that can flexibly handle various TCAD SWs in various areas, and demonstrate one example of its successful applications to science gateways, focusing on the field of computational nanoelectronics.

Du Seok Jin, Jung-lok Yu, Jun-hyung Lee, Jongsuk Ruth Lee, Kumwon Cho, Hoon Ryu

Chapter 102. Scratch Inspection of Spectacle Lens Based on Fuzzy Logic

In this paper, we propose an intelligent method to detect small scratches from eyeglasses using fuzzy logic. Inspecting scratches of eyeglasses largely depends on the native eye exam that may lead providing defected eyeglasses to customers at optician’s shop since those small scratches are often occurred in the process of transportation rather than that of production. Our method computes the possibility of ill-effect by scratch on glasses with membership degree of the scratch size and that of distance between the center and the scratch from candidate scratched areas extracted in the pre-processing phase. Our method is applied to CHEMI MID HL HM dioptric lenses in experiment and it is verified that the proposed method is sufficiently effective by real optician’s evaluation.

Kwang-Beak Kim, Doo Heon Song, Jae-Hyun Cho, Young Woon Woo

Chapter 103. Microstructure Evolution of the Cu-Cr Hypereutectic Alloys During Directional Solidification

The effects of directional solidification velocity, temperature and alloy composition on the microstructure evolution of Cu-Cr alloys were investigated systematically. The microstructure observations showed that the halo α-Cu phase formed from the Cu-rich solute neighbor to primary Cr-rich phase, and followed by the growth of rod-like coupled eutectic. The Cr-rich phase coarsened and the eutectic spacing increased with the decreasing growth velocity and the increasing solidification temperature. Further, the eutectic and the primary phase transformation temperatures in hypereutectic alloys were determined by the DSC tests. The eutectic temperature has been established to be 1079 ± 0.5 °C.

ZhongPing Que, JeHyun Lee, WeiLi Cheng, SeungZeon Han, HyungMin Jung, KwangJun Euh

Chapter 104. Development of Knocking Analysis Algorithms for Fuel Reduction in CRDI Engine

This study developed the knocking analysis algorithms for fuel redection applicable to the ECU exclusive to the industrial CRDI engine in order to meet the enhanced emission standards. In order to develop algorithms to determine diesel knocking using the operating principles of CKP and CMP among the input elements of CRDI engine control ECU. The development of the algorithms has enabled to adjust fuel injection timing and amount. Thus, this study aims to improve engine efficiency and to reduce emissions.

Hwa-seon Kim, Seong-jin Jang, Jae-hyun Nam, Jong-wook Jang

Chapter 105. Multi-Criteria Decision Making Based on Fuzzy Measure

Decision procedure was done with the evaluation of multi-criterion analysis. Importance of each criterion was considered through heuristically method, specially it was based on the heuristic least mean square algorithm. To consider coalition evaluation, it was carried out by calculation of Shapley index and Interaction value. The model output is also analyzed with the help of those two indexes, and the procedure was also displayed with details. Finally, the differences between the model output and the desired results are evaluated thoroughly, several problems are raised at the end of the example which require for further studying.

Sanghyuk Lee, Yan Sun, Di Feng

Chapter 106. Estimation of Flood Risk on the Roads Using Current Accumulated Rainfall via RSS Service of Weather Center

As the frequent occurrence of localized heavy rainfall due to abnormal climate and rapid urbanization, urban flood inundation is increasing unlike in the past. Especially the isolation of drivers and traffic congestion by flooding of the roads give considerable damage economically. In this study, the degrees of Flood Risk on the roads are estimated quantitatively using current accumulated rainfall on a rainy day via RSS Service of Weather Center. It should be effective that the isolation of drivers by flooding will be prevented beforehand.

Eunmi Kim, Hyun Suk Hwang, Chang Soo Kim

Chapter 107. A Light Mobile Web Service Framework Based on Axis2

Mobile computing has developed exponentially in the last decade, and these days the world is well into the mobile era. Smart mobile devices, including tablets, pads and smartphones, have left the labs and have become essential in people’s lives. Mobile computing will continue to grow in the next few years in power and pervasiveness and is poised to become the dominant computing technology. Due to power and bandwidth constraints inherent to mobile computing, it is imperative to communicate with web services as efficiently as possible. This need for efficiency motivates our research. In this paper, we develop a theoretical light web service framework and a practical system to test existing technologies and performance of mobile devices. Also, we describe a new service architecture and a mobile portal interface.

Zhun Shen, Ka Lok Man, Hai-Ning Liang, Nan Zhang, Charles Fleming, David Olalekan Afolabi, Yanyan Wu, Sheung-Hung Poon

Chapter 108. Development of Real-Time Condition Check Systems for Racing Cars Using WCDMA

As wireless mobile network services have been widely used these days, the development technology of WCDMA and their applications are gradually expanded, and thus there is a trend that a lot of IT fusion industries are emerging. In this study, a system was developed that utilize the OBD-II communication to import vehicle information and transfer data to an external server for other external devices to be able to real-time check the condition of a racing cars. A real-time condition check system for racing cars was implemented that reads information from the a variety of sensors inside the vehicle using the OBD-II scanner, converts the data for users to see easily, and transfers the data to external data server using a WCDMA module. An ordinary vehicle and a racing car driving at high-speed on the actual circuit were used for the performance test of the developed system; generated data were transmitted through the OBD-II scanner; it was confirmed that data were received without error and loss by the racing car state check system. In addition, it was also confirmed that the same data, as were transmitted to an external server using WCDMA, were sent and received normally. In the future, this technology will increase as part of a new automotive IT research fields.

Min-Seop Song, Sung-Hyun Baek, Jong-Wook Jang

Chapter 109. Implementation of Vehicle Remote Status Verification System Using Driving Information

Based on the internal vehicle data collected with OBD and location data collected through GPS, drivers’ driving information is recorded. It is used for inspection of car status. This driving information is offered to drivers (users) through smartphone applications, and to auto repair shops through website, implementing a system allowing for remote inspection of vehicle status for drivers.

Minyoung Kim, Jong-wook Jang

Chapter 110. A Study on the System for Customer Feedback Integration Inference in B2C Service Industries

Recently, due to the rapid distribution of the smart phone, real-time SNS such as Twitter and Facebook has been growing exponentially, and the service provider sales are being affected by the customer feedback (comments from blogs, cafes, SNS etc.) as the customer stance has changed from passive to active as the era of social media arrived. However, the current B2C (Business to Customer) service industry lacks both qualitative and quantitative assessments for services provided to customers, causing the same problems to occur repeatedly and periodically. There are relatively low portion of standard process and key performance index because of too many companies and differences of their sizes in these industries. One of the proof of this fact is the need for SSME (Service Science, Management and Engineering) studies in this business area. This paper suggests a method of efficient customer feedback integration for the B2C service industry. The aim of this study is the standardization of process and the development key performance of index, and to develop algorithm about these assessment factors. This method involves collecting and analyzing the customer feedback in various ways (process mining, text mining, direct survey, and face recognition) as well as inferring systematically based on the real-time feedback for satisfaction and personal requirements for providing personalized and customized services. The result of this study is the development of general purpose platform for B2C service process improvement.

Min-Sik Kang, Eun-Jee Song

Chapter 111. Production of Nanoporous Alumina and Surface Studies by Atomic Force Microscopy

Nanoporous alumina is formed by two-step anodization process on an aluminum foil (99.99 %). Process of anodization allows to generate stable patches of nanoporous alumina and can affect the size and depth of the nanopores. By varying the parameters of anodization process we can control the growth of pores and their size. The properties of alumina film were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The diameters of pores were found to be dependent on the applied voltage. Nanoporous alumina can be used as different membranes, test samples, template for nanostructured materials. The AFM is an appropriate method to study the size and depth of nanopores and periodicity of surface features.

B. E. Alpysbayeva, Kh. A. Abdullin, A. A. Karipkhanova

Chapter 112. A Study on the Design of the Efficient Adder and Multiplier Based on Normal Basis over Finite Fields

This paper propose the method of constructing the highly efficiency adder and multiplier systems over finite fields. The addition arithmetic operation over finite field is simple comparatively because that addition arithmetic operation is analyzed by each digit modP summation independently. But in case of multiplication arithmetic operation, we generate maximum k = 2m − 2° of α

k

terms, therefore we decrease k into m − 1 using irreducible primitive polynomial. We propose two method of control signal generation for the purpose of performing above decrease process. One method is the combinational logic expression and the other method is universal signal generation.

Chun-Myoung Park

Chapter 113. Diamond-Like Carbon Films Obtained by Ion-Plasma Magnetron Sputtering

By ion-plasma magnetron sputtering obtained diamond-like carbon films. Determined phase composition, surface morphology, measured the thickness of the films.

M. J. Buranbaev, B. A. Aliyev, O. E. Kaipoldayev, J. A. Entibekov, R. K. Aliaskarov

Chapter 114. Analyses of Attacks on Embedded RFID Application Under U-Healthcare System

A variety of security and privacy threats to RFID authentication protocols have been widely studied, including eavesdropping, replay attacks, denial of service (DoS) attacks, tracking, and traceability. Considering this RFID security issues, we surveyed the security threats and open problems related to issues by means of information security and privacy. In this paper, we have analyzed and compared practical threat on U-healthcare system.

Jung Tae Kim

Chapter 115. Performance Analysis of Smart Healthcare System Based on ISO/IEEE 11073 and HL7

We suggest smart healthcare system using smart phone depending upon current trend. This system was designed and implemented on the environment of IEEE11073 and HL7 standard. Smart gateway supports the standard connection of Personal Health Device (PHD) thru Bluetooth Health Device Profile (HDP) and user can exchange information using HL7 standard medical information structure. PHD by Bluetooth wireless communication and smart phone gateway make healthcare service easier as it supports ubiquitous environment that is relatively free from the restriction of place and time. Thus it can be expected development and supply various type of PHD. For the more it could help revitalization of U-healthcare industry in the long term period.

Jae-Hwan Jean, Sung-In Kang, Gwan-Hyung Kim, Oh-Hyun Kwon, Jong-Hee Lee, Am-Suk Oh

Chapter 116. Random Walks, Lévy Flights, Markov Chains and Metaheuristic Optimization

Stochastic components such as random walks have become an intrinsic part of modern metaheursitic algorithms. The efficiency of a metaheuristic algorithm may implicitly depend on the appropriate use of such randomization. In this paper, we provide some basic analysis and observations about random walks, Lévy flights, step sizes and efficiency using Markov theory. We show that the reason why Lévy flights are more efficient than Gaussian random walks, and the good performance of Eagle Strategy. Finally, we use bat algorithm to design a PID controller and have achieved equally good results as the classic Ziegler-Nichols tuning scheme.

Xin-She Yang, T. O. Ting, Mehmet Karamanoglu

Backmatter

Additional information