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About this book

The new multimedia standards (for example, MPEG-21) facilitate the seamless integration of multiple modalities into interoperable multimedia frameworks, transforming the way people work and interact with multimedia data. These key technologies and multimedia solutions interact and collaborate with each other in increasingly effective ways, contributing to the multimedia revolution and having a significant impact across a wide spectrum of consumer, business, healthcare, education, and governmental domains.

This book aims to provide a complete coverage of the areas outlined and to bring together the researchers from academic and industry as well as practitioners to share ideas, challenges, and solutions relating to the multifaceted aspects of this field.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. 10-Step Information Architecture on Wanfang Med Online

The paper first reviews the different definitions and the basic fundamentals of information architecture, then summarizes the creative-application experiences of IA in the field of Chinese medical-information service based on the practice of Wanfang Med Online and gives out the ten steps of the IA process, which include research on users, content analysis, context analysis, metadata framework construction, classification, thesaurus, IA strategy, Project Management (PM), blueprint, and user interface.

Xiumei Zhang, Xiaoying Zhou, Junli Liu, Jianwu Xu

Chapter 2. A Mathematical Model for Nurse Scheduling with Different Preference Ranks

On nurse shift schedules, it is common that the nursing staff have diverse preferences about shift rotations and days off. We propose a nurse scheduling model based upon integer programming under the constraints of the schedule, different preference ranks towards each shift and the historical data of previous schedule periods so that the nursing staff’s preference satisfaction about the shift schedule is maximized. The main difference of the proposed model from the previous works is to consider that the nursing staff’s satisfaction level is affected by preference ranks and their priority ordering to be scheduled, so that the quality of shift schedule is more reasonable.

Chun-Cheng Lin, Jia-Rong Kang, Wan-Yu Liu

Chapter 3. A New RFID and Cellular Automata Based Genetic Sequence Converter

With the development of computer technology, the more information is obtained from biological experiments through computer analysis, and even has helped give rise to a new kind of science called bioinformatics. The commonly used tool in bioinformatics is sequence alignment. Sequence alignment is a way of comparing the sequences to identify regions of similarity that may be a consequence of functional relationships between the sequences. The genetic code is highly similar among all organisms and can be expressed in a simple table with 64 entries. In this research, we uses cellular automata (CA) theory as the research topic instead of using traditional dotplot or dynamic programming to conduct sequence alignment. The parallel computing characteristic of cellular automata makes the future expansion model tremendously decrease the massive sequence computing costs. This research modifies the originally defined rules of cellular automata in order to make it more appropriate for amino acid sequence alignment.

Meng-Hsiun Tsai, Hsin-Lung Wang, Teng-Yen Wu, Mu-Yen Chen

Chapter 4. A Research on 3D Motion Database Management and Query System Based on Kinect

Due to the development of computer technology and the mature development of 3D motion capture technology, the applications of 3D motion databases become more and more important. How to analysis the huge data stored in the database and efficiently retrieved the matched data is an important research issue. 3D animation design is one of the important applications of 3D motion databases. Based on our teaching experience, the bottleneck of the students’ learning of 3D animation is the motion animation of the 3D characters. Therefore, the 3D motion database can be used to assist the design of the motion for 3D characters. However, it is still a difficult problem because of the high complexity of the matching mechanism and the difficult of user interface design. Kinect, which is developed by Microsoft, is used as a remote controller of Xbox 360 games. Because of the capability of capturing user motions, Kinect is used in this project as the user interface. The captured data can be used as the user query and the further comparison will be performed to find the matched motion data.

Edgar Chia-Han Lin

Chapter 5. A SAT Approach to Nursing Scheduling Problem

The objective of nursing scheduling problem (NSP) is finding a shift schedule for nurses. According to the nurse’s preference, the working constraints in the hospital and many possible combinations, the NSP become a complex problem and difficult to solve. The goal of NSP is to find a shift schedule in an efficiently way is very important when the problem become more complex. In this paper, we propose that the NSP can be converted into the boolean satisfiability problem (SAT). A shift schedule can be obtained by integer linear programming (ILP) method where satisfy the nurse’s preference and the working constraints. We show that an example is solved by SAT approach efficiently.

Tsung-Shun Wu, Chia-Ling Ho, Chien-Liang Chen

Chapter 6. A Hybrid Energy-Aware Scheduling for Real-Time Task Synchronization

Due to the importance of resource allocation and energy efficiency, this paper considers minimizing energy consumptions and priority inversion in the embedded real-time systems. While dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) is known to reduce dynamic power consumption, it also causes increased blocking time of lower priority tasks and leakage energy consumption due to increased execution. We proposed a concept of reservation lock to prevent priority inversion using CPU’s dormant mode and define a block-free interval in which both DVS and leakage-aware methods can be applied. In order to compute the optimal sleeping time and its duration and to meet the timing constraints, we also propose a weighted directed graph (WDG) to obtain additional task information. By traversing WDG, task information can be updated online and the scheduling decisions could be done in linear time complexity.

Da-Ren Chen

Chapter 7. Applying Taiwan EMR Exchange Architecture to Establish a Mobile-Healthcare Management System for Chronic Disease in an Aboriginal Tribe

The information system of Mobile-healthcare Management is using the newly and sophisticated technology to collocate physicians and nurses’ professional skills. It may improve the healthcare quality of remote areas and increase their medical resources. This research aims at establishing a proper clinical medical information system. Because of most of the aboriginal tribes lack medical service, it is hard for people to visit hospital, so it need the case manager visit the patient weekly, and record the patients’ situation on paper by manually, this research want to build a system to solve some problems. Consider the information device insufficiency in remote areas and need high mobility of peripatetic medical service, we use tablet PC to as a hardware and using it in a tribe which is located in the east of Taiwan. This system will make case managers get patient’s basic and clinical data in their hospitals and also get these data from another hospitals through electronic medical record exchange center. Therefore, it can help case managers know the patients’ conditions before they go to provide care to the patient.

Hsiao-Hsien Rau, Yen-Liang Lee, Chien-Yeh Hsu, Duu-Jian Tsai, Shih-Chang Chen, Li-Min Wei, Suleman Atique

Chapter 8. Automatic Classification of Digitally Modulated Signals Based on K-Nearest Neighbor

In this paper, we propose an automatic classification method for eight digitally modulated signals, such as 2FSK, 4FSK, MSK, BPSK, QPSK, 8PSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM. The method uses spectral correlation density and high-order cumulants as features. For feature classification,


-nearest neighbor algorithm is used. Simulation results are demonstrated to evaluate the proposed scheme.

Woo-Hyun Ahn, Sun-Phil Nah, Bo-Seok Seo

Chapter 9. Computing Value at Risk in OpenCL on the Graphics Processing Unit

We present our work on computing the value at risk (VaR) of a large hypothetical portfolio in the OpenCL programming model on an AMD FirePro V7900 graphics processing unit (GPU). In the computation of the VaR we follow the delta-gamma Monte Carlo approach. The value change of the portfolio within a short time period is approximated by the sum of a linear delta component and a non-linear gamma component. To approximate the distribution of the value change of the portfolio we generate a large number scenarios. From each scenario a loss or gain of the portfolio is calculated by the delta-gamma approximation. All these potential losses and gains are then sorted, from which an appropriate percentile is chosen as the VaR. We implemented this algorithm in OpenCL. The details are discussed and the experimental results are reported.

Nan Zhang, Ka Lok Man, Dejun Xie

Chapter 10. Deserializing JSON Data in Hadoop

MapReduce provides an efficient programming framework for processing big data in parallel in Hadoop. On the other hand, as the digitalized data becomes bigger as the advances information of technology, deserializing big JSON data into paths in advance can benefit queries on the data. Therefore, using MapReduce framework to deserialize big JSON data into JSON paths is applicable. In this paper, we propose an efficient JSON data processing mechanism based on MapReduce framework. The mechanism includes a redesign of JSONInputFormat class and the other two Map and Reduce functions.

Shih-Ying Chen, Hung-Ming Chen, I-Hsueh Chen, Chien-Che Huang

Chapter 11. Design of a Mobile Brain-Computer Interface System with Personalized Emotional Feedback

This study design was based on the emotional evaluation training and instant feedback system on mobile devices linked to brainwave measurement instruments. Through the handheld device software, the evaluation framework for content playback, such as music, videos, photos, etc., was built, and the algorithms for evaluating personalized emotions were developed. The users wore the brainwave measurement instruments to measure the parameters of the brainwaves during the guidance of emotions and to calculate the rates of their emotional influences and trigger keys stored in the database. The evaluation results can be used as the voice or prompt text of the system to provide an immediate personalized emotional feedback response to users.

Hung-Ming Chen, Shih-Ying Chen, Ting-Jhao Jheng, Shao-Chin Chang

Chapter 12. Efficient XML Data Processing Based on MapReduce Framework

Due to the advances of information technology, new devices generate amount of data. Especially, XML is a standard format for data exchange. Therefore, processing big XML data is an important topic. We propose an efficient XML data processing mechanism, which includes a design of XMLInputFormat class, MapReduce modules, and an HBase schema. The mechanism scans an XML document to reconstruct parent-child relationships in the document. It generates deserialized paths, which are stored in HBase.

Shih-Ying Chen, Hung-Ming Chen, Wei-Chen Zeng

Chapter 13. Examining Organizational Value Co-creation Behavior from the Perspective of Service Science

S-D logic is a more robust framework for service science than the traditional goods-dominant (G-D) logic that emphasizes the importance of operant resources and value co-creation. This study examines the dynamic nature of organizational value co-creation behavior by DEMATEL-based ANP. Major research findings can be expected to provide helpful guidance for the effective promotion of organizational value co-creation behavior to leverage the operant resources to their maximum potentiality.

Huan-Ming Chuang, Chyuan-Yuh Lin

Chapter 14. FontCloud: Web Font Service for Personal Handwritten, Ancient, and Unencoded Characters

Text is still the most convenient and important media for people to communicate with others. Nowadays, designers can use various font setting to demonstrate their ideas in text. At the same time, new characters are invented to expand the power of text. However, people have to wait before these characters are encoded in computers and related fonts are released. It is not easy for ordinary users to create fonts, especially of Chinese characters. In this paper, a font cloud offering web font service is presented where users can create their personal fonts easily from the images of characters. These characters images could be scanned from ancient calligraphy works or someone’s handwritings on papers or electronic pads. After preprocessed, these images are vectorized, unified to their codepoints in Unicode, and packed into a user-specified font stored in font cloud. A JavaScript is automatically generated. Users can embed the JavaScript in their web pages to use the font in font cloud and show the designed text effect. The prototype system shows that the proposed font cloud can help users greatly.

Jeng-Wei Lin, Feng-Sheng Lin, Yu-Chun Wang, Jan-Ming Ho, Ray-I Chang

Chapter 15. Implementing Globally Unique Identifier Architecture in Date Collection for a Health Management Study in Taiwan Aboriginal Tribe

In present, more and more attention has been put on the effort of protection of personal data and also new encryption technologies are derived. In this article, we introduce a personal information protection technology, global unique identifier (GUID), which is developed by National Institutes of Health U.S. and used for personal health information protection. The GUID is an identifier that allows researchers to associate and share data specific to a study participant without using or exposing personally identifiable information (PII). The GUID is made up of random alphanumeric characters and is not directly generated from PII/Protected Health Information (PHI). It has been approved by the NIH/USA office General Counsel for secure sharing of anonymized database. In our study, we used GUID as key identifier for health data collection from aboriginal tribe in a health promotion project.

Jui-Fu Hung, Hsiao-Hsien Rau, Chien-Yeh Hsu, Shih-Chang Chen, Duu-Jian Tsai, Yang Fann, Joshua Park, Joshua Eng

Chapter 16. Language Learning in Cloud: Modular Role Player Game-Distance-Learning System Based on Voice Recognition

In this paper, the modular role player game-distance-learning system based on voice recognition for language learning in cloud is proposed. Each designed modular game content can be embedded into the learning game platform in cloud. By connecting to the external recognition resource, the pronouncing of learners can be recognized. Only when the pronouncing of the learner can be recognized as the keyword, the further game will be started. By designing different scenarios, different vocabularies or conversations can be added into the RPG game. The information about users in the individual game learning system can be stored in the cloud database. Then users can connect to the learning-game system via the Internet for continuous learning. By using the cloud platform, the users can connect to learning system anytime and anywhere. Furthermore, the students can learn advanced courses themselves by playing the advanced scenarios of the game-learning system without the assistance of a teacher.

Ming-Shen Jian, Jun-Hong Shen, Tien-Chi Huang, Yu-Chih Chen, Jun-Lin Chen

Chapter 17. Low Complexity Multiuser Interference Cancellation for Frequency Offsets Compensation in Localized OFDMA Uplink Systems

In orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) system which allocates subcarriers to different users has much attention because of the advantages in OFDM. However, a well-known problem of OFDM-based system is the weakness for carrier frequency offset (CFO) that leads to a loss of orthogonality among the subcarriers. Furthermore, in OFDMA system, this problem becomes more serious in uplink channel because users have different CFOs. These multiple CFOs (MCFO) bring the multiuser interference (MUI) which is incoming the interference signals from other users by breaking the orthogonality among the users. In this paper, we propose a MUI cancellation scheme for OFDMA uplink systems. In the scheme, two steps of compensation and cancellation in time and frequency domains, respectively, are applied. In the frequency domain, we only consider the interference from both adjacent sides of the band to reduce the computation complexity and parallel interference cancellation (PIC) is employed. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method reveals improved performance.

Yu-Jun Won, Jae-Won Suh, Bo-Seok Seo

Chapter 18. Malware-Proof Embedded Systems

Conventional measures do not sufficiently protect embedded systems against intruders and malware attacks of any kind. The main reason for this is that the system architectures are based on highly insecure and error-prone foundations. Whereas some time ago this shortcoming could still be partially coped with by swift counteraction, due to the fast data networks there are no reactive measures anymore that could compensate for the aggressors’ temporal advantage. Since computers employed for purposes of safety-related automation and control or in critical infrastructures are more and more connected to networks and are, thus, endangered by malware, new architectures for their hardware and software as presented here are necessary, which completely solve the security problems by their intrinsic properties.

Robert Fitz, Wolfgang A. Halang, Lichen Zhang

Chapter 19. RFID Based Modular Clerk Management System in Cloud

In this paper, the RFID based modular clerk management system in cloud is proposed to provide the modular clerk management to different companies individually with less implementation cost. The management procedures for clerk are modular and can be adopted by the system manager individually. All the clerks are given an individual RFID tag for the induction. By managing the priority recorded in the database in cloud, the gate access management, the attendance state of clerks and even the salary for clerks can be automatically arranged. Based on cloud, different companies can access the management system and database in virtual machines. In addition, the modular management system can be used according to the on demand requirements of companies. The modular system only needs to be established once and repeatedly used for individual companies.

Ming-Shen Jian, Jun-Hong Shen, Ming-Sian You, Yu-Siang Huang, Yu-Syuan Liou

Chapter 20. SMILE+: An Efficient Privacy Preserving Missed-Connection Service in IoV Networks

Drivers in IoV are connected to social networks all the time and can make use of Missed-Connection Services. It provides its users with the possibility to meet strangers who were at the same place and time and allows them to contact each other at a later time. In traditional missed-connection services, the centralized server stores all information and in a scenario, where the server is untrusted, the sensitive information is in danger. We propose SMILE+, a two-phase algorithm that ensures privacy by still being protected. We also perform a privacy analysis of our approach in respect to (1) location privacy, (2) encounter privacy and (3) extra messages to show that we could make an improvement to the existing approach.

Shih Hui Yu, Pierre Pascal Lindenberg, Bo Chao Cheng, Huan Chen

Chapter 21. Study on the Structured Clinical Diagnosis Repository Oriented Topic Architecture

In our existing clinical diagnosis repository, as it is lack of the deeper structured knowledge, we have begun work on an integrated solution with some topic-related knowledge technologies like DITA and Topic Maps. This paper presents the new architecture of the clinical diagnosis repository, which is redesigned according to the topic-related structured knowledge techniques, as well as the technology roadmap for implementing. Applying the architecture, the repository system has been improved. This paper describes and valuates new features of the system. Finally, it presents the next-phrase tasks.

Ying Li, Yunliang Zhang, Deshan Xu, Lijun Zhu, Jie Gui, Rui Zhu

Chapter 22. The Impact of Social Capital on the Knowledge Sharing Behavior Among the Community Members of a Social Network Knowledge Platform

This research has collected sample data through the social network Ask Yahoo! From the 308 effective samples, it shows that community members’ attitude toward knowledge sharing certainly constitutes positive impact on the members’ willingness to participate in the sharing and be loyal to the aggregative social network behavior. However, the mutual trust and common goals of the community members and their perceived social network benefits do not necessarily decide the behavioral outcomes. By taking an insight look at the behavioral traits behind people’s mindset, this study aims to help understand the actual factors that influence the community members’ willingness to share, so that social network operators can better run the platforms to make effective sharing mechanism and bring in tempting social network benefits.

Chyuan-Yuh Lin, You-Shyang Chen, Yu-Wen Lo

Chapter 23. Understanding University Students’ Online Purchase Decisions Through Social Networking Services (SNSs)

This study aims to investigate the effect of e-business integration with social networking services (SNSs), with a particular focus on university students’ online purchase decisions. A quantitative study was adopted, using online survey approach to collect 513 valid empirical data from the university students. Data analysis was conducted by SPSS, started from descriptive aspect to regression test progressively. Several impact factors namely advertisements (ads) on web-page, ads on official homepages, ads on interest groups, and ads posted by friends associated with SNSs were identified and the usage of SNS showed significant impact on university students’ online purchase decisions. The findings suggest SNSs is one of essential tool for the online purchase decision from the Chinese university students’ perspective.

Yan Sun, Shiqing Wang, Xue Bai, Woon Kian Chong

Chapter 24. User Interface Design and Evaluation for a Mobile Application with Travel News Reader

This study was designed around the Android mobile devices, and explored HTML5-based technology and concepts to develop an ebook reader application that can be applied to travel news reader. Current theories and methods related to the design of application interface were collected and analyzed to understand the users’ satisfaction and usability regarding how applications render information. This information can be used as a reference for design of application interfaces in the future.

Hung-Ming Chen, Shih-Ying Chen, Jhuo-Syun Li

Chapter 25. Multiple Moving Targets Detection Based on Hough Transform and Matched Filter

The most fundamental problem in radar signal is detection of a moving object or a physical phenomenon. This problem became more challenging to the signal processing and radar communities to detect multiple moving targets under severe interference. In order to effectively detect moving targets in strong noise conditions, we proposed a new method based on matched filter and Hough transform (HT) for multiple moving targets detection. At first, the noise is removed from the received signal by the matched filter with a cross correlation technique. Then, the image processing technique of the Hough transform is used. The benefits of this method include improved performance of detection, implementation flexibility, which indicates the effectiveness and robustness of the algorithm.

Md Saiful Islam, Uipil Chong

Chapter 26. RFID-Enabled Smart Attendance Management System

The existing conventional attendance system requires students to manually provide their signature on the attendance sheet. The drawback of this conventional method is the loss of time in jotting down the attendance, leading to human error and cheating issues and the inability of capturing and storing the attendance record for other essential university activities. In this project, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)-enabled Smart Attendance Management System (RFID-SAMS) will be designed to cater to the limitation of the conventional attendance system. The RFID-SAMS system function to enrolled students and staff data and course related information, record and monitor students’ attendance and their movement during any courses attended. Its ability to uniquely identify each person based on their RFID tag type of ID card make the process of taking the attendance easier, faster and secure as compared to conventional method. The uniqueness of RFID-SAMS is the capability to detect any duplication RFID event readings and miss readings. In addition, this system has been enhanced to cater the latest ubiquitous technology such as the mobile devices, which are Window Phone and Windows Surface RT. The overall system provides an efficient, accurate and portability solution and work well for the real-life attendance environment within the university.

Meng Zhi, Manmeet Mahinderjit Singh

Chapter 27. Performance Evaluation of IEEE 802.15.6 MAC with User Priorities for Medical Applications

In order to satisfy the heterogeneous service requirements from different applications and the complex channel characters owing to body motions, IEEE 802.15.6 standard was established as a new solution for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). In this paper, we evaluate the effect of user priorities (UPs) on the performance of IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA/CA channel access mechanism in narrow band. Simulation metrics mainly focus on the normalized throughput and average packet delay in which the traffic arrival rate and traffic distribution vary. In addition, we make a comparison with the non-priority CSMA/CA in performance which concludes that the IEEE 802.15.6 with user priorities performs better in specific situation.

Li Yang, Changle Li, Yueyang Song, Xiaoming Yuan, Yanle Lei

Chapter 28. Implementation of Policy-Based Personalized Wellness Service in IoT Environment

In this paper, we describe the security analysis and implementation leveraging globally networked mobile RFID-based wellness service in IoT Environment. We propose a secure mobile RFID-based wellness service framework leveraging mobile networking. The framework provides a means for safe use of mobile phone-based RFID services by providing security to personalized wellness service.

Namje Park

Chapter 29. Interactive Drawing Based on Hand Gesture

In this paper, a system that draws drawings on a real-time camera input image is proposed. First, a background subtraction operation is performed on the camera input image. A skin area detection algorithm is applied to the image that has undergone a background subtraction operation. After applying a labeling algorithm to the detected skin region image, a pen is augmented on the position of the hand. In addition, based on the obtained coordinates, a hand gesture-dependent drawing is drawn simultaneously on the camera image, in real-time.

Tae-Eun Kim

Chapter 30. On the Performance of Quasi-Orthogonal Space Time Block Coded Massive MIMO with up to 16 Antennas

Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) using a large number of antennas at both transmitter and receiver sides based on quasi-orthogonal space time block code (QOSTBC) is presented. Space-time block code (STBC) is a MIMO transmit strategy that applies transmit diversity and high reliability. QOSTBC is attractive because it achieves higher code rate than orthogonal STBC and lower decoding complexity than non-orthogonal STBC. We present the performance of massive MIMO systems using the QOSTBC with multiple antennas up to the 16 × 16 configuration. The performances of 2 × 2, 4 × 4, 8 × 8 and 16 × 16 massive MIMO systems have been presented. Simulation results show that the massive MIMO systems with QOSTBC give significant performance improvement with full rate and full diversity, compared with previously considered massive MIMO systems.

Khin Zar Chi Winn, Phyu Phyu Han, Kasun Bandara, Yeon-Ho Chung

Chapter 31. Analysis of Gesture Combos for Social Activity on Smartphone

Due to sensing technologies, gestures are assisting users in conveniently operating smartphone. This paper offers the influence of gesture control with hand-held motions, since accelerometer sensor is easy for application and measurement. Gesture combos are designed to trigger a series of tasks, while a single gesture has been designed to execute a task on current APPs. We give an analysis of complex composite gestures, and explore user basic and social tasks on smartphone in order to find a match between social tasks and gesture combos. A series of tasks are illustrated, while some matching mechanisms are used for developing control functions with gesture combos. Some experiences of measuring gestures are also shown in the paper.

Meng-Yen Hsieh, Tien-Chi Huang, Jason C. Hung, Kuan-Ching Li

Chapter 32. SOM Clustering Method Using User’s Features to Classify Profitable Customer for Recommender Service in u-Commerce

This paper proposes a SOM clustering method using user’s features to classify profitable customer for recommender service in e-Commerce. In this paper, it is necessary for us to classify profitable customer with RFM (Recency, Frequency, and Monetary) score, to use the purchase data to join the customers using SOM with input vectors of different features, RFM factors in order to do recommender service in u-commerce, to reduce customers’ search effort for finding items, and to improve the rate of accuracy. To verify improved performance of proposing system, we make experiments with dataset collected in a cosmetic internet shopping mall.

Young Sung Cho, Song Chul Moon, Keun Ho Ryu


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