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About this book

It isour greatpleasureto welcomeyouto the SecondInternationalWorkshopon Future Multimedia Networking (FMN). Following the ?rst successful workshop (held in Cardi?, Wales) in 2008, this year’s workshop continues the tradition of being a premier forum that gives researchers and practitioners a unique - portunity to share their experiences and discuss state-of-the-art research results and major recent accomplishments in the area of multimedia networking. In recent years, real-time multimedia services have contributed extensively to our life experience and are expected to be among the most important applications in the future Internet. The management of content distribution services and the e?cient deliveryof real-timemultimedia servicesoverdiverseand heterogeneous wired and wireless systems remain a signi?cant challenge for future multimedia networking systems. This year’s workshop focused on various aspects of mul- media systems, content networking, and autonomous communication. A speci?c emphasis was placed on upcoming autonomic content networks and technologies that contribute to their development. The call for papers attracted 64 submissions from 32 countries for the main workshop. The Program Committee accepted 16 papers (an acceptance rate of 25%) that cover a range of topics, including wireless and ad-hoc networks in autonomic content networking, streaming and voice services, group and mul- party services, and quality in video and Internet services. This year we also had a Demonstration Session on Future Multimedia Networking for which 12 papers wereacceptedoutofsubmissionsreceivedfromover15countries. Itisoursincere hope that the proceedings of this workshop will serve as a valuable reference for multimedia researchers and developers.

Table of Contents


Streaming and Voice Services in Future Multimedia Networks

Enhancing TFRC for Video Streaming by Agnostically Using Applicative Cross Layer Semantics and Measure

This paper proposes an enhancement to the TFRC congestion control algorithm by using the intrinsic QoS characteristics of video streams in order to offer a service that better suits application requirements while still performing adequate congestion control. Several algorithms can be used to take advantage of the stream’s features. An autonomic framework integrating generic rules and algorithms for adaptation is presented. This framework enhances TFRC by agnostically integrating applicative cross layering semantics and PSNR computation in order to build algorithms that improve the perceived QoS. Simulations studies demonstrating the benefits of this approach are presented.
Mathieu Gineste, Nicolas Van Wambeke, Ernesto Exposito

ILPS: A Scalable Multiple Description Coding Scheme for H.264

The most recent literature indicates multiple description coding (MDC) as a promising coding approach to handle the problem of video transmission over unreliable networks with different quality and bandwidth constraints. We introduce an approach moving from the concept of spatial MDC and introducing some algorithms to obtain sub-streams that are more efficient by exploiting some form of scalability. In the algorithm, we first generate four subsequences by sub-sampling, then two of these subsequences are jointly used to form each of the two descriptions. For each description, one of the original subsequences is predicted from the other one via some scalable algorithms, focusing on the inter layer prediction scheme. The proposed algorithm has been implemented as pre- and post- processing of the standard H.264/SVC coder. The experimental results are presented and we show it provides excellent results.
Lorenzo Favalli, Marco Folli

Arrival Process-Controlled Adaptive Media Playout for Video Streaming

To enhance the video quality of multimedia streaming services, an Adaptive Media Playout (AMP) mechanism is designed in this study. The proposed AMP mechanism sets two threshold values, denoted as L and H, for the playout controller to dynamically adjust the playout rate according to the number of buffered packets. When the number of buffered packets is below L or over H, the playout rate will slow down or speed up quadratically. While the number of buffered packets is between L and H, the playback speed is determined based on the instant packet arrival rate, which is estimated by the proposed Arrival Process Tracking Algorithm (APTA). We employ computer simulations to demonstrate the performance of our proposed AMP scheme, and compare it with conventional AMP mechanisms. Numerical results show that our AMP design can reduce both buffer underflow and buffer overflow probabilities, and is superior to conventional AMP approaches.
Mingfu Li, Shih-Han Cheng

A Multicast-Based Enterprise VoIP Service Architecture: MEVA

This paper specifies a multicast-based solution for the delivery of enterprise IP telephony services: MEVA (Multicast-based Enterprise VoIP service Architecture). The solution implements a distributed and a lightweight location service. MEVA architecture encloses both generic functions to build the location service and associated routing primitives and an open interface to allow plugging a signalling protocol. The purpose of MEVA is to create a flexible IP telephony architecture, which is auto configurable and able to detect failures and to dynamically ensure the service availability during those failures. Reliability and robustness functions are enclosed in the MEVA Framework.
Mohamed Boucadair

Wireless and ad-hoc Networks in Autonomic Content Networking

Distributed Information Forwarding Using Delay Function in Wireless Mobile Networks

In this work, we propose a new routing control related information forwarding scheme using delay functions. Each packet experiences some forwarding delay at every single node where the packet traverses. We first propose a conservative delay function from strict end-to-end delay bound and then relax it step by step. At the end, we consider a cross-layer delay function which is a even more realistic and practical. We show its performance by simulation in mesh networks. This scheme is useful in relatively dynamic networks.
Wonjong Noh

A Seamless Mobility Scenario for IP over WiMAX

WiMAX is a broadband wireless access technology facing the challenges of 3G and beyond communication systems. As frequency licensing is becoming commercially available throughout the world, it is still unclear whether WiMAX will be better positioned than its main competitors, such as UMTS. Therefore, it is critical to evaluate the technology within the foreseen all-IP communications. In the context of the WEIRD project, an architecture that includes the WiMAX technology in an all-IP communication system has been developed. The main capabilities of the WEIRD system include mechanisms to support adequate quality of service levels for a broad range of applications, from basic web traffic to multimedia and specialized applications, such as telemedicine and fire prevention. This paper presents a solution for macro mobility in an all-IP network with WiMAX as the access technology, based on the basic WEIRD architecture. The proposed approach has been implemented on a test-bed of the WEIRD system and evaluated in order to address the impact of the developed mechanisms upon the overall system performance. The results have shown that the mobility mechanisms introduce a rather small overhead, while having the capability to support a “make-before-break” handover process.
Vitor Bernardo, Luis Cordeiro, Isidro Caramelo, Bruno Sousa, Marília Curado, Edmundo Monteiro

Performance Evaluation of the Split Transmission in Multihop Wireless Networks

Multimedia applications in multihop wireless networks have great market potential. Multiple channels and multiple radios are commonly used for exploring multimedia transmissions in multihop wireless networks. Split transmission allows multiple channels attached to different radios simultaneously to be used, and so to achieve a fundamentally improved transmission capacity. The goal of this paper is to present a theoretical background to justify the improved performance of split transmission. We theoretically study and prove that, by using the split transmission, the worst-case delay is decreased to \(\frac{\sigma\rho_{k-1}}{LC_{m-1}C_{k-1}}\) of the one without using the split transmission; the average throughput is increased to \(\frac{1}{1-\prod_{j=0}^{k-1}\alpha_j}\) times of the one without using the split transmission; the average delay jitter is decreased to \(\frac{C_{k-1}C_{\rho}}{C_{m-1}[C_{\rho}+L(\rho+C)]}\) of the one without using the split transmission. We believe that this is the first attempt to consider split transmission in theory.
Wanqing Tu, Vic Grout

Group and Multiparty Services in Autonomic Content Networksg

Employing Data Driven Random Membership Subset Algorithm for QoS-Aware Peer-to-Peer Streaming

Peer-to-peer (P2P) applications such as media broadcasting and content distribution often require that an overlay be constructed, and that some form of node selection take place over that overlay. Previous approaches to building such overlays focused mainly on high performance (leading to a rather brittle network of connections), or robustness (leading to low performance). In this paper, we present a data driven random membership (DDRM) algorithm, which tries to find a balance between the two, selecting peers for performance when needed, and at random (for robustness) if possible. The simulation experiment results show that the algorithm is not only QoS-Aware, but also ensures the scalability and good connectivity of the overlay.
Huang Yongxiang, Qian Depei, Wu Weiguo, Zhao Haixiang

OASIS: An Overlay Abstraction for Re-architecting Large Scale Internet Group Services

There is an increasing economic desire driven by widespread applications like IPTV or conferencing that a next generation Internet will grant transparent group communication service to all its stationary and mobile users. In this paper, we present a generic approach to inter-domain multicast, which is guided by an abstract, DHT-inspired overlay, but may operate on a future Internet architecture. It is based on the assumptions of a globally available end-to-end unicast routing between resolvable locators, taken from a name space that allows for aggregation. Our protocol design accounts for this aggregation, leading to forward-path forwarding along bidirectional shared distribution trees in prefix space. The scheme facilitates multipath multicast transport, offers fault-tolerant routing, arbitrary redundancy for packets and paths and remains mobility agnostic. We present OASIS, its application to IPv6, and evaluate signaling costs analytically based on its k-ary tree structure.
Matthias Wählisch, Thomas C. Schmidt, Georg Wittenburg

Interest-Based Peer-to-Peer Group Management

Peer-to-Peer systems become popular applications but suffer from insufficient resource availability which is caused by free-riders and inefficient lookup algorithms. To address the first cause, a number of recent works have focused on providing appropriate incentive mechanisms to encourage participants to contribute their resources to the P2P systems. To improve the lookup efficiency, locality-awareness has been introduced into the research community. However, existing proposals attempt to optimize the service performance during the data transmission period mostly after performing the neighboring lookup, which cannot address the fundamental concern of reducing lookup traffic.
Therefore, this paper proposes interest-based peer-to-peer management (IPM) protocol to facilitate the peering lookup. Our design philosophy differs from existing work that IPM is a client-only approach and can be represented as either an alternative or a complementary to current proposals. With additional locality-awareness considerations, IPM can reduce the lookup overhead while optimizing the system performance. The simulation results essentially state that IPM can largely improve the efficiency and reliability of P2P media distribution systems through reducing control overhead by 50% on average and reduces average packet loss rate up to 34.7%.
Jun Lei, Xiaoming Fu

Multiparty Session and Network Resource Control in the Context Casting (C-CAST) Project

The increasing demand in personalized multimedia group services imposes stringent and heterogeneous requirements, which cannot be satisfactorily addressed through legacy architectures. In future scenarios, context-awareness and multicast will together drive new trends, since situations in which users share the same interests and request similar services can be exploit allowing efficient session/network control. However, context-awareness also introduce challenges, where any change to context, such as, location, mobility, velocity, preferences, presence, can change the overall services and network environments, thus requiring to dynamically restructure network and multicast sessions, which can pose scalability problems. In this paper, we propose an efficient architecture for context-aware multiparty session and network control which adapts to contexts’ and networks’ dynamics and maintains the connectivity with the expected requirements over session lifetime. In addition to dynamic session and network control driven by context, we introduce abstract trees to increase stability of network to any change. The practical scenarios studied in the paper demonstrate that such paradigm tends to be a very essential approach for the future Internet where unpredictable variables make the diverse users Quality of Experience (QoE) harder to satisfy.
Augusto Neto, Susana Sargento, Evariste Logota, Josephine Antoniou, Filipe Pinto

Quality in Video and Internet Services

A Scalable Provisioning and Routing Scheme for Multimedia QoS over Ad Hoc Networks

Multimedia applications have been the key driving force in converging fixed, mobile and IP networks. Supporting Multimedia is a challenging task for wireless ad hoc network designers. Multimedia forms high data rate traffic with stringent QoS requirements. Wireless ad hoc networks are characterized by frequent topology changes, unreliable wireless channel, network congestion and resource contention. Providing scalable QoS is believed to be the most important challenge for multimedia delivery over ad hoc networks. In this paper, we introduce a provisioning and routing scheme for ad hoc networks which scales well while provisioning QoS. The proposed scheme is analysed using a mix of HTTP, voice and video streaming applications over 54Mbps 802.11g-based ad hoc networks. The scheme is simulated and compared to well-known routing protocols using the OPNET Modeller. The results show that our scheme scales well with increase in the network size, and outperforms well-known routing protocols.
Rashid Mehmood, Raad Alturki, Muhammad Faisal

Realization of Free Viewpoint TV Based on Improved MVC

We present a Free Viewpoint Television (FTV) application with performance improved multi-view video coding (MVC) strategy, which is intended for multimedia access in broadband networks or for future mobile terminals. The significance of our strategy is to realize client-driven FTV playback with reduced decoder output buffer requirements. The advantages of our proposed free view application are improved occlusion detection, decoding efficiency, and enabling smooth switching between different target video sequences. In the proposed coding strategy, the state-of-the-art MPEG4/H.264 decoder is utilized to make the application more applicable for common development. The encoded video bit stream contains several inter-views, which are encoded in an interleaved format based on MPEG4/H.264 encoder. On the decoder side, the encoded multi-views can be recovered with one fold or parallel state-of-the-art MPEG4/H2.64 decoder(s). Based on the client’s choice, one view is shown on the client’s display device. The perspective of view is controlled by the client with guaranteed response time and the view switching happens smoothly. The proposed Buffer Efficient MVC (BE-MVC) strategy does not require powerful decoder for the viewer side to make the application more suited for real-time operation. The comparisons of the required output buffer and decoding performance are demonstrated in this paper.
Ruixing Yang, Lachlan Pockett, Jari Nurmi

A Non-intrusive Estimation for High-Quality Internet TV Services

This paper presents a non-intrusive estimator for Internet TV services based on streaming technology. Analyzing the video packets received by the client application, the estimator is capable of selecting the most suitable encoding bitrate for the available bandwidth in the end-to-end path. The estimator has been integrated in a real client/server architecture and evaluated with different network traffic situations. The results of the performed evaluation have revealed the stability and the adaptation speed as the best qualities of our proposal.
Alberto Fraga, Xabiel G. Pañeda, Roberto García, David Melendi, Sergio Cabrero

A Mathematical Model for Evaluating the Perceptual Quality of Video

In this paper, a simple mathematical formula is proposed which provides estimation for the perceived video quality, based solely in the codec used, the display format, the bit rate and the movement content in the original video. The quality metric used is one of the recently standardized in Recommendations ITU-T J.144 and ITU-R BT.1683, and developed by NTIA. The error obtained with the proposed formula, regarding to the ITU models, is between the ITU algorithms error margins, according to the subjective tests developed by the VQEG. Studies were made for more than 1500 processed video clips, coded in MPEG-2 and H.264/AVC, in bit rate ranges from 50 kb/s to 12 Mb/s, in SD, VGA, CIF and QCIF display formats.
Jose Joskowicz, José-Carlos López-Ardao, Miguel A. González Ortega, Cándido López García

Effect of the Multiple Description Coding over a Hybrid Fixed-AdHoc Video Distribution Network

Offering a real time video transmission service, using mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and granting a specific Quality of Service (QoS) is a hard challenge. In fact, the network topology is extremely unstable and its variability causes the loss of transmitted information. However, powerful mechanisms against channel failures can be incorporated to avoid the system breakdown. In this paper, we evaluate the effect of Multiple Description Coding (MDC) technique for improving video quality in a multimedia content distribution system. The architecture proposed is a hybrid fixed and wireless ad hoc network where nodes can move freely. Due to multipoint to point nature of this system, multidescription can be combined with multipath transmission to increase its efficiency and, at last, the Quality of Experience (QoE) of the final receiver. The simulation lets us compare the quality of the video streaming paying attention to quality parameters (PSNR, packet delivery ratio, decodable frame rate and interruptions). Results show that MDC improves video quality in high mobility scenarios.
Patricia Acelas, Pau Arce, Juan C. Guerri

Poster/Demo Session

Speaker Verification System Using Extended Sequential Probability Ratio Test in PDA

We propose a speaker-verification (SV) system to protect personal information stored on personal digital assistant (PDA) devices. PDAs have recently increased in capability and have increased in popularity, especially among highly mobile consumers. However, there still exist numerous obstacles to the practical use of SV with PDA devices because SV requires high computational complexity. To solve this problem, we propose a method to improve SV performance by applying the extended sequential probability ratio test (ESPRT) to the decision logic threshold. The proposed system is compatible with a PDA device’s limited memory and low CPU speed.
Changwoo Seo, Keunho Sim, Eunyoung Kim, Heeae Ko, Younghwan Lim

A Data Model for Content Modelling of Temporal Media

This paper describes a data model for content representation of temporal media in an IP based sensor network. The model is formed by introducing the idea of semantic-role from linguistics into the underlying concepts of formal event representation with the aim of developing a common event model. The architecture of a prototype system for a multi camera surveillance system, based on the proposed model is described. The important aspects of the proposed model are its expressiveness, its ability to model content of temporal media, and its suitability for use with a natural language interface. It also provides a platform for temporal information fusion, as well as organizing sensor annotations by help of ontologies.
Behrang Qasemizadeh, Ian O’Neill, Philip Hanna, Darryl Stewart

The Design of a Low-Cost Wide Area Network Simulator

This paper presents the design of the Bottle-Net WANulator. The Bottle-Net WANulator is an inexpensive and self-contained Wide Area Network (WAN) simulator that can be used for commercial, educational, and research purposes. It inserts artificial latency and limits the bandwidth between network devices in a closed environment. The two Ethernet ports on the WANulator allow for asynchronous configuration; also, throughput statistics are displayable at the user interface, which proved as a useful tool for measuring traffic of multimedia applications. In this paper, we provide a detailed description of the WANulator hardware and software design, which can be implemented at under US$300 per unit.
Kevin Schmidt, Joe Cerney, Ryan Becker, Patrick Duffy, Ana Goulart, Joseph Morgan

Demonstrating Autonomic On-Demand Content Delivery

The ANA core provides the basic means to efficiently implement autonomic networking solutions. Its core properties are self-configuration, self-adaptation, context-awareness through inherent monitoring and independence of addressing, like IP. The re-implementation of a P2P Video-on-Demand streaming system in ANA has shown several advantages of using the ANA core. However, demonstrating such a system live to an audience has additional challenges. In order to visualize core properties of ANA, we use two set-ups in the demonstration: a combination of Peers on PlanetLab with Peers on local Laptops, and streaming through an emulated Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) to a mobile client.
Daniel Rodríguez-Fernández, Karl-André Skevik, Vera Goebel, Thomas Plagemann

A Real-Time End-to-End Testbed for Evaluating the Performance of Multimedia Services

In this paper, we describe a real-time testbed used to assess the end-to-end performance for multimedia services. This testbed uses network performance indicators to emulate the behavior of any network type (fixed, cellular, etc.). Application performance indicators can be evaluated by running a multimedia service on top of the emulated network. A user is able to experience real-time the subjective quality of any multimedia service running over whatever network. In this paper, we describe the testbed architecture and evaluate the performance of streaming services over future wireless networks, based on 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE).
Gerardo Gómez, Javier Poncela-Gonzalez, M. Carmen Aguayo-Torres, José Tomás Entrambasaguas

Meetecho: A Standard Multimedia Conferencing Architecture

Herein, we introduce Meetecho, an architecture capable to provide multimedia conferencing functionality in a standard way. This architecture is an actual implementation of both the framework and the protocols defined within the IETF by the XCON Working Group, and already revealed itself as a useful testbed supporting the ongoing standardization activities.
Alessandro Amirante, Tobia Castaldi, Lorenzo Miniero, Simon Pietro Romano

Portable Device-Centric Streaming Service

We envision a portable device-centric streaming service system. To cope with the demand for displaying contents stored in a portable device onto a high resolution display device, our system provides an autonomous and seamless device-centric streaming service model. As this model takes pairing phase via Bluetooth and streaming phase via broad band network, consumers do not need to know about specific information of nearby systems for streaming. Along with the user convenience, this approach saves battery power by yielding decoding and frame scaling to the better external device. This promises great convenience for users of HD video recordable consumer electronics.
Jin-Hwan Jeong, Hag-Young Kim, Eunah Kim

Allocation of Multiple Advertisement on Limited Space: Heuristic Approach

One of clever ideas that appeared over the Internet in 2005 was pixel advertisement. The simple concept was to present a big graphical table filled with small pictures linking to web-resources. In current research we propose to merge functionality of banners with clever idea of sharing its space among many expandable small graphical ads linking to various web-sites. Micro-graphics are expanding when the user moves mouse cursor over the image and the ad may display a piece of information (text, graphics, voice, animation) rich enough to give the user a taste of what he can expect after a click on the link. In this paper we propose a model how to arrange multiple pictures in the shape of a banner displayed on web pages: a heuristic algorithm able to produce advertising banner matching required context. We also provide experimental analysis of effectiveness of the algorithm. Conceptual work is illustrated by a prototype system implementing proposed features.
Adam Wojciechowski, Dariusz Kapral

Performance Evaluations of a QoE-Based Multipath Video Streaming Mechanism over Video Distribution Network (VDN)

Multipath video streaming over Video Distribution Network comes as a promising solution to overcome the limitations of the classical single path and IP-level video streaming approaches. For this purpose, we have proposed a dynamic multipath video streaming mechanism, based on quality of experience evaluations and available bandwidth estimations. In this paper, we present the results of performance evaluation when applying our video streaming method. Results show the ability of our mechanism to adapt automatically and in real-time to the load variation on different paths in order to maximize the overall quality perceived by end-users.
Majd Ghareeb, Cesar Viho

Video Artifacts Assessment for Live Mobile Streaming Applications

Live mobile streaming applications will be among the most important applications in future wireless multimedia systems. Hence, a Quality of Experience (QoE) assessment control mechanism is an essential requirement to assure the video quality level, whiling maximizing profits to service providers and keeping and attracting new customers. This paper studies the requirements to develop a video artifacts assessment mechanism for live mobile streaming applications, introduce a new assessment solution and no-reference QoE metrics. The proposed schemes are evaluated based on psycho-physical experiments faced with artifacts measurements. The results present the benefits of the assessment mechanism in estimating the quality level of live mobile streaming applications.
Eduardo Cerqueira, Lucjan Janowski, Mikołaj Leszczuk, Zdzisław Papir, Piotr Romaniak

H.264 Rate-Distortion Analysis Using Subjective Quality Metric

In this paper we provide an analysis of rate-distortion (R-D) relationship in an H.264 codec using as quality metric Structural Similarly Information (SSIM). This study focus on the quantization parameter, namely rate-quantization (R-Q) functions and distortion-quantization (D-Q) functions. Together, these functions allow a better understanding of the rate-distortion (R-D) behaviour of an H.264 video codec, which is the key issue of optimum bit allocation. Initial results are presented and discussed.
Luís Teixeira, Luís Corte-Real

OASIS Archive – Open Archiving System with Internet Sharing

OASIS Archive project aimed at developing a system for the universal presentation of Media Art works independent of location. The goal was to establish a user-friendly search system in order to ensure the preservation and availability (sustainability) of cultural heritage in the field of Media Art. The metadata system interlinking databases of all participating institutions can be accessed by individual users (both researchers and general public) through an on-line interface, by multimedia archive servers engaged in exchange within a distributed system and by various play out media. Access permission is scalable depending on whether the access takes place within the system or from the outside.
Juergen Enge, Andrzej Głowacz, Michał Grega, Mikołaj Leszczuk, Zdzisław Papir, Piotr Romaniak, Viliam Simko


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