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About this book

This book shows how to model selected communication scenarios using game theory. The book helps researchers specifically dealing with scenarios motivated by the increasing use of the Internet of Things (IoT) and 5G Communications by using game theory to approach the study of such challenging scenarios. The author explains how game theory acts as a mathematical tool that models decision making in terms of strategies and mechanisms that can result in optimal payoffs for a number of interacting entities, offering often antagonistic behaviors. The book explores new technologies in terms of design, development and management from a theoretical perspective, using game theory to analyze strategic situations and demonstrate profitable behaviors of the cooperative entities. The book identifies and explores several significant applications/uses/situations that arise from the vast deployment of the IoT. The presentation of the technological scenarios is followed in each of the first four chapters by a step-by-step theoretical model often followed by equilibrium proof, and numerical simulation results, that are explained in a tutorial-like manner. The four chapters tackle challenging IoT and 5G related issues, including: new security threats that IoT brings, e.g. botnets, ad hoc vehicular networks and the need for trust in vehicular communications, content repetition by offloading traffic onto mobile users, as well as issues due to new wearable devices that enable data collection to become more intrusive.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Game Theory and Networking

Abstract
With the 4th generation technology (4G), only being deployed for a few years, 5G technology is slowly emerging to support the Internet of things (IoT), where millions of sensors and mobile devices will be deployed in order to provide data for smart homes, smart buildings and smart cities. 5G networks will have to handle data (collection, storage, mining, analysis, etc.) gathered from a very diverse set of sources like traffic, weather, security incidents, crowds, etc. Data analytics and network management are thus necessary for 5G deployment. IoT includes sensors and mobile devices that gather data and perform data mining on data to anticipate certain circumstances, including human behaviour. Some issues that may arise from the deployment of 5G and IoT include new security issues because of the IoT deployment, and additional issues surfacing due to the increasing use of wearable devices. Since any communication network, such as IoT, is a multi-entity system, decisions are taken by different system entities. Such decision-making entities are the “things” in IoT, i.e. the sensors comprising the sensor networks that offer the capability to create smart spaces and applications, the users of the IoT, the content and service providers using the IoT as their infrastructure, etc. All entities are motivated to make decisions that maximize their own potential benefit, whether this is experience, profit, minimal resource usage or any other factor that may result in high utility measurements or high satisfaction for these entities. The book will explore specific interactions using a game theoretic framework and offer the equilibriums that maximize the payoffs of the interacting entities.
Josephina Antoniou

Chapter 2. Using Game Theory to Address New Security Risks in the IoT

Abstract
An Internet of things (IoT) botnet is a network formed by connecting together a number of computers, smart devices and appliances connected to the Internet. This new type of network does not come without risk, since devices participating in the IoT can easily be infected with malicious software in order to be controlled by authorities that are not the owners of the devices. The botnet is in turn used, without the knowledge of the devices’ owner(s), and forced to act as a set of transmitting devices on behalf of the hackers. It is often the case that owners of smart devices and IoT-connected appliances do not consider the significance of having strong security when connecting these devices to the Internet, even if it is as simple as making sure that a strong password is set. It is very important to note here that strong passwords that are updated often can quite satisfactorily safeguard access to the device. The chapter uses game theory to model a coalition that would handle the password generation process in such an IoT scenario, in order to reduce the risk of IoT nodes being hijacked.
Josephina Antoniou

Chapter 3. Using Game Theory to Address Mobile Data Offloading in 5G

Abstract
This chapter addresses the situation where 5G communication service is enabled by data offloading from infrastructure transmission points onto the mobile users that act as content repeaters, for a monetary payoff. The aim is to enhance the communication service performance, especially in terms of traffic delays, which is a requirement in 5G networks. The offloading algorithm is viewed as an ad hoc service where the path of the traffic through the content repeating devices is selected through a negotiation process between the mobile users and the infrastructure points, as well as between the mobile users themselves. The chapter proposes a game theoretic modelling approach for modelling the strategies of the interacting nodes using a game model that resembles an auction model. Specifically, each player may take one of the two roles during an interaction, either the role of a price setter, a bidder, or the role of price taker, an auctioneer. We assume that all packets are homogeneous in the sense that they do not differ in terms of the payoff to the forwarder; therefore, the decision of whether to forward a traffic packet by a node, or to choose the node that will forward the traffic packet (depending on whether a player is currently in the role of price setter or price taker), does not depend on the traffic packet itself. The decisions are taken sequentially, i.e. the price setters advertise their prices and then the price taker selects one of them to forward the traffic packets to.
Josephina Antoniou

Chapter 4. Using Game Theory to Motivate Trust in Ad Hoc Vehicular Networks

Abstract
This chapter considers the cooperation between vehicular nodes in an ad hoc network as a decision resulting from the potential interaction between any two such nodes. We consider the potential for continuous communication between these nodes, under the condition they keep sharing mutually beneficial information. Describing and analysing entity interactions is a situation that makes a good candidate to be modelled using the theoretical framework of game theory. The fact that this new and interesting mode of human interaction between vehicles does not need to be a human-initiated process, but a process that can be initiated by an object-to-object communication, because of IoT, brings up the issue of establishing a trusted communication between the interacting parties. However, establishing such trusted, cooperative behaviour in vehicular networks is not an easy task, even if vehicular networks are considered to be user-centric networks. Game theory provides appropriate models and tools to handle multiple, interacting entities attempting to make decisions and seeking a strategic solution state that maximizes each entity’s utility, incorporating a consideration of trust within that utility. Game theory has been extensively used in networking research as a theoretical decision-making framework, and this chapter makes use of this know-how.
Josephina Antoniou

Chapter 5. Using Game Theory to Characterize Trade-Offs Between Cloud Providers and Service Providers for Health Monitoring Services

Abstract
In this chapter, we consider a 5G network, where service providers offer health monitoring services, by making use of a wearable devices, which are placed on the customers such that they are able to collect personal data for each customer, by monitoring selected health indicators, e.g. the heart rate. A consideration for this scenario is that the continuous generation of new data makes the complete set of data that needs to be manipulated, such a large amount, that it is impossible to store it locally, but alternatively, it becomes necessary to store this data away from the user and make it accessible through the Internet. This is usually done by using storage on the cloud, which the health-related data can use as storage. The use of the cloud offers the additional advantage for the service provider of the health monitoring service that the data can be easily accessible through the use of the cloud over the Internet. Therefore, we must consider the interaction between the health monitoring service providers and the cloud providers over the handling of the user’s data. In particular, we consider the case where enhanced data protection demands by the user for the particular health service may require the cooperation of the service provider and the cloud provider in advance. Once the agreement is reached that the service provider and the cloud provider prefer to cooperate rather than not for the particular monitoring service, a bargaining scheme is employed to allow them to reach an agreement with regard to their individual revenues.
Josephina Antoniou

Backmatter

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