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2023 | Book

Geospatial Analytics for Environmental Pollution Modeling

Analysis, Control and Management

Editors: Fayma Mushtaq, Majid Farooq, Alok Bhushan Mukherjee, Mili Ghosh Nee Lala

Publisher: Springer Nature Switzerland


About this book

This book aims to provide a comprehensive study on various aspects of environmental pollution dynamics using geospatial technology and modeling techniques. The utility of geospatial technology will be demonstrated for the effective study of environmental pollution, as space and location are very important for effective environmental health surveillance. The timeliness of the work is due to the increasing relevance of geospatial technology applications in environmental health investigations. Moreover, different types of pollution are covered in detail, including air and soil, all of which are analyzed using latest Remote Sensing and GIS technology. The basics of environmental pollution and its impacts are covered in the book's first part, while the second part focuses on the use of geospatial technology in investigating and modeling various instances of environmental pollution. The third part discusses policy measures for mitigating environmental pollution hazards, using geospatial analyses and data to craft informed policy decisions. The primary audience for the book is researchers working in the field of environmental pollution with incorporation of geospatial technology, including upper-level undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in remote sensing and its environmental applications. The secondary audience is academicians, planners, environmentalists and policymakers working in the field of environment protection and management.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Types of Environmental Pollution and Its Effects on the Environment and Society
Environmental pollution from human activities such as urbanization, industrialization, mining, and exploration is a severe worldwide problem posing a threat to the well-being of the general population and the natural surroundings. Despite stringent regulations for protecting the environment, both developed and developing nations contribute to pollution. Pollutants can be found in air, water, soil, and other sources, such as chemical substances, noise, heat, and light. There are seven types of pollution, namely, air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, noise pollution, thermal pollution, light pollution, and radiation pollution. Pollution has a significant impact on morbidity and mortality rates globally. To combat pollution, comprehensive strategies are needed, including addressing the causes and effects of pollution, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, enhancing energy efficiency, and advocating for the adoption of renewable energy sources. Different sectors, such as governments, industries, and individuals, must collaborate for the lasting success of pollution control. It is essential to prioritize efforts to reduce pollution and promote a sustainable future for generations to come.
Rasiq Ahmad Mir, Afaan Gulzar Mantoo, Zubair Ahmad Sofi, Darakshan Ayub Bhat, Affreen Bashir, Saba Bashir
Chapter 2. Geostatistical Methods and Framework for Pollution Modelling
In recent years, pollution has become an important global issue due to its impact on people’s lives and the environment and has caused severe problems for humans. Geospatial methods are techniques and tools used to collect, analyse, and visualize spatial data in various fields, such as geography, geology, ecology, urban planning, and public health. These methods allow researchers and practitioners to understand the spatial relationships and patterns of natural and human-made phenomena, which can aid in decision-making, policy development, and resource allocation. Geospatial methods involve the use of remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS), and spatial statistics to collect, analyse, and visualize spatial data. These methods provide valuable information on the location, distribution, and intensity of pollution sources and their potential impact on human health and the environment. GIS can possibly be used to map the spatial distribution of pollution sources, such as factories, traffic, and agriculture, while remote sensing can be used to detect changes in land use and vegetation cover that may affect the quality of the environment. Remote sensing can be used to collect data on air quality and pollution sources. Satellite and aerial imagery can be used to map the spatial distribution of pollutants and provide information on the location and extent of pollution sources. This information can be used to identify areas of high pollution concentrations and develop mitigation strategies. Spatial statistics can be used to analyse the spatial distribution of pollutants and assess the spatial relationship between pollution sources and environmental variables. This can help to identify the factors that contribute to high pollution concentrations and assess the effectiveness of pollution control measures. In addition to geospatial methods, a variety of frameworks have been developed to facilitate pollution modelling. These frameworks provide a structured approach to model development and can help ensure consistency and accuracy in the modelling process. Overall, geospatial methods and frameworks provide a powerful tool for pollution modelling and can be used to inform policy and management decisions related to air and water quality. However, the accuracy and effectiveness of these methods depend on the quality and availability of spatial data and the selection of appropriate modelling techniques. Thus, the application of geospatial methods in the framework of pollution modelling has proven to be an effective tool in assessing the impact of pollution on human health and the environment. The integration of spatial data using geospatial methods provides valuable information on the spatial distribution of pollutants, pollution sources, and environmental variables, which can be used to develop effective mitigation strategies.
Zaiema Rouf Khan, Arshid Jehangir
Chapter 3. GIS-Based Modelling for Estimation of Water Quality Parameters: A Review
This chapter offers a comprehensive review of geographic information system (GIS)-based approaches for estimating water quality parameters. It highlights the advantages of using GIS such as integrating satellite imagery and spatial data and conducting spatial analysis. The chapter emphasizes the significance of water quality monitoring and the limitations of traditional analysis methods. It explores various types of GIS-based models, including empirical, process-based, and hybrid models. Additionally, it suggests the use of remote sensing and machine learning techniques, such as deep learning, for more accurate and timely water quality forecasting. The chapter covers the estimation of both optically active and inactive parameters through remote sensing. It summarizes previous studies utilizing GIS-based approaches, including machine learning, for water quality estimation. The limitations and challenges, such as uncertainty and validation, are discussed, along with recommendations for future research. The chapter highlights the potential of GIS-based modelling in improving water quality management and stresses the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration.
Jaber Bin Abdul Bari, Surya Prakash Tiwari, Bijoy Mitra, Alaeldeen Ibrahim Elhaj, Abdurrahman Siddiqui, Omer Rehman Reshi, Syed Masiur Rahman
Chapter 4. Air Quality Monitoring Using Geospatial Technology and Field Sensors
Air quality management is a public health priority at the global scale. Accurate air quality monitoring along with understanding the sources of air pollution is the first step to adequate air quality management. Apart from sampler-assisted ground-based monitoring of air pollutants, the use of geospatial technologies and the deployment of field sensors have surfaced as a new hope for strengthening the air quality monitoring network. This review provides information on the types, characteristics, and robustness of field sensors and geospatial technologies that are used for air quality monitoring and management. The technology used in sensors and the methodology for geospatial technologies have been discussed. We conclude that the evolving network of field sensors and cutting-edge geospatial technologies will certainly lead to better air quality management in India. The efforts in this direction will not only provide a sustainable solution to the current crisis of air pollution but also lead to the collection of highly time-resolved data from even remote and least studied hard areas where ground-based sampling is a limitation. The airshed approach in this context offers a sustainable solution by targeting and synergising air pollution management across administrative boundaries. The synergy between ground-based stations, geospatial technologies, and field sensors will lead to a hub of data resources that will help policymakers frame policies for air quality management. Additionally, this will be an asset to researchers working in the field of atmospheric chemistry and pollutant dynamics.
Konika Sharma, Shweta Yadav
Chapter 5. Geospatial Techniques and Methods for Monitoring and Assessment of Soil Contaminants
Soil is the medium that is fundamental for thriving life on earth, as it provides support to flora and fauna. Soil contamination is a prime source of health hazards for humans as well as animals. The use of soil extravagantly as a sink for dumping toxic and solid waste coupled with the use of enormous quantities of chemical fertilizers significantly alters the biological, physical, and chemical state of soil. This alteration causes depletion of the organic and biotic elements from the soil, leading to land degradation and desertification. The contaminants entering soil leach and percolate soil layers and are transported to surface and underground water sources, while some are absorbed by plants, which further enter the food chain, seriously affecting biotic life on earth. Currently, human interventions with the soil in terms of mining, industrialization, agriculture, and management result in the deterioration of the existing soil state. In India, nearly two-thirds of the land is under degradation. Soil contamination is a serious worldwide problem that requires quick and stern measures to constrain and reverse the process of land degradation. This study aims to highlight some of the geospatial methods and techniques that are used worldwide for the assessment and monitoring of soil contaminant dynamics. Moreover, the study also highlights the various effects of different soil contaminants on humans and the earth’s environment.
Amar Kumar Kathwas, Pranata Hazra, Rakesh Saur, Barnali Saha, Loveraj Singh, Leela Gariya, Shruti Kumari, Harshita
Chapter 6. Geospatial Modelling and Framework for the Detection and Mapping of Noise Pollution
With advancing human civilization, the migration of people to urban city centres and its expansion in terms of spatial extent has seen unprecedented growth in the last couple of decades. This resulted in the expansion of urban infrastructures and transportation networks. Owing to the huge crowd of humans in city centres, the issue of noise pollution has widely expanded, resulting in poor quality of life due to overexposure to high-intensity sound from transportation vehicles. Studies around the globe reveal numerous methods and attempt to monitor noise pollution and restrain its impact on human ecology and the environment by taking necessary steps. In this study, an attempt has been made to discuss the efficient and potent methodological framework for noise prediction modelling. Primarily, three methods have been discussed considering the pros and cons of each model and its efficiency in the various landscape structures. Based on the framework, datasets incorporated for computation and generation of noise maps, integration in GIS domain and the probable efficacy of the models were predicted.
Rakesh Saur, Amar Kumar Kathwas, Pranata Hazra, Barnali Saha
Chapter 7. Urban Areas and Air Pollution: Causes, Concerns, and Mitigation
Urbanization has proven to be a catalyst for global economic growth. However, the concomitant progress in economic development has led to a degradation in air quality within urban settlements, primarily attributable to copious anthropogenic sources of pollutant emissions. Air pollution has numerous negative impacts on the well-being of humans and the environment. This includes the deleterious impacts on climate change as well as the emergence of serious cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. This chapter, therefore, discusses urban air pollution, encompassing the causal factors, associated concerns, and various strategies employed to mitigate its adverse effects. These strategies involve regulatory, technological, and behavioural responses, which are imperative to effectively address the issue of air pollution. Therefore, the examination of the complex interplay between urbanization across varying stages of development and air pollution is integral in attaining ambient air quality targets with respect to upcoming economic advancement and sustainable progression.
Shivali Gupta, Rakesh Kumar
Chapter 8. Constructing the Dynamics of Water Quality Parameters Using Geospatial Technology and In Situ Observations
Water quality assessment is a critical aspect of maintaining the health of aquatic ecosystem. The escalating issue of water pollution poses a significant threat to human well-being, necessitating the need for water quality evaluation. Geospatial technology, particularly GIS tools, plays a vital role in monitoring and mapping water quality over larger spatial and temporal scales. This chapter explores the integration of geospatial technology and in situ observations to enhance the understanding of water quality dynamics in aquatic ecosystems. Geospatial technology, including remote sensing from satellites, offers broad-scale coverage and continuous monitoring, providing data on various optical and thermal properties of water bodies. In situ observations involve direct measurements taken at specific locations, providing ground truth data for calibration and validation. This chapter delves into the potential of machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to process and analyze vast and diverse data sets, improving predictive modelling and parameter retrievals. It discusses challenges such as spatial and temporal resolutions, atmospheric interference, and data integration, along with solutions for data assimilation, sensor network optimization, and real-time monitoring. Overall, this chapter provides valuable insights into the integration of geospatial technology and in situ observations, offering practical guidance for researchers and water resource managers seeking to construct accurate and comprehensive water quality dynamics in aquatic ecosystems.
Neeta Kumari, Kiran Kadave, Susmita Marandi, Soumya Pandey, Gaurav Kumar
Chapter 9. Urban Air Quality Monitoring and Modelling Using Ground Monitoring, Remote Sensing, and GIS
This chapter explores the advancements in urban air quality studies, focusing on the utilization of ground monitoring systems, remote sensing, and GIS techniques in urban air quality monitoring and modelling. It provides an overview of the importance of monitoring urban air quality, the challenges associated with it, and the need for comprehensive and integrated approaches to address this issue. This chapter highlights the role of ground monitoring stations, remote sensing technologies, and GIS in assessing and managing urban air pollution. It also discusses the application of these techniques in modelling air quality and predicting air pollutant concentrations. By integrating these techniques, researchers and practitioners can enhance their understanding of air pollution patterns, develop effective pollution control strategies, and promote sustainable urban development. The case studies and applications discussed in this chapter serve as valuable examples for decision-makers and environmental managers looking to improve air quality in urban areas.
Sunita Verma, Tanu Gangwar, Janhavi Singh, Divya Prakash, Swagata Payra
Chapter 10. Assessment of Soil Contamination Using Remote Sensing and Spatial Techniques
Soil contamination poses an enormous challenge to environmental and human health, necessitating effective assessment and management. Assessing the contamination of soil using remote sensing and spatial techniques has become an important area, as it provides rapid and accurate information about the extent and distribution of contaminants in soil. This chapter aims to present some of the current state of knowledge and advancements in this field. Remote sensing techniques, including hyperspectral remote sensing, thermal remote sensing, and radar remote sensing, offer valuable tools for mapping and monitoring soil contamination over large areas, enabling efficient decision-making and resource allocation. Spatial techniques usually involve the analysis and integration of spatially referenced data to assess and visualize soil contamination patterns and include geographic information systems, geostatistics, geospatial modelling techniques, machine learning, and data mining. Advancements in remote sensing and spatial techniques have enhanced the accuracy and efficiency of soil contamination assessment and include the development of high-resolution satellite sensors, advanced image processing algorithms, and the integration of multisource data. However, several challenges persist in the form of spectral unmixing, the scale of mapping, the resolution of data, ground validation, and data integration. Remote sensing and spatial techniques thus provide valuable tools for assessing soil contamination by offering the ability to map contamination patterns over large areas, identify hotspots, and support decision-making processes. Recent advancements in the assessment of soil contamination using remote sensing and spatial techniques have contributed to improved accuracy, efficiency, and applicability of these methods.
Anayat Hussain, Shabir Ahmad Bangroo, Mohammad Muslim
Chapter 11. Noise Pollution Modelling Using GIS Techniques in Srinagar City
Due to swift urbanization and shifts in lifestyle, loud noise has permeated every aspect of our lives, becoming an inescapable element. Extensive research has demonstrated that both indoor and outdoor environmental noise pollution pose significant health risks, particularly impacting the well-being of fetuses, infants, children, adolescents, and adults. The detrimental effects of noise pollution encompass not only noise-induced hearing loss but also a wide range of nonauditory health issues. The diagnosis of these adverse effects, attributable to noise pollution, is steadily rising across all age groups. This chapter presents a comprehensive approach utilized for evaluating and delineating the levels of noise pollution in Srinagar city. The assessment and mapping processes were carried out utilizing geospatial techniques. At each selected location, noise measurements were conducted using a sound level meter for 5 days at the same location for morning, afternoon, evening, and nighttime. The resulting noise map was constructed based on the average calculated values using the interpolation technique, which showed that the noise levels in the morning ranged from 44.23 to 78.00 dB, with the outskirts having the lowest values and the city center, Pantha Chowk, and Hazratbal registering the highest levels. Afternoon noise increases from 53.00 to 80.15 dB, and most of the city falls into the medium to high range. In the evening, noise decreases (36.00–79.75 dB), while during the night, levels vary from 36.00 to 60.96 dB, with higher levels in Lal Chowk, Rajbagh, Pantha Chowk, and Khonmoh due to vehicle movements. The findings of this study serve as valuable references and guidelines for future urban planning endeavors and the formulation of noise regulations in areas similar to Srinagar city. These results offer crucial insights into establishing appropriate noise limits to be implemented for the betterment of urban environments.
Ankit Khajuria, Majid Farooq, Fayma Mushtaq, Priyanka Solan
Chapter 12. Geostatistics Interceded Groundwater Quality Study with Emphasis on Kriging Across the Andhra Pradesh State of India
This work aims to use geostatistical tools to understand the spread of groundwater quality variables across the state. Ordinary kriging, simple kriging, and universal kriging techniques were used in this study with root mean square error (RMSE), mean square error (MSE), root mean square standardized error (RMSSE), and averaged standard error (ASE) metrics. Groundwater quality variables such as bicarbonate, chloride, electrical conductivity, fluoride, potassium, magnesium, sodium, nitrate, pH, SAR, and sulfate were tested in this study over a GIS workspace. A correlation map was generated to show the strong correlation between the variables. Principal component analysis was performed to extract principal components from the dataset. Cluster analysis was performed, and 9 clusters were obtained. The size of the first cluster is 904, with an explained proportion of within-cluster heterogeneity of 0.979 and a silhouette score of 0.629. The total sum of squares for all the clusters is 13,740, and the sum of squares value is 3697.
Jagadish Kumar Mogaraju
Chapter 13. Air Quality and Human Health
Air quality is a measurement that describes how good or poor air is present within the atmosphere. Good air contains a barely low amount of solid particles and chemical pollutants. Poor air consists of a high concentration of solid suspended particles along with gaseous pollutants, resulting in low visibility and damage to living organisms as well as the environment. Air pollutants, such as particulate matter and chemical pollutants (primarily ozone), disturb the energy balance of the planet, which directly influences or impacts climate in the worst ways. From an extremely local to the global level, the problem of degrading air quality has managed to leave its footprints all over the earth. As new epidemiological research became available, the consequences of air quality on human health became recognizable and rose to the top of the priority list by 2000. In 2019, the degradation of global air quality caused massive destruction over East Asia, Europe, and North America, taking away the lives of seven million people, extensive damage to crops, and a rapid reduction in biodiversity. Therefore, strong technical solutions and policies are needed to reduce the adverse effects of climate change. Policies developed for sustainable development of the environment globally as well as regionally can improve the condition of human health, vegetation quality and agriculture yield, which is degrading due to exposure to harmful pollutants. Recently, the clean air events at COP-27 also addressed the crucial role of air quality in climate change and human health and focused on the urgency of tackling air pollution in a global partnership. For all of these efforts to work, the enlightenment of the general public regarding degrading air quality and its impact is necessary.
Janhavi Singh, Swagata Payra, Sunita Verma
Chapter 14. Significance of Geo-Visualization Tools for Pollution Monitoring
Geo-visualization tools have become of paramount significance in pollution monitoring, revolutionizing the way to comprehend and combat environmental challenges. By seamlessly integrating geographic information systems (GIS) with interactive mapping technologies, these tools provide real-time visualization of pollution data, offering valuable insights into the spatial patterns and trends of pollutants across various regions. Such accessibility and immediacy empower researchers, policymakers, and the public to make well-informed decisions and undertake targeted actions to address pollution effectively. Through the overlaying of diverse data layers encompassing meteorological information, industrial zones, population density, and more, geo-visualization facilitates a comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted factors influencing pollution levels. By identifying pollution hotspots and tracking changes over time, these tools aid in developing evidence-based environmental policies and formulating strategic pollution control measures. As technology continues to advance, the future of geo-visualization in pollution monitoring holds tremendous promise. The integration of cutting-edge technologies, such as artificial intelligence and machine learning, can enhance predictive capabilities, enabling proactive responses to potential environmental threats. Moreover, the widespread adoption of geo-visualization tools promotes transparency, citizen engagement, and a sense of collective responsibility in safeguarding the environment. Hence, these developments can lead to a healthier, more sustainable world to combat pollution and preserve the planet for future generations.
Fayma Mushtaq, Majid Farooq
Chapter 15. Environmental Pollution Control Measures and Strategies: An Overview of Recent Developments
Environmental pollution continues to be a pressing global issue, posing significant threats to the health of ecosystems and human well-being. Urbanization, industrialization, and various other economic activities caused by human intervention contribute significantly to the overall environmental pollution experienced in the present day. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in understanding the complexities of pollution and developing innovative strategies for effective control and mitigation. This chapter provides an overview of the latest developments in environmental pollution control measures and strategies. It also delves into the significant strides made in adopting cleaner technologies, renewable energy sources, and water pollution control measures, where the latest innovations in wastewater treatment technologies are explored. The enforcement of stringent emission standards for industries and vehicles, in addition to the pivotal role of carbon capture and storage in combating climate change, is highlighted, underscoring its potential in curbing greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, this chapter addresses the importance of integrated water resource management strategies, which ensure sustainable water usage and minimize the environmental impact of pollution. Advancements in soil and land pollution control are also outlined, such as novel remediation methods, such as phytoremediation and bioremediation, which offer eco-friendly solutions for rehabilitating contaminated sites. The integration of cleaner technologies, innovative treatment methods, and advanced monitoring techniques holds great promise in safeguarding the environment and ecosystems and ultimately enhancing the quality of life for all inhabitants of our planet.
Zeba Khanam, Fatma Mehar Sultana, Fayma Mushtaq
Chapter 16. Environmental Legislation and Global Initiatives
The environment is comprised of air, water, and land, and it is crucial to ensure that human activities do not pose a threat to the environment from which we derive our food. With the advent of globalization, environmental issues have transcended national boundaries and become transnational in nature. Consequently, the importance of protecting the natural environment has grown significantly in recent decades. Environmental law encompasses a collection of regulations and legal principles that tackle various aspects of the environment, including air and water quality, the preservation of endangered species, and other related matters. At the national level, environmental laws are formulated in the form of acts, rules, and regulations, while at the international level, they take the shape of treaties, protocols, and conventions. Multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) specifically incorporate or rely on data and information obtained through space-based technologies. Remote sensing, without infringing on legal provisions or violating national sovereignty, can offer a comprehensive range of relevant information synoptically.
Aabid Hussain Naqash, Bilal Bashir Bhat
Geospatial Analytics for Environmental Pollution Modeling
Fayma Mushtaq
Majid Farooq
Alok Bhushan Mukherjee
Mili Ghosh Nee Lala
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