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About this book

This book considers governance and policy-making within the maritime sector, and focuses significantly on the dimensional context within which governance works. Recognising the importance of understanding governance and policy at times when the world is faced with social, political, and economic problems, it highlights the fact that both areas are equally significant in understanding today’s political economy. By focusing on the maritime sector, a pillar industry supporting international trade activities, the book offers a unique perspective to explain the difficulties of balancing policy-making with governance in order to provide solutions. It also examines the importance of developing a governance process that encourages and accommodates juxtaposition in a way that ensures that the effect of independent policy-making is understood upon the success or otherwise of policies across a range of contexts and problems.

Given the in-depth nature of the text, it is of interest to academics, researchers and professionals in the field.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Dimensions

Abstract
I can just hear you thinking: ‘what more maritime governance ? Surely we have sorted that by now?’ Given, two books on maritime governance is quite a lot on what many would consider an obscure subject, but hopefully before long, it should be clear there remains much to be done; much to consider that no-one is considering in the maritime sector and which impacts significantly upon pollution, safety and security. And the issues that generate these effects are considered in much higher esteem in governance more generally and across other disciplines. So why not shipping?
Michael Roe

Chapter 2. Relativity

Abstract
The concept of tragedy has helped to ease us into understanding that governance is much more than just rules, regulations and laws and how well and effectively they can be applied. Possibly, we had realised this already with earlier discussion in Maritime Governance : Speed, Flow, Form, Process (Roe 2016) on metaphor which had hinted at the breadth of issues that governance can encompass but the continued debate in Chap. 1 on culture has emphasised this further.
Michael Roe

Chapter 3. Wickedness

Abstract
This chapter is the first of two linked and characterised by a catalogue of daunting tasks. The first considers wicked problems and their relationship to governance and the juxtaposition of policies more specifically in the maritime sector. Now that may sound simple, but the issue of wicked problems has generated an enormous literature and debate that remains largely unresolved. However, we cannot put off task any longer, one which might well have been undertaken in the first book on maritime governance (Maritime Governance and Policy-making) but which was subtly avoided.
Michael Roe

Chapter 4. Cornucopia

Abstract
Well I would claim that all books have this problem at some stage in that not everything that is important fits neatly into separate chapters each of appropriate length. The result is what we have here—a collection of significant issues in relation to maritime governance, that relate to the previous chapter which concentrated on wicked problems but which to be honest lack some coherence. I could invent some but (1) why; and (2) would that really fool anyone?
Michael Roe

Chapter 5. Polycentrism

Abstract
The last chapter covered a substantial number of issues that together with much of the discussion over this and the previous two books lead us to the point of considering two major concepts identified as linked by Berry and Kim (1993: 2)—metagovernance to be examined in Chap. 6, and polycentrism which is the focus here. These two concepts will help to bring together much of what we have already discussed in terms of what maritime governance needs if it is to become more effective and relevant in a highly globalising world. By both being integrative and encompassing, polycentrism and metagovernance can together move maritime governance towards an approach that facilitates policy juxtaposition, so that policy-makers derive approaches to maritime problems that not only accommodate the speed at which change is occurring, the need for flexibility and uncertainty to be recognised, the importance of issues such as flow and time, but also that policies are always interlinked and that to attempt to move forward on a single track, ignoring the impact of, say, environmental policies on those for safety and the economy would be to the detriment of them all. Polycentrism and metagovernance provide a framework within which this ever-changing, malleable form of governance can be created, structured and managed.
Michael Roe

Chapter 6. Metagovernance

Abstract
Metagovernance is a twenty-first-century phenomenon—not that the idea of an over-riding set of principles to guide the process of government, organisation and structure hasn’t been around forever, but its formalisation is something that grew perceptibly after the millennium. In this chapter, we will take the clearly beneficial characteristics of polycentrism as applied to governance in general and maritime governance in particular and the way that a disaggregated approach to governance is more representative of the beliefs, feelings and needs of those involved, and look at how the dangers of disaggregation in terms of a lack of coherence, coordination and planning can be ameliorated by searching for a framework of metagovernance to act as a guide and focus. This provides a neat lead into the following two chapters which consider how this process of coordination of disaggregation can be provided through a framework of policy juxtaposition.
Michael Roe

Chapter 7. Positive Juxtaposition

Abstract
It has taken a whilst to get here—the best part of three books in fact—but it has been an interesting trip and one which has revealed a considerable number of issues in governance, and maritime governance in particular, that have remained either unrecognised or dormant for many years. Our journey through the earlier volumes (Roe 2013, 2016) has taken us from the initial consideration of maritime governance and policy-making beginning with the problems faced by decision-makers in the context of globalisation and the contradiction of the nation-state. From there through an appreciation of the increasingly postmodern nature of governance, we moved on to more specific considerations of the needs of a meaningful and effective approach to maritime governance taking into account issues such as form, time, process, metaphor, flow and speed before reaching these final stages where in particular the requirements of metagovernance and polycentricity have become clear.
Michael Roe

Chapter 8. Negative Juxtaposition

Abstract
It has taken a while to get here but we are nearing the end of our journey towards an understanding of governance and policy-making and more specifically that for the maritime sector and its problems and needs. In the final chapter, we shall provide an overview of the whole process and see where this might take the reader to the next but here, we focus on a last look at juxtaposition, policy and governance and in particular, the difficulties and drawbacks faced in attempting to develop such an approach for although it might sound like an obvious and desirable thing to achieve, the problems that remain reflect the general failure that exists. We begin with a look at private governance.
Michael Roe

Chapter 9. The End

Abstract
Policy space is a set of policies that are so closely interrelated that it is not possible to make useful descriptions or analytical statements about one of them without taking the other elements into account … as the population of policies grows relative to the size of the policy space, individual policies necessarily become more interdependent. The consequences produced by one policy are increasingly likely to interfere with the working of other policies (Majone 1989: 158–159)
Michael Roe

Backmatter

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