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About this book

This book covers the recent research on nanomaterials and nanotechnology based on the hybridization of graphene with other nanoparticles. With their simple synthesis, nanoscale dimensions, high aspect ratio, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties, graphene and its hybridized materials have witnessed a great interest, and the chapters in this book cover the spectrum of research from the preparation and synthesis of novel nanocomposites to their potential use in aeronautic, automative, energy and environmental applications. Written by respected researchers from both industry and academia, this book is of interest to researchers and students working on nanomaterials.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Generality of Hybridization of Graphene: From Design to Applications

Abstract
Currently, the research and development in the field of graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide and its combination with several nanoparticles has accrued an extensive attention in scientific research field in both academic and industrial. The hybridization is considered as a best process which is incorporating graphene nanosheets with various nanoparticles such as nanoclays, silver nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and many others. The obtained materials are well-known as a hybride nanocomposites that characterized by their excellent properties and high performances which are related to the properties of both graphene and nanoparticles. These outstanding properties make hydride nanocomposite a great candidate for potential applications in different areas including, materials science and engineering, medicine and biology, energy storage and environmental remediation. Herein, this chapter gives you an idea about the various derivatives of graphene and their functional hybride materials, followed by the detailed introduction on graphene- nanostructures hybrids. The present chapter reveals the interest from the hybridization of graphene derivatives with different nanoparticles. After a brief introduction about graphene and its importance in nontechnology field. In the second part, we give you some basic information about graphene its preparation, characterization and the nanocomposites made from graphene. The third part concerns the hybride nanocomposites made up from graphene with various nanostructures. It also includes industrial and practical application of graphene-nanoparticles hybrids.
Khadija El Bourakadi, Mohamed El Mehdi Mekhzoum, Abou el kacem Qaiss, Rachid Bouhfid

Characterization Techniques for Hybrid Nanocomposites Based on Graphene and Nanoparticles

Abstract
Hybrid nanocomposites have appealing chemical and physical properties and are used on a large scale worldwide. Graphene-nanoparticles (G-NP) hybrid fillers and their composites have particularly gained attention among researchers in recent times, as the incorporation of nanoparticles (NP) into the chemically derived graphene (G) in hybrid fillers open for new applications. This is as a result of the synergetic properties of the obtained materials, such as biodegradability, low density, physical and chemical structure, etc. The novelty of this chapter is to present a review of the recent studies of G-NP hybrid filler’s characteristics and their composites using the most fundamental characterization techniques. Our literature review examines various published findings regarding, among others, surface, mechanical and thermal properties in order to determine the performance of the fillers. Therefore, we briefly reviewed their basic structure and surface modifications of G-NP hybrid fillers and nanocomposites. The main output is to study and review techniques frequently reported in the literature to examine their structure and properties, we exemplified and discussed in this chapter key results collected from SEM, AFM, TEM, HRTEM, FTIR, UV-vis, Raman, XRD, XPS, SEM, TGA-DTA, DMA and tensile analyses. To help the readers, this chapter is subdivided into three sections covering a state-of-the-art of the most recent hybrid fillers, their preparation and characterization. The overall objective of this chapter is to dress a relationship between their structure and property to provide key indicators and future directions for their efficient large-scale production of G-NP hybrid nanocomposite with unique characteristics for different applications.
Mohamed Hamid Salim, Zineb Kassab, Ihsane Kassem, Houssine Sehaqui, Rachid Bouhfid, Johan Jacquemin, Abou El Kacem Qaiss, Jones Alami, Mounir El Achaby

Graphene and Carbon Nanotube-Based Hybrid Nanocomposites: Preparation to Applications

Abstract
The gradual demand for low weight, high strength and structural integrity, low-cost materials have been triggering the necessity for finding new materials. In the past decades, carbon-based nanomaterials gained much attention in the frontier of nanotechnology. Graphene (2D) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (1D) are exhibited prominent structural properties among all carbon-based nanomaterials, which make them ideal candidates as reinforcing agents for polymer nanocomposites. Graphene possesses unique and excellent structural properties such as mechanical, thermal, electrical, optical etc. due to its inherited 2D atomic structures. Similarly, CNTs also showed high aspect ration with excellent mechanical, electrical and magnetic properties, resulting in potential filler in high strength composites fabrication. However, pure Graphene sheets and poor CNTs dispersion in polymer matrices restrict wide applications and arise inevitable challenges to incorporate unique controlled functionality. Therefore, hybrid nanocomposites are garnering much attention in the composites sector to tackle real-world problems in numerous areas namely, as energy storage devices, sensors & actuators, electromagnetic shielding, longlasting structures and so on. Highly structurally stable, high electrical and thermal conductive composites are in great demand in the aforementioned areas. This chapter mainly focuses on recent hybrid nanocomposites fabrication based on Graphene and CNTs and their potential applications. We start with the basic overview of Graphene and CNTs, their structural similarities and differences followed by fabrication and processing methods underlying the successful development of these materials with superior performance. The central part of the chapter summarizes major improvement and potential state-of-the-art applications. Lastly, prospects and challenges are discussed so that future researchers can continue the progress and development of these fascinating materials for adoption by industry.
Manik Chandra Biswas, Mostakima Mafruha Lubna, Zaheeruddin Mohammed, Md Hasan Ul Iqbal, Md Enamul Hoque

Hybrid Nanocomposites Based on Graphene with Cellulose Nanocrystals/Nanofibrils: From Preparation to Applications

Abstract
Hybrid nanocomposites are multicomponent systems inducing unique interconnected 3D network microstructure materials. With the purpose of exploitation of rich natural and under valorised resources, graphene (G) and nanocellulose (NC) have become interesting organic hybrid fillers used for enhancement of the properties of composites. In fact, they combine the unique properties of G with those of the cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) or cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) leading to an exciting area of current interest in the fields of hybrid nanocomposites. These hybrid nanocomposites exhibit unique properties thanks to the synergetic effect of fillers and compatible polymers allowing their potential utilization in various important applications including food packaging, water treatment and energy storage to cite few. Their judicious combination can, therefore, provide environmentally friendly hybrids of low cost, ease processing with specific mechanical, thermal, optical and electrical properties. With respect to the recent advances in material sciences, this chapter pioneers to summarize the recent progress towards the synthesis of hybrid nanocomposites containing G-NC as fillers, and their potential utilizations as advanced materials particularly in food packing, water treatment, energy storages and sensor technology. This chapter has covered main achievements and significant examples of each subject area to demonstrate how this unique class of materials has stimulated research activities. To help the readers, this chapter is subdivided into six topics. The first topic provides an introduction to the G and NC as advanced materials. The second topic focuses on different preparation procedures of G-NC hybrids while the third illustrates their properties. Then, the preparation of hybrid polymer nanocomposites based on G and NC is detailed in the fourth section. Consecutively, the fifth section reports on their properties while the last one identifies current and potential applications of hybrid polymer nanocomposites based on G and NC. This chapter is finally ended with a global conclusion on these promising materials.
Mohamed Hamid Salim, Zineb Kassab, Ihsane Kassem, Houssine Sehaqui, Rachid Bouhfid, Johan Jacquemin, Abou El Kacem Qaiss, Jones Alami, Mounir El Achaby

Hybrid Nanocomposites Based on Graphene and Nano-clay: Preparation, Characterization, and Synergistic Effect

Abstract
In the past two decades, polymer nanocomposite materials have tired great interest from both scientists and engineers due to their enhanced properties caused by the addition of nanoscale fillers. New functional nanocomposites have been continually emerging in industry applications. The potential incorporation of the profits of inorganic materials together with those of polymers can allow a wide choice of utilization for these nanocomposites. Hybrid polymer-based nanofillers are generally used as safe and ecofriendly tools to advance crop production in various industrial produce. This chapter summarizes the preparation, characterization, and applications of hybrid polymer nanocomposites based on graphene and clay. Remarkable high elastic modulus and fracture toughness enables the Montmorionite clay and graphene to be used in an enormous number of promising industrial applications also as a reinforcing agent in polymer nanocomposites. Though, irreversible agglomeration of Montmorionite and graphene sheets and the weak compatibility with most polymer matrix limit its potential as a reinforcing agent to fabricate polymer nanocomposites. Synergistic effects by the nanofillers on the nanocomposite’s properties are presented, attempting a rationalization on the basis of the available data.
Hamid Essabir, Marya Raji, Rachid Bouhfid, Abou El kacem Qaiss

Graphene and Silver Nanoparticle Based Hybrid Nanocomposites for Anti-bacterial Applications

Abstract
Microbial infection and colonization due to the bacteria are considered as a serious issue in the biomedical equipment’s and food packaging industry which causes threat to the human health and affects the food quality. In the recent years, bacterial microorganisms having strong resistance against the antibiotics have also been identified. Silver nanoparticles are the most promising materials to resolve this issue due to their inherent anti-microbial characteristic. Current advancements in nanotechnology paved the way for the innovation of functional nanomaterials with the unique physical and chemical properties. Recently, graphene and their derivatives have gained significant attention due to the functionalization of metallic nanoparticles and metal oxide on its surface. This chapter explores the bactericidal activity of the nanocomposites infused with the silver nanoparticle (AgNP) and graphene derivatives such as the graphene oxide and the reduced graphene oxide. Various methods employed in the fabrication of the nanocomposites, antibacterial test methods and the inhibition mechanisms against the gram + and gram− bacteria are discussed in detail.
Chandrasekar Muthukumar, Senthilkumar Krishnasamy, Theivasanthi Thirugnanasambandan, Senthil Muthu Kumar Thiagamani, Naveen Jesuarockiam, Suchart Siengchin

Hybrid Nanocomposites Based on Graphene and Gold Nanoparticles: From Preparation to Applications

Abstract
Excellent electronic conductivity, large specific surface area, robust chemical as well as thermal stability and interesting physicochemical properties make graphene as a novel material for multimodal applications. On the other hand, the noble metal nanostructures dominant over their bulk counterpart and employed in many of the applications ranging from biomedical to energy for sustainability. Among others, the gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are well known for their application in sensing, electrocatalysis and etc. However, the hybrid nanocomposite of graphene and Au NP shows better specificity and efficiency which depends on the synthesis methods. This chapter constitutes a brief discussion on the recent reports emphasizing the existed synthesis protocols for graphene, Au NPs, graphene/Au NP composites and their application. This will be an informative chapter for the current researchers and scholars working in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology.
Aneeya K. Samantara, Rajat K. Tripathy, J. N. Behera

Hybrid Nanocomposites Based on Graphene and Titanium Dioxide for Wastewater Treatment

Abstract
Since its discovery by Fujishima and Honda, titanium dioxide photocatalyst have been extensively used for environmental management and wastewater purification. TiO2 photocatalyst showed higher photocatalytic performances toward different organic pollutants, pharmaceutical compounds, and bacteria. However, it exhibited large band gap and can only be excited under UV-light irradiation, which presents only 5% of solar terrestrial radiation. In addition, to the fast electron–hole (e/h+) pair recombination that limits its photocatalytic activity. Therefore, the incorporation of graphene and its derivatives, known by their exceptional mix of chemical, physical, mechanical and electronic properties, is found advantageous to enhance electron mobility, suppress the recombination of e/h+ pairs and shift its visible light photocatalytic ability. This chapter aims to introduce TiO2/graphene hybrid nanocomposites from the fundamental component, synthesis methods, physico-chemical and electronic properties to their application as powerful materials in the wastewater treatment field.
Hanane Chakhtouna, Nadia Zari, Hanane Benzeid, Abou el kacem Qaiss, Rachid Bouhfid

Hybrid Nanocomposites Based on Graphene and Zinc Oxide Biosensor Applications

Abstract
Graphene is ideal reinforcing material today, has a unique 2D nanostructure with few nanometer gaps between particle layers. 130 GPa strength gain high thermal conductivity and electric conductivity. Apart from mechanical strength, high surface to volume ratio, ease of functionalization, and other physicochemical properties gain remarkable properties in sensing and biosensing applications. Graphene-based inorganic composite is gained new attention to various applications because of the synergic effect of the composite. Graphene-based ZnO gains new properties such as mechanical, thermal, electrical, and binding to the composite material. Graphene/ZnO reinforced composite gain high stability, sensitivity, rapidity, and selectivity and low LOD to the biosensors.
R. D. A. A. Rajapaksha

Hybrid Nanocomposites Based on Graphene and Its Derivatives: From Preparation to Applications

Abstract
Graphene has obtained an excessive amount of interest and popularity from worldwide owing to its atypical physiochemical, chemical, thermal and mechanical stability-based properties. Graphene, a one atom thick plain sheet with sp2 bonding and the carbon atoms are compactly packed in structure to form crystal lattice. Many approaches are known to synthesize the graphene derivatives and therefore, it is essential to discuss a list of distinguished approaches like exfoliation and cleavage, thermal chemical vapor deposition etc. The most commonly used hybrid graphene nanocomposite synthesis approaches and their significant applications are also summarized in this chapter.
Ansa Kanwal, Asim Ali Yaqoob, Affia Siddique, Showkat Ahmad Bhawani, Mohamad Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim, Khalid Umar

Rheological Properties of Hybrid Nanocomposites Based on Graphene and Other Nanoparticles

Abstract
The development of promising nanomaterials is mainly associated with their use in industrial applications, medicine, biology and ecology. Many of the existing materials may not satisfy all the modern civilization fundamental requirements, leading researchers to develop hybrid materials that may present higher properties than the individual components. Hybrid graphene nanocomposites have attracted much attention recently because of their unique structure and remarkable mechanical, electrical, thermal and rheological properties. The main attention in this chapter is firstly focused on the graphene-based hybrid nanocomposites, their different types, synthesis methods and application fields. Then on the rheological properties of graphene-based hybrid materials, in order to quantify the dispersion of hybrid nanofillers in polymer matrices.
Fatima-Zahra Semlali Aouragh Hassani, Rachid Bouhfid, Abou el Kacem Qaiss

Graphene Based Aluminum Matrix Hybrid Nano Composites

Abstract
There is a growing demand for the light weight nano composite materials for advanced material applications, such as aerospace, automobile, electrical appliances, biomedical etc. because of their high specific strength/stiffness, improved temperature stability, improved wear and corrosion resistance etc. Properties of aluminum matrix can be significantly improved with well dispersed/distributed low concentration of nano reinforcements. Various types of carbon based nano reinforcements such as carbon nanotube, graphene, carbon nanofibers, fullerenes etc. are widely used for the fabrication of advanced metal matrix nano composites materials. This chapter discusses graphene based aluminum matrix hybrid nano composites for the applications in advanced material fields. Starting with the graphene as a prospective nano reinforcement for the hybrid nano composites, various common methods for the manufacturing of hybrid nano composites, mechanism of reinforcement dispersion/distribution in the hybrid nano composites are discussed. This followed by microstructure and properties of hybrid nano composites are included. The chapter has been concluded with few prospective applications of graphene based aluminum matrix hybrid nano composites in advanced materials fields.
Subrata Mondal

Hybrid Nanocomposites Based on Graphene and Ferrite Nanoparticles: From Preparation to Application

Abstract
Ferrites are composite materials which are widely used in mature technologies like permanent magnets, circuitry, microwave devices and magnetic recording. Now a days the range of application expanded to different fields like photocatalysis, biosensors, bioimaging, gas sensors and many other fields. At least one metal cation included Fe3+ containing large class of oxides is the basic elements of ferrite and applied as powder form and films or ceramic bodies. The remarkable properties of hybrid nanocomposites of ferrite and graphene incorporated devices shows high performance in numerous applications in analytical medical equipment such as sensors, biosensors; electronic devices such as memory devices, semiconductor devices; energy devices such as solar cells, electrocatalytic and photocatalytic based chemical storage devices and many other fields.
R. D. A. A. Rajapaksha, C. A. N. Fernando
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