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2023 | Book

Greater Eurasia Partnership and Belt and Road Initiative

The Cooperation or Containment of Atlanticism in the International System

Author: Edmund Li Sheng

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore


About this book

In this book, Eurasia will be discussed in the context of the Greater Eurasian Partnership proposed by Russia, the “eastward” transformations spurred by Neo-Eurasianism and the Greater Eurasian Partnership, and cooperation with China through the BRI, while related countries of Atlanticism was used to described the U.S., Europe, and their allies. The Greater Eurasian Partnership proposed by Russia is an initiative with specific diplomatic considerations, economic development strategies, and geopolitical implications. The initiative represents an attempt by Russia to shift foreign policy thinking, which has traditionally focused on alignment with the U.S. and the West. The Greater Eurasian Partnership contains both short-term strategies to cope with Western pressure and long-term strategic goals for building a new international and regional order. What this portends for the future of Sino-Russian relations is of interest to geopoliticians, economists and journalists.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. The Greater Eurasian Partnership and the Belt and Road Initiative: Cooperation and Competition in the International System
Russia has long been caught between Eurocentrism and Eurasianism. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia attempted to integrate with Europe, but when this proved unsuccessful, its foreign policy focus shifted from “Greater Europe” to “Greater Eurasia.” The subsequent success of the Eurasian Economic Union encouraged Russia to launch the Greater Eurasia Partnership GEP. Meanwhile, China’s Belt and Road Initiative BRI proposed by China’s President Xi Jinping in 2013 has grown in prominence on the world stage. These two initiatives have a high degree of geographical overlap and are likely to greatly influence the economic, political, and cultural landscape of Eurasia. This chapter discusses the opportunities and challenges facing the alignment of the BRI and GEP and the necessity for cooperation at a time when strategic interaction through international institutional competition has become an essential aspect of great power competition.
Edmund Li Sheng
Chapter 2. China and the Atlantic Countries in the Context of the Belt and Road Initiative
For the European Union, the BRI brings challenges and potential benefits. Although the European Union can benefit from cooperation with China, China presents a long-term challenge to the existing international order and a threat to Europe. The European Union prefers to perceive the BRI from a geopolitical perspective and automatically associates it with concerns that China is seeking to change the world order. In contrast to that with Europe, China’s relationship with the United States has developed in a highly unstable manner. The game between China and the United States has heated up with the rise of China and the relative decline of US global dominance. Although both sides hope that the game will lead to a win–win situation rather than a zero-sum outcome, to truly reverse negative US perceptions of the BRI, it is necessary to find ways to enhance communication and deepen cooperation.
Edmund Li Sheng
Chapter 3. Russia and the Atlantic Countries in the Context of the Greater Eurasian Partnership
Energy cooperation has always been an important part of Russia’s economic cooperation with the European Union, and the convenience and low cost of Russian gas makes it an irreplaceable energy source for Europe. With energy cooperation between Russia and European countries dating back to the time of the Soviet Union, both sides have developed a high degree of interdependence. Therefore, not only Russia but also Western countries are badly scarred by the economic damage caused by these sanctions and the countersanctions imposed in response. In this context, this chapter discusses Russia’s relations with the European Union and United States, including the factors contributing to the deterioration of bilateral relations and the potential for US–Russia and EU–Russia cooperation in energy, arms control, trade, high technology, and space travel.
Edmund Li Sheng
Chapter 4. China, Russia, the United States, and Europe in International Organizations: Quadrilateral Relations
This chapter analyzes the evolution and fluctuation of the quadrilateral relations between China, Russia, the United States, and Europe in the post-Cold War period from different perspectives. It also elaborates on the impact of the quadrilateral relationship under the ideologies of Atlanticism and neo-Eurasianism and the policy effects brought about by the interaction of the four powers. The resolution of a series of post-Cold War security challenges will require consideration of how these four powers—China, Russia, the United States, and Europe—can work together as a community of destiny to overcome difficulties and enhance cooperation.
Edmund Li Sheng
Chapter 5. Differing Values and Perceptions of International Leaders
Neoclassical realism, while inheriting the basic premises of realism, combines the analytical methods of classical realism and neo-realism on the basis that the combination of international systemic, domestic, and individual factors provides a more comprehensive explanation of international politics. National leaders are the most prominent spokespersons for a country’s image. Therefore, the personalities and experiences of different political leaders exerts a significant influence on the bilateral relations between a country and its neighbors and its overall foreign policy. This chapter analyzes four representative national leaders: Russian President Vladimir Putin, US President Joe Biden, Chinese President Xi Jinping, and former German Chancellor Angela Merkel.
Edmund Li Sheng
Greater Eurasia Partnership and Belt and Road Initiative
Edmund Li Sheng
Copyright Year
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN

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