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About this book

This volume discusses recent advancements to the age old practice of using microbial enzymes in the preparation of food. Written by leading experts in the field, it discusses novel enzymes and their applications in the industrial preparation of food to improve taste and texture, while reducing cost and increasing consistency. This book will be of interest to both researchers and students working in food technology.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Introduction to Green Bioprocesses: Industrial Enzymes for Food Applications

The use of enzymes in food preparations is an age-old process. With the advancement of technologies, novel enzymes with a wide range of application and specificity have been developed. Enzymes play a prominent role in the food industry. Enzymatic conversions have many advantages including less energy requirement and high specificity which make them attractive processors in the food industry. Various enzymes used in food processing such as proteases, asparaginases, xylanases, lipases, amylases, α-l-arabinofuranosidase, cellulases, tannase, etc. are discussed in this book. The enzymes for specific applications like fruit juice debittering, production of sweeteners, enzymes in the design of functional food, and algal enzymes are discussed in this book. Detailed applications of enzymes used in food industries for various processes are included in this book.
Parameswaran Binod, Emmanuel Papamichael, Sunita Varjani, Raveendran Sindhu

Chapter 2. Production of Microbial Proteases for Food Industry

Microbial proteases have become more and more attractive in the food industry regarding to its specific properties, such as high production yield, specificity for a certain substrate, and high activity as well as being environmentally friendly. Proteases have also activity in a wide range of temperature (20–80 °C) and pH values (3–13), which increases the fields of application. Chymosin and papain are the well-known proteases and recently novel enzymes and production techniques are studied due to the increase in application areas. Proteases are available in a broad diversity of microorganisms, plants, and animals. However microbial protease productions offer numerous benefits in terms of technical and economic properties such as higher yields in less time and less cost with a higher overall productivity. In this chapter, the studies on microbial protease productions for industrial applications are briefly overviewed. Trend microorganisms and bioreactor configurations are presented together with their potential uses in food industry.
Irem Deniz

Chapter 3. Aspartic Proteases in Food Industry

Green processes are gaining more importance as it is very much essential to maintain the quality of the environment and sustained life. Enzymes, the green catalysts, play a prominent role in food industry because they are inevitable tools in many of the processing stages of food products. Enzymatic conversions are unique as it requires less energy and as they are having high specificity. Amylase, cellulase, protease, pectinase, lipase, etc. are common enzyme choices for catalysing the various stages of processing in food industries. Prospecting for new enzymes and their sources are essential to support the green trend in this sector. Aspartic proteases, which play a major role in the degradation of proteinaceous materials, comprise a small group of enzymes including cathepsin, rennin and pepsin. The enzymes carry two aspartate residues in its active site and act in association with bound water molecule in acidic pH. They are highly specific on dipeptide with hydrophobic residues and beta-methylene group. Their applications are well established in the processing and manufacturing of both traditional and novel food products. They are extensively used in beverage clarification, cheese manufacturing and also in the preservation of wine. Detailed knowledge regarding the mechanism of action, influencing factors and the structure of the enzyme is sure to bring further meaningful utilisation of this enzyme in food industry.
Indu C. Nair, K. Jayachandran

Chapter 4. Influence of Proteases on Functional Properties of Food

Proteases are a class of enzymes occupying an important role with respect to their applications in both physiological and commercial fields. They promote the cleavage of peptide bonds in other proteins and are one of the largest groups of enzymes falling in the group of exopeptidases and endopeptidases. Proteases fall into different classes and find applications in various industries. The stability and activity of some proteases in high acidic environment make them a very potential candidate in food processing. They can be obtained from various sources including plants, animals, and microbes, even though microbial source being the most prevalent source. Protein engineering techniques also have been utilized to obtain proteases of unique specificity and stability. Nowadays, a strong “omic” approach, degradomics permits a wide look into the biodiversity of proteases. Due to this wide diversity they find role as nutritional improvers, proteolytic tenderization, etc. and help in bio-functional changes.
Bindhumol Ismail, Hanif Mohammed, A. Jayakumaran Nair

Chapter 5. Recent Development in the Uses of Asparaginase as Food Enzyme

Asparaginase (E.C., an important enzyme, is broadly disseminated in all the three domains of life and responsible for catalysing conversion of asparagine into aspartic acid and ammonia. It is one of the most utilized clinical enzymes used in the treatment of different types of cancers. However, there has been a renewed interest in other application of this enzyme especially for minimizing the acrylamide content in baked/fried starchy food products. Acrylamide is generated as a by-product of Maillard reactions between asparagine and reducing sugars. The reactions usually occur at temperature above 100 °C and account for colour and flavour developments in fried/baked starchy foods. In the year 1994, Acrylamide was first time classified in Group B2, i.e. as probably carcinogenic to humans by the International agency for research on cancer. Significant contents of acrylamide have been detected in range of food products including roasted potatoes, root vegetables, chips, crisps, toasts, cakes, biscuits, cereals and coffee. Extensive efforts have been made to reduce the formation of acrylamide during baking/toasting or frying by incorporating asparaginase enzyme as pretreatment. The present chapter encompasses all these aspects and sources of asparaginases, their enzymatic properties, engineered thermostable asparaginase and their various applications in food processing.
Shahenvaz Alam, Kumar Pranaw, Rameshwar Tiwari, Sunil Kumar Khare

Chapter 6. Applications of Asparaginase in Food Processing

Asparaginase is significantly utilized in various pharmaceutical and food industries. Asparaginase, an intercellular enzyme, has gained wide attention in food processing industries for the reduction of acrylamide in foods. Engineering of enzymes finds an effective pathway in the design of application according to the specificity and the structural changes. The rational design of enzymes helps in evaluating the purpose of enzymes in food processing industries and bulk chemicals. The asparaginase isolated from fungal species was regarded to be safe with high specificity with minimum activity towards glutamine for the mitigation of acrylamide in food. The enzyme asparaginase has been declared as safe and favourable additive by various food committee experts. Presently, asparaginase is from various bacterial and fungal sources. Free and immobilized asparaginases are used for the mitigation of acrylamide level in food during the blanching process. The immobilized asparaginase is repeatedly reused without any loss in the activity of the enzyme. The main drawback on using asparaginase lies in the commercialization of the product at various countries due to the issues associated at the industrial level. Incorporation of asparaginase in food industries needs extensive research on the enzymatic effect and pre/post-processing conditions. The purification of enzyme needs an extensive attention as they influence in the mitigation of acrylamide. The adverse effect using asparaginase on sensory properties of food and commercialization of the enzymatic approach towards the mitigation process at various sectors of food industries is the next future scope in the food processing industries.
G. Baskar, R. Aiswarya, S. Renganathan

Chapter 7. Xylanases for Food Applications

The development of new food products, improvement in food quality, and ease of food production process is of prime concern with the growing world population and rapidly rising demand for functional foods. These concerns make it imperative, the use of various enzymes such as glycoside hydrolases, lipases, proteases, transglutaminases, etc., in the processing of food and food ingredients. Crops and fruits used in food and brewing industry contain considerable amount of xylan. Xylan is a branched heteropolysaccharide and its main chain is composed of xylose subunits linked by β-(1 → 4) glycosidic bonds and contains different substitutions in the side chain. Xylanase cleaves β-(1 → 4) glycosidic bonds in heteroxylan randomly and converts it into xylooligosaccharides. In the last decade, xylanase has received appreciable attention owing to its applications in various food processing industries such as cereal food processing for the improvement of gluten agglomeration, baking industry for the improved texture of bread and cookies, clarification of fruit juices, production of xylooligosaccharide or arabinoxylooligosaccharides as prebiotic food supplements. This chapter presents a comprehensive overview of xylanase, its sources, production, and applications in food production and processing, with a particular focus on recent developments.
Kedar Sharma, Abhijeet Thakur, Arun Goyal

Chapter 8. Biotechnological Avenues for Fruit Juices Debittering

Nowadays, the majority of the population follows the tight working schedule so it became difficult for them to maintain their balanced diet. Therefore, to obtain proper healthy nutrition, food supplements need to be included in their diet. Fruits are the best choices as a food supplement to provide nutritional constituents. The long-term storage of fruits is the major problem, therefore, the use of packed fruit juices is increasing day by day. People are using these packed materials more frequently because these can be stored for a long time, availability of juice of all fruits in all seasons and easy to carry anywhere, without any problem of leakage and spoiling. Therefore, this is the blooming phase of all fruit-based industries throughout the world. The demand and market for citrus fruit juice are worldwide and it is quite high due to their significant nutritional value. There is a huge hurdle in citrus juice market, which is related to its bitterness. There are two main components, naringin, and limonin, responsible for the “immediate” and “delayed” bitterness, respectively. During processing, this bitterness increases with time due to the conversion of limonoate A-ring-lactone (non-bitter) into limonin (bitter) and this conversion is facilitated under the acidic pH of juice. Bitterness can be reduced up to an acceptable range of the consumer by the use of certain enzymes like naringinase and limonoate dehydrogenases but production of these enzymes in such a large amount, which would be sufficient for treatment of juice at industrial scale, is a big issue of concern. Current research activities are focusing on this target to develop a technology for achieving highly efficient enzyme sources either from native or recombinant sources using synthetic biology and modern biotechnological approaches. Another aspect to enhance this technology is the immobilization of such enzymes for their reuses, which will minimize the total cost of production. Therefore, in this chapter, we will discuss various methods that were previously used for the debittering purpose and new biotechnological approaches, which can be used for debittering of juice more efficiently at large scale.
Lokesh Kumar Narnoliya, Jyoti Singh Jadaun

Chapter 9. Enzymes in Sweeteners Production

The eco-friendly and highly specific nature of enzymes has made these biocatalysts widely used in the production of sweeteners. Traditionally, their application is mostly associated with the production of starch-derived high-calorie sugars, and at a minor scale, to the production of invert sugar syrup. Such pattern still stands, albeit with significant developments toward improved biocatalysts for those roles. These improvements have involved several approaches such as enzyme screening/modification through genetic or chemical approaches, and enhanced enzyme formulations. Additionally, in recent years, the public perception on the impact of diet in public health has established the need for alternative low-calorie sweeteners. These abridge a diversity of compounds, from high-intensity sweeteners to oligosaccharides with low sweetening power but with a prebiotic role. The present work aims to provide an updated overview of the current enzyme-based processes in the production of sweeteners. The rationale underlying the enzymatic approaches as preferred alternative to chemical routes is addressed. Specific insight is given on the operational conditions implemented in the enzymatic processes and on biocatalyst development, while also providing the scope for the different types of sweeteners manufactured enzymatically. The key issues on industrial scale sweetener production are discussed. Finally, foreseen developments in the field are also suggested.
Filipe Carvalho, Pedro Fernandes

Chapter 10. Lipases: A Promising Tool for Food Industry

Lipases (triacylglycerol acylhydrolases EC: are universal enzymes, present in all the living creatures, i.e. plants, animals, fungi and bacteria. Their basic function is to catalyze the hydrolysis of lipid into free fatty acid and glycerol at the interface of aqueous and organic solvent, which broadens its applications in various industries. Lipases catalyze a wide range of industrially important reactions: transesterifications, esterifications, interesterifications, etc. and also shows enantio-selectivity due to which they are considered as indispensable tools in food, pharmaceuticals, biofuel, diagnostics, chiral chemistry, drug, detergent, oleochemicals, cosmetics, leather, biosensor industry, etc. The present chapter deals with the production of lipases and their various applications in the food industry such as dairy, bakery, egg processing, oil and fat, flavouring and aroma, meat and fish processing, etc. Various advanced technologies such as metagenomics, directed evolution, genetic engineering, protein engineering, etc. have been discussed to add desired trades in enzymes and to achieve high yield. Light has also been thrown on the key players in global lipase industry and commercially available lipases in the ending notes.
Sangeeta Negi

Chapter 11. Amylases for Food Applications—Updated Information

Discovering of new industrial applications from microorganisms is diverse as they came from variety of environmental niches. The majority of existing biotechnological applications are of microbial origin and enzymes are the most important among them. Microbial enzymes surpass those from animals and plant sources since their ease of production and genetic manipulation, diverse catalytic activities, etc. The role of enzymes in many processes has been known for a long time, in which the enzymes from microorganisms, used particularly for baking, brewing, alcohol production, cheese making etc. Starch represents one of the most pervasive and an important renewable biological resource that forms a major source of food to a large population. Starch hydrolysis forms the basis of many industrial processes and acid hydrolysis was significant during the earlier days. However, this was almost completely replaced by enzymatic hydrolysis, nowadays, since the availability and abundance of starch hydrolasing microorganisms, corrosion-free reaction, and specificity of the reaction. One of the major applications of these enzymes is in the food industry and starch hydrolysis yields a diverse range of products such as glucose, maltose and fructose syrups, cyclodextrins, fat mimetics substances, etc. They also find application as brewing and baking agents. Enzymatic liquefaction and saccharification of starch require higher temperatures; that demands novel thermostable amylases. In this chapter, we are discussing about various aspects of amylase enzymes, their sources, application in the food industry and future prospects of thermostable amylase from mesophilic organisms, etc.
Divya Balakrishnan, Swaroop S. Kumar, Shiburaj Sugathan

Chapter 12. α-l-Arabinofuranosidase: A Potential Enzyme for the Food Industry

Cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin are the major components of plant cell wall. Hemicellulose is the second most abundant carbohydrate polymer on the earth. Hemicelluloses are branched, hetero-polysaccharides formed by β-(1 → 4)-linked backbones of hexoses like glucose (xyloglucan), galactose (galactan), mannose (mannan) or pentoses like xylose (xylan), and arabinose (arabinan). Xylan contains the backbone of 1,4-linked-β-d-xylopyranose with various side-chain substitutions such as arabinose, acetic acid, glucuronic acid, ferulic, acid, and p-coumaric acid. l-arabinose side chain is found in hemicelluloses like arabinan, arabinoxylan, oat spelt xylan, and arabinogalactan. The extent of side-chain substitution depends on the source of the xylan, which makes its structure complex and hinders its enzymatic hydrolysis. α-l-arabinofuranosidase hydrolyzes arabinose side chain present at α-1,2-, α-1,3-, and α-1,5-positions in arabinoxylan, thus potentiating other xylanolytic enzymes to act efficiently on the backbone. Therefore, α-l-arabinofuranosidase has potential application in agro-industrial processes because of its functioning synergistically with other hemicellulases. α-l-arabinofuranosidases are used for improving bread quality, for wine flavor, for clarification of fruit juices, as supplement for feedstock for enhancing digestion, in the production of medicinal compounds, and in the production of oligosaccharide and modification of their side chains. This chapter presents a comprehensive overview of α-l-arabinofuranosidase, sources, production, and its applications in food processing.
Abhijeet Thakur, Kedar Sharma, Arun Goyal

Chapter 13. Agro-Industrial By-Products in the Synthesis of Food Grade Microbial Pigments: An Eco-Friendly Alternative

Food industry is mainly dependent upon various colors to prepare the food items attractive and appealing to the consumers. Chemically synthesized food colorant used as the additives in foods causes the risk of toxicity and hazardous effects to the consumers. The application of biosynthesized natural colorant as food additives is quite safer, nontoxic, and nonhazardous in nature. Currently, the researchers have developed the value-added products like microbial pigments by utilizing various agro-industrial waste products through the fermentation processes. This can make the whole process cost-effective and environmental friendly. The current chapter describes the utilization of cheaply available agro-industrial residues for the production of microbial pigment which can be explored further for its application in the food Industries. In this chapter, the attention of researchers, academicians, and the food industry professionals have drawn to the stimulating findings in the research field of microbial pigments considering various basic approaches in the related topic like microbial source of pigments, strain improvements, fermentative production, metabolic engineering, and future aspects.
Bishwambhar Mishra, Sunita Varjani, G. Karthikeya Srinivasa Varma

Chapter 14. Digestive Enzymes: Industrial Applications in Food Products

Digestion is a very complex process involving many different enzymes expressed by the human cells and by the microbial community in the digestive tract. Digestive problems such as lactose intolerance and poor digestion of vegetable oligosaccharides affect a great part of the human population, causing discomforts due to their fermentation by gas-producing microorganisms. Although the treatment may involve the supplementation with digestive enzymes, such as lactase (beta-galactosidase) and alpha-galactosidase, respectively, the industrial processing of food products is another alternative. Gluten intolerant and celiac individuals could potentially be benefited by the administration of peptidases or the consumption of peptidase-treated food, however, this is not yet considered a treatment option that substitutes the complete avoidance of gluten. Enzymes have been applied in food processing for various purposes including the removal of undesired components. Besides the galactosidases that remove specific saccharides, another example is the use of l-asparaginase to avoid the formation of acrylamide, a possible carcinogen. In this chapter, the application of digestive enzymes in food bioprocessing will be reviewed, from traditional applications of alpha- and beta-galactosidases, to potential applications of proteases and lipases. Examples of commercial products and of the most recent and relevant patents in this area will be included.
Luciana Porto de Souza Vandenberghe, Susan Grace Karp, Maria Giovana Binder Pagnoncelli, Cristine Rodrigues, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni Medeiros, Carlos Ricardo Soccol

Chapter 15. Industrial Enzymes as Feed Supplements—Advantages to Nutrition and Global Environment

The relevance of enzyme fortification in animal feeds has been well established and exploited to generate a high income generating sector of industrial enzymes. Apart from aiding the better nutritional uptake and utility of the food constituents from the animal feed, the economic benefits gained by the production of better meat yield from livestock has prompted the acceptability of these enzymes in the feedstock. The current review outlines the various types of enzymes supplemented in animal feeds, their functional role and advantages of feed enzymes on animal growth and productivity. The effectiveness of feed enzymes in reducing the release of unused residual metabolites into the environment and the contributory role of these enzymes in diminishing the aftermaths of global warming are also discussed. The various strategies adopted in the individual and combinatorial generation of feed enzymes, their substrates and the characteristics of such feed enzymes are also presented in a concise manner. Finally, the advancements in the industrial production of feed enzymes and its supplementation are reviewed.
Sharrel Rebello, Divya Balakrishnan, A. N. Anoopkumar, Raveendran Sindhu, Parameswaran Binod, Ashok Pandey, Embalil Mathachan Aneesh

Chapter 16. Intriguing Disposition of Marine Algae-Derived Enzymes in Food Biotechnology

Marine algae are bestowed with the surfeit of bioactive molecules that play an important role in the field of food and pharmaceuticals for its idiosyncratic properties and prodigious applications. The bioactive compounds have a wide application in food and nutraceuticals as preservatives, additives, functional supplements, and so on. Marine algae are specially recognized for its unprecedented enzymes that are comparatively unique from terrestrial-derived enzymes. This chapter deals with the marine algae-derived enzymes, its biotechnological applications, interaction with human metabolism and innovations in enzyme technology. Further, manifestation and biomanufacturing of marine algae-derived enzymes are also discussed. This chapter also highlights the rapid advancement in marine algae-derived enzymes and the need for collaborative research for the better assessment of marine environment.
Ravichandran Rathna, Ekambaram Nakkeeran, Sunita Varjani, Bethu Madhumitha

Chapter 17. Role of Cellulases in Food, Feed, and Beverage Industries

The activities of microbial enzymes have been observed and utilized for many centuries, but it has been only in relatively recent times that the use of microbial enzymes has been commercialized. Cellulases are a group of enzymes consisting of three major components, endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-d-glucosidase of which endoglucanase acts on carboxymethyl cellulose causing random scission of cellulose chains yielding glucose and cello-oligosaccharides, exoglucanase acts on microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) liberating cellobiose as the primary product β-glucosidase works on cellobiose to release glucose. All these enzymes act synergistically to release glucose as end product. Cellulase has a wide range of applications in Industrial Biotechnology and is the second most used industrial enzyme after protease. In most of the cases, they are used in combination with other enzymes like pectinase, hemicellulase, ligninase, etc. Some of the most important applications of cellulase are in food, brewery and wine, animal feed, textile and laundry, pulp and paper industries, as well as in biomass hydrolysis, agriculture, and research purposes. However, the most promising applications are in the food, feed, and beverage industries. The present review presents an overview of the role of cellulase enzyme in the food, feed, and beverage industries. Other major applications and scope for further research are also mentioned briefly.
V. Anoop Kumar, R. Suresh Chandra Kurup, C. Snishamol, G. Nagendra Prabhu

Chapter 18. Production of a Transfructosylating Enzymatic Activity Associated to Fructooligosaccharides

Biotransformation of sucrose to fructooligosaccharides (FOS) was investigated using the catalytic action of fructosyltransferase (FFase) originated from solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial wastes (sugarcane bagasse, sotol bagasse, Agave fibers, and polyurethane) using four fungal strains (Aspergillus niger GH1, A. niger PSH, Penicillium citrinum, and Penicillium purpurogenum) which have demonstrated ability to produce great diversity of metabolites of industrial interest. Microorganisms and supports were selected based on transfructosylating activity and FOS production. Agave fibers were the best support material since permitted the highest amounts of FOS and FFase, with a FOS productivity of 10.88 g/L * h and yield of 2.70 g/g based on total substrate. Moreover, the At/Ah ratio of FFase was higher for cells cultivated on Agave fibers than those values obtained for the other wastes. Such results showed that Agave fibers can be successfully used as support of A. niger PSH strain for FOS and FTase production.
Abril Flores-Maltos, Solange I. Mussatto, Juan C. Contreras-Esquivel, Raul Rodríguez, Jose A. Teixeira, Cristobal N. Aguilar

Chapter 19. Tannase and Its Applications in Food Processing

Tannases represent a group of enzymes finding its applications in food, brewing, and pharmaceutical industries. They have a wide range of distribution and are reported form animals, plants, and microbial sources. However, tannase from microbial source is preferred over other sources for industrial uses. They act upon hydrolyzable tannins by cleaving the ester and depside bonds so as to release glucose and gallic acid. Gallic acid production is one of the most important commercial applications of tannase. Apart from that, they are extensively used in the food industry, especially in instant tea production, where it enhances the extractability and cold water solubility of key compounds. Another important application of tannase is the removal of haze formation and unflavored phenolic compounds from beer and wine. Quality of fruit juices also can be improved by tannase enzyme. Haze formation and bitterness of the fruit juices can be minimized by the application of these enzymes. Tannins are considered as anti-nutritional factors while using agro-industrial residues as animal feed. De-tannification of feed by tannase enzyme treatment can significantly improvise the quality of animal feed. Usage of tannase enzyme in the food industry with respect to its challenges is emphasized in the present chapter.
Swaroop S. Kumar, Rakhy Sreekumar, Abdulhameed Sabu

Chapter 20. Enzymes in the Design of Functional Foods or Their Constituents

Food plays a major role in maintaining the health and wellbeing of human being. The food we have has a direct impact on the human gut microbiome. Stress also influences the gut health and is responsible for inflammatory reactions in the gut. Any dysbiosis in the gastrointestinal microbiota leads to several gut related diseases like diarrhoea, irritable bowel syndrome, and even colorectal cancer. Functional foods have the ability to rejuvenate and enrich the beneficial gut microorganisms, thereby alleviating the symptoms of various gut related diseases, diminishes the risk of cardiovascular diseases and improves health and wellbeing. Microbial enzyme processes use fermentation technology to engineer or enhance production of certain naturally occurring dietary substances to boost physiological benefits. These are functional foods and functional food ingredients. Functional foods enriched with probiotic, prebiotics, synbiotics and cobiotics as well as other plant and animal related food components have the ability to improve the consumer’s health and well-being. Enzyme catalysed degradation of phytates to enhance bioavailability of iron in cereal based foods is an example. Certain lactic acid bacteria produce glucose, galactose and oligosaccharides (prebiotics) due to transgalactosidal and lactose hydrolysis activities of beta-galactosidase. Other examples include non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) from cereals such as β-glucan and arabinoxylan as dietary fibre constituents or for producing prebiotic compounds
Sarita G. Bhat, Venetia D’Rose

Chapter 21. Biorefinery Approach for Red Seaweeds Biomass as Source for Enzymes Production: Food and Biofuels Industry

The biorefineries of seaweeds biomass in recent years have attracted attention, in this case, red seaweeds are a source of sulphated galactans such as agar and carrageenan that are relevant polysaccharides commonly applied as powerful gelling agents and stabilizers, particularly, for food and nutraceutical purposes, moreover, the rich quantity of cellulose are also studied as a source for biofuels production. Moreover, recent reports have focused on the wide biological activities of these polysaccharides as antithrombotics, antimetastasics, antivirals, anti-inflammatories, and anticoagulants agents, based on the molecular weight and sulphation degree. Galactan hydrolases specific for polyanionic and insoluble polysaccharides are mainly classified as agarases and carrageenases. The extraction and production by different technologies of red seaweed hydrolytic enzymes open the way to a new field of applications in terms of the biorefinery concept for food and biofuels applications. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of various aspects related to the red seaweed biomass including sugar composition and relevance and its hydrolases enzymes extraction and production, as well as the biotransformation of the biomolecules obtained and its application, properties, and uses under a biorefinery approach.
Arturo Siller-Sánchez, Héctor A. Ruiz, Cristóbal N. Aguilar, Rosa M. Rodríguez-Jasso
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