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About this book

The book collects the latest research and thinking from international experts on green computing and the smart city.

The financial and environmental costs of energy are a concern in smart cities due to the high usage of computing, technology, security, IoT, communications, traffic, and other technologies. This book tackles this problem with a focus on computing, reporting on various approaches being taken worldwide, illustrated by several international case studies demonstrating these approaches. Researchers use this book as an up-to-date reference and engineers use it as a guide for the design and implementation of real solutions.

Table of Contents


The Modern Way for Virtual Machine Placement and Scalable Technique for Reduction of Carbon in Green Combined Cloud Datacenter

Cloud computing is being utilized broadly everywhere throughout the world by numerous IT organizations as it gives different advantages to clients like cost sparing and convenience. In any case, with the developing requests of clients for processing administrations, cloud suppliers are urged to convey enormous datacenters which devour an exceptionally high measure of vitality and furthermore add to the expansion in carbon dioxide emanation in the earth. Along these lines, we require to create strategies which will get greater condition neighbourly figuring, for example, Green Cloud Computing. In this paper, we propose another procedure to lessen the carbon discharge and vitality utilization in the circulated cloud datacenters having distinctive vitality sources and carbon impression rates. Our methodology utilizes the carbon impression pace of the datacenters in appropriated cloud engineering and the idea of virtual machine portion and relocation for decreasing the carbon outflow and vitality utilization in the united cloud framework. Reproduction results demonstrate that our proposed methodology diminishes the carbon dioxide outflow and vitality utilization of combined cloud datacenters when contrasted with the traditional booking approach of round-robin VM planning for united cloud datacenters.
Arvindhan Muthusamy, Abhineet Anand, T. Vinodh Kannan, D. Nageswara Rao

A Review: Recent Trends in Green Computing

In today’s world, Green Computing is one of the most attention seeking domain. In Green Computing architectures of system and software plays an important part in the systems for telecommunication and computing. With the increase in use of internet Green Computing is needed for cooling and higher rate of power. Green Computing is implemented for securing our environment and main attention is on the virtualization, power management, telecommunication and material recycling. For the adverse effect on global environment, we have to improve the working habits of computer and business users. Due to these types of issues many scholars have taken number of actions for reducing the usage of power on computer. In this chapter we have discussed about green computing and the algorithms for green computing. Authors have also identifies the problem in this domain.
Shrddha Sagar, Nilanjana Pradhan

Green Computing and Internet of Things for Smart Cities: Technologies, Challenges, and Implementation

Green computing as well as Internet of Things (IoT) are becoming attractive technologies for building smart cities. Statistics has shown that the use of Information and Communication (ICT) devices will increase 41.6 billion by the year 2023(2019). While there are numerous applications and benefits of using IoT enable devices, studies have shown that the potential number and intensity of serious environmental issues including high consumption of energy, emission of carbon and other electronic waste. To deal with the adverse effects of such huge usage of ICT devices, the research community has started exploring the area of Green IoT and Networking much more exhaustedly. Fortunately, technologies like IoT can be used with green networking to reduce electronic waste and relatively use of less power/energy for future applications and in return help in achieving better results for our ecosystem. This chapter provides a survey of green computing and IoT for smart cities highlighting the importance and real-world implementation challenges.
Nurul I Sarkar, Sonia Gul

Designing a Smart City: Technologies, Challenges and Solutions

Most of the cities are aspiring to become a so-called smart city world-wide. With the increasing urbanization across the globe, there is an urgent need to improve various services so that citizen can easily access to important information and life support services. Thus, the introduction of information and communication technologies and other technological innovations to cities coupled with effort to empower human capital in urban areas are crucially important ensuring that people in the cities have access to valuable information. This chapter, therefore, focuses on some of the advanced technologies currently being used to develop smart cities to promote sustainable developments and quality of life for people living in cities. The chapter also highlights various challenges that current technologies often encounter, and the solutions to overcome these challenges to build smart cities.
Nurul I Sarkar, Lonise Sakaio Iasepi, Sonia Gul

Better Transmission of Information Focused on Green Computing Through Data Transmission Channels in Cloud Environments with Rayleigh Fading

Cloud services have become very popular in recent years, where sharing, transmitting and storing data has been one of the great needs of today. In the last years, concepts and developed methodologies of cloud computing systems have been improved. And considering the current situation of the planet, the concepts of economic development are increasingly linked to sustainability, where Information Technology also has a significant impact on the environment, either by the high demand in energy consumption or by the manufacture of parts and components. Being critical for any Green IT project to begin with the decision of a platform with greater efficiency, to further reduce energy consumption without interfering in productivity, generating sustainability. In this way, the present study aims to develop the method of data transmission based on discrete event concepts, named CBEDE (by the acronym), its experiments were matched in the MATLAB software simulation environment, where the memory consumption of the proposed methodology was evaluated. Therefore, the CBEDE methodology presents great potential for intermediate users and computer systems, ensuring speed, low memory consumption, and reliability. Being the differential of this research, the use of discrete events applied in the physical layer of a transmission medium, the bit itself, being this to low-level of abstraction, the results show better computational performance related to memory utilization related to the compression of the information, showing an improvement reaching up to 115.28%.
Reinaldo Padilha Franca, Yuzo Iano, Ana Carolina Borges Monteiro, Rangel Arthur

Green ICT Communication, Networking and Data Processing

Green ICT is the Green Information Technology or Green computing and it is required for keeping the Harmless Green Environment even when people are using Electronic computable and storage devices for various purposes tremendously. Finally, the green computing is about reducing the energy usage in communication, networking and, data processing devices and various servers. The communication, networking and data processing devices are the major components which use high energy for its operation. So here comes the time to choose green energy efficient devices for communication, networking and data processing. The application area like video surveillance communication, clustering networks spends lots of energy to do its work. Again, to add up secure communication, it is spending considerably more energy for encryption and decryption processing. The Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is aided with tremendous technological growth and it is widely used in many applications like Border Monitoring System (BMS), Forest Monitoring System (FMS), Ocean Monitoring System (OMS), Critical Response System (CRS), etc. Generally, in all the surveillance systems the sensor nodes capture the data and send them to the Storage Node (SN) for further processing. The foremost challenges faced by all these WSN applications are formulating Green Communication and Networking (an efficient clustering technique) to handle the group of the sensor nodes and also to ensure secured data transmission. These adverse consequences lead to the challenges which are high energy consumption, more bandwidth utilization, wastage of memory in SNs and unsecured data transmission (challenge to the Green environment). The main objective of this chapter is to provide solutions to the challenges listed above thereby assuring the Green environment suitable (efficient, effective and secured) data transmission, networking and data processing in the WSN applications. This chapter includes choosing a Green energy efficient clustering technique, providing good cryptography algorithm and eliminating redundant data. There are so many clustering techniques adapted in WSN such as Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH), Hierarchical Clustering Control (HCC), Energy Efficient Unequal Clustering (EEUC), Power Efficient and Adaptive Clustering (PEACH), and Scalable Energy Efficient Clustering Hierarchy Protocol (SEECH) clustering techniques. The applications mainly focused are BMS and FMS to reduce the energy. The impact of the clustering parameters is studied in detail and based on this study the LEACH clustering technique is used to fulfill the needs of a good cluster. The clustering parameter values used in LEACH are: clustering type is dynamic, Cluster Head (CH) count is variable, CH selection is randomized, CH mobility is fixed and finally the CH hop distance is one hop distance. The performance of LEACH is studied. Also, it is compared with EEUC, HCC, and PEACH clustering techniques. To address the challenge of secured data transmission in the WSN the cryptographic algorithms are studied. The Private Key Cryptography algorithms such as the Data Encryption Standard (DES), Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), Rivest Cipher 4 (RC4), Triple DES and Blowfish algorithms are implemented and compared. The cryptographic algorithms are compared with the data size ranging from 20 KB to 100 KB and the experimental results show that the Blowfish algorithm takes comparatively less time for encryption and decryption processes in WSN data transmission and it is very much suitable for green computing environment. The other biggest challenge in WSN is data redundancy as the sensor node captures the video data and sends it continuously to the SN without eliminating the redundant data. This causes more energy consumption and bandwidth utilization in data transmission and may not be advisable for green environment, also more storage space is wasted in SN. The literature review shows that in most of the WSN applications the redundant data are handled only at the SN. But this chapter works a novel algorithm called, Green environment suitable Intelligent Duplicate Check Algorithm (IDCA) is proposed to make the sensor node intelligent by not transmitting the redundant data. So, the sensor node is made intelligent to identify the redundant data in the system before data transmission. To implement this proposed IDCA, the surveillance video data set is taken from different sources. The OpenCV package in python is used to execute this algorithm. Thus, this chapter provides energy efficient and secured data transmission model for WSN applications by using the LEACH clustering technique to form clustered WSN with blowfish cryptographic algorithm for secured data transmission and also making the WSN’s sensor nodes intelligent with a novel IDCA.
M. Adimoolam, A. John, N. M. Balamurugan, T. Ananth Kumar

Smart Education Using Mobile Green Cloud Enabled Platform and Services

The education system passed multiple mile stones: from the traditional education, digital education and the introduction of smart education in the cloud, which provides easy access and promotes green IT. Nowadays the form of learning changes dramatically, such as conventional learning to smart learning to offer an all-encompassing understanding of how to use today’s innovation to fully set them up for a rapidly changing world where versatility is important. Students are given various tools and techniques for acquiring knowledge from anywhere and at any time. One of these possible tools are the three blended flavours of significant technologies, namely the Mobile Green-Cloud Computing. Through cloud computing, the operating system focuses mainly on less carbon emissions and sustainable development not just for fostering the green IT advancement but also to reduce the energy consumption and the green house gas emissions. The migration from the conventional learning approach to the Mobile Green-Cloud Computing Learning system therefore allows, among other things, efficient use of resources, reduction of physical books and hardware components (i.e. reduction in energy consumption).
S. Jerald Nirmal Kumar, K. Anandhan, N. Suresh Kumar, D. Damodharan

Green ICT, Communication, Networking, and Data Processing

The world is heading towards the information age where “data is the new gold” and with the increase in the amount of data, there is an overall increment in the resource utilization to manage, manipulate, store and transmit data. Due to the heavy demands of computing resources for the production and application of software and hardware, their disposal is an issue that leads to environmental degradation by causing environmental pollution and keep exhausting natural and energy resources. So, there’s a strong need to adopt the greener and sustainable methods/resources so as to reduce the overall environmental damage due to the above-mentioned factors. This chapter, provides the different tools and techniques that can be adopted for the greener cause and sustainability of the resources in the environment.
Sandeep K. Sharma, N. Gayathri, S. Rakesh Kumar, C. Ramesh, Abhishek Kumar, Rajiv Kumar Modanval

Impact of Green Computing in Shaping Education

Across academic and practical fields the Green Computing has considerable significance. Saving energy consumption, reducing carbon emissions, cutting operating costs and ensuring a sustainable environment have become the top priority of today’s modern world. The green computing sector is a very wide variety of research activities that have been carried out in IT and educational institutions over the last few years. In educational institutions and in IT companies, electronic devices such as computers, air conditioners, and lights consume a fixed amount of electricity as well. Savingenergy helps to cut costs and help incorporate green computing.
Rajiv Kumar Modanval, S. Rakesh Kumar, N. Gayathri, C. Ramesh, Abhishek Kumar, Sandeep K. Sharma

Energy Management and Monitoring Using IoT with CupCarbon Platform

Green computing is an Eco-Friendly usage of resources in terms of designing, displaying and manufacturing in the field of Engineering. Main purpose of green computing is reducing the environmental impact such as hazardous materials, energy efficiency during the lifetime of product and recyclability of product wastage. The main approaching fields of green computing are data center design, cloud computing, edge computing, IoT, super Computer and smart cities etc. The one of the main approaches of green computing with smart cites is collect and manage various recourses and use efficiently and effectively. In smart cities data storing, processing and using take more usage of resources are wasted. In Energy management and effectively usage is big challenging issues in recent days in the world. The Green computing with energy efficiency in a smart cities research help to improve the energy effectively. The Energy management in smart cities is tracking and monitoring the energy to use effectively in building and smart cities. In smart build and smart cities around 25–35% cost is spent to energy operations. Energy managing purpose different techniques and methodologies are introduced. Internet of things (IoT) is one of the main techniques to sense and optimize the unrelated events. In this chapter mainly concentrated integration of IoT and CupCarbon and implementation. Specially first, IoT Smart Road Network Energy management using CupCarbon is implemented with the help of Road Side Unit (RSU) and IoT protocol (MQTT). Using this implementation, we can Manage the power in the street light in road network (power optimization), Analysis the traffic in one particular and Emergency services we can take the decision. The second, Case Study with IoT Energy Management with CupCarbon in VANET environment. Finally presented various challenges and research direction for future.
A. John, T. Ananth Kumar, M. Adimoolam, Angelin Blessy
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