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About this book

This book comprises a collection of chapters on advances in green nanomaterials. The book looks at ways to establish long‐term safe and sustainable forms of nanotechnology through implementation of nanoparticle biosynthesis with minimum impact on the ecosystem. The book looks at synthesis, processing, and applications of metal and metal oxide nanomaterials and also at bio-nanomaterials. The contents of this book will prove useful for researchers and professionals working in the field of nanomaterials and green technology.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Introduction to Green Nanomaterials

Abstract
This chapter presents an introduction to nanomaterials, which can be synthesized by green chemistry, or nano-sized functionally advanced materials which have high-performance applications in energy generation and storage, carbon dioxide fixation, electronic devices and are sustainable in terms of production and application with respect to the environment. Methods in brief of preparation of nanoparticles and nanofibres, advantages of green synthesis, and limitations of nanomaterials are discussed. This chapter also provides information related to recent research work on green nanomaterials and the available methods for their synthesis. It also gives a comprehensive overview of the recent status and suggests future directions for employing green nanomaterials for possible various application mainly in the biotechnology, agriculture and biomedical areas. The sustainability of major natural resources utilized in green nanomaterials’ synthesis is considered.
Pintu Pandit, T. Nadathur Gayatri

Green Nanomaterials: A Sustainable Perspective

Abstract
Nanotechnology is the most innovative and versatile scientific discipline of the twenty-first century. Applications of nanotechnology crossed scientific frontiers from medicine to electronics, to modern manufacturing. Likewise, it has the potential and vision to significantly modify modern lifestyles, society and whole global economics. However, most of the materials and methods presently employed in this technology rely on nonrenewable resources as well as produce hazardous wastes. Techniques of green chemistry and green technology can play a vital and decisive role in deciding the future of nanoscience and nanotechnology applications. Natural materials to nanomaterials and design of naturally benign synthetic processes have been widely investigated, whereas most of the green nanomaterials are now routinely used from the laboratory to commercial scale, but they are also facing substantial challenges. This chapter reviews the most recent developments and challenges during applications of green nanomaterials. Green chemistry, green nanotechnology and green engineering are the ultimate needs of civilization today. In this chapter, the authors elucidate on the vision of the science of sustainability and its interface with green nanotechnology and green nanomaterials applications. This well-researched treatise will surely open up new knowledge dimensions in the domains of green nanomaterials, nanoscience, nanotechnology and green chemistry in decades to come.
Sukanchan Palit, Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain

Characterisation of Green Nanomaterials

Abstract
Green synthesis of nanoparticles is becoming popular due to its sustainability, eco-friendly and inexpensive approach. Production of submicron-sized particles from the biogenic sources is referred as green-mediated synthesis. Different kinds of green metal nanoparticles available are Ag, Au, Cu, Cd, Pt, Pd, Fe, and other metal oxides include ZnO, CeO2, TiO2, ZrO2, In2O3, Cu2O and CuO, PbS, Fe3O4. These nanoparticles are characterised for its surface morphology and its compositional structure. The common techniques employed for characterisation of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles include UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), etc. The main characteristics that determine the properties and functionality of green nanomaterials are particle size, size distribution, crystallinity, specific surface area, surface morphology and elemental composition. Characterisation of green nanoparticles is significant to study about the nature, behaviour and functional properties of synthesised green nanoparticles (NPs). These NPs are well known for its antimicrobial and antioxidant effects as they have potential applications in food processing as in food packaging, food quality analysis and food/drug delivery systems. In order to find potential applications of green nanomaterials, characterisation of these nanoparticles is significant. This chapter essentially focusses on various characterisation techniques for the green-synthesised nanomaterials.
T. Anukiruthika, S. Priyanka, J. A. Moses, C. Anandharamakrishnan

Green Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles for Electronic Textiles

Abstract
Nanoparticles (NPs) are one of the primary elements of nanotechnology and nanoengineering. Metal nanoparticles (MNPs) particularly are of great interest because metals in the form of nanoparticles, due to their size, display properties that are different from their bulk counterpart. MNPs are widely used in the form of printable conductive inks and conducting polymer composites (CPCs) to impart electrical functionality to textiles to create electronic (E)-textiles. Metal nanoparticles have long been synthesized by conventional physical methods and using chemical agents which pose various environmental hazards due to their toxic nature. Due to this, green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plants and microbes has attracted attention. In this chapter, we focus on silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles synthesized using plants and their potential use in fabricating E-textiles for sensing applications.
Ashish Kapoor, Pramod Shankar, Wazed Ali

Green Nanofillers for Polymeric Materials

Abstract
Filler materials are commonly added to the polymer in the form of particles for various purposes, such as improving properties, to control processing and for economic benefits of the resulting polymer composite material. During the past five decades, much attention was given on synthetic fillers, such as CaCO3, TiO2, Al2O3, CNT and SiC. However, due to the concerns of environmental and depleting natural resources, researchers were started considering alternative fillers to the polymeric materials. They are moving towards green fillers and much advancement occurred in the past two decades. In this report, we focus on the review on the outline of various types of green nanofillers and their effect on the polymeric system. Green nanofillers are categorized based on their source, namely animal, plant and natural source. The latest progress on green nanofillers was also discussed. Their processing methods were discussed, and their effect on thermo-mechanical and physical properties was evaluated. The latest application of these green fillers was also studied.
T. P. Mohan, K. Kanny

Biosynthesis and Applications of Metal Nanomaterials

Abstract
Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is an emerging technology with conventional methods. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) has been done from various biological materials like bacteria, fungi and plants extracts. Leaves extracts contain phytochemicals which play a major role in formulating and enhancing bioactivity of nanoparticles. Two main approaches used to synthesize nanoparticles are “top-down” and “bottom-up” approaches. Studies on green biosynthesis of MNPs particularly focus on copper, cobalt, silver, gold, platinum, zirconium, palladium, iron, cadmium and metal oxides such as titanium oxides, zinc oxides. These various MNPs have diverse applications in food industries, drug delivery system, nano-filtration, UV-protectant paints, biomedical field, agricultural, environmental and physiochemical areas. They also have applications as artificial enzymes, nanocatalysts, lubricant additives and as therapeutic agents. This chapter mainly pivots around the biosynthesis and applications of green and advanced nanomaterials.
Shweta Kishen, Akshita Mehta, Reena Gupta

Carbon Dots from Renewable Resources: A Review on Precursor Choices and Potential Applications

Abstract
In recent years, carbon dots have received immense attention not only due to their exciting structural, morphological as well as physicochemical properties but also because of the versatility in their fabrication and manipulation toward various applications. Traditionally, they have been synthesized using different carbon-rich precursors that are originated from petroleum resources. Emerging concerns in utilizing petroleum resources that include limited availability, poor cost stability, greenhouse gas effect and climate change that significantly impacted the synthesis of carbon dots from renewable feedstocks. The key advantages of utilizing renewable precursors as a carbon source in synthesizing carbon dots are their abundance and wider options for source selection. Recently, several renewable resource-based materials have been effectively utilized for the synthesis of carbon dots. Thus, the present chapter is ultimately aimed to summarize their recent developments, current potential applications, and emerging opportunities.
Perumalsamy Vishnukumar, Sivashunmugam Sankaranarayanan, Muruganandham Hariram, Singaravelu Vivekanandhan, Rodrigo Navia

Advances with Synthesis and Applications of Green Bionanomaterials

Abstract
Increasing environmental concern over the synthetic materials generates much interest on biopolymer-based greener alternatives. Major advantages with biopolymers include its biodegradability, renewability, cost-effectiveness and eco-friendly nature. Due to the same, biopolymers have been widely exploited for the nanotechnological applications in various areas including biomedical, water management and food industry. Nanotechnological advances with biopolymer-based materials indicate its revolutionary applications. Hence, the current chapter is designed to include advances with the design of biopolymer-based nanomaterials and its diverse applications. The chapter specifically includes synthesis, processing and characterization of biopolymers-based nanomaterials developed from cellulose, starch, alginate and chitosan. This chapter also gives an overview about the applications of biopolymers in medicine and food packaging.
Aswathy Jayakumar, K. V. Heera, Thoniparambil Sunil Sumi, Meritta Joseph, E. K. Radhakrishnan

Green Nanomaterials for Wastewater Treatment

Abstract
Nanomaterials are very small-sized particles that have nanoscale dimension approximately from 1 to 100 nm. The green nanomaterials or nanoparticles are synthesized by biological methods. During the synthesis of green nanoparticles, natural materials such as plants, microorganisms and organic polymers like carbohydrates, proteins and fats are actively involved. Due to the very small size, nanomaterials are playing a significant role in wastewater treatment system and give up possibilities for targeting very specific points. Different types of biosynthesized nanomaterials are used in the controlling of water pollution, such as zinc oxide nanoparticles, phytogenic magnetic nanoparticles, biopolymer-coated metal nanoparticles, silver-impregnated cyclodextrin nanocomposites, silver nanoparticles in Aloe vera plant extract and Photocatalytic titania nanoparticles. Green nanoparticles are providing an alternative way for elimination of pollutants from the water bodies. The application of green nanoparticles provides an economical, convenient and eco-friendly way of wastewater treatment.
Poonam Singh, Sanjay Kumar Yadav, Mohammed Kuddus

Bionanomaterials from Agricultural Wastes

Abstract
Agricultural biomass is the organic material left as a by-product after agricultural activities, particularly in developing countries. Present-day scenario witnesses a declined supply of raw materials which is a cause for concern. Natural fiber possesses properties that make them a suitable alternative material to be used in local timber industries for the production of value-added products. Agricultural cellulose offers many advantages because of its renewable and biodegradable properties. Cellulose fibers exhibit a unique structural hierarchy derived from their biological origin. Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) owing to their morphology and physical properties have been proven a promising material not only in the fields of cosmetics, medicine, biocomposites and health care but are also progressing immensely to many other unlimited applications including high gas barrier packaging material, filter material and electronic devices. Depletion of natural resources, growing population and environmental concerns has increased the attention for the extreme development and use of nanomaterials from biomass. Marvelous and complex structure of bionanoparticles is helpful while understanding the chemical applications, and as a result the bionanomaterials can serve as the filler/reinforcement in polymer composites. The goal of this chapter is to discuss the properties of agricultural wastes along with its use as a bionanomaterial and its potential applications.
Manpreet Kaur, Akshita Mehta, Kamal Kumar Bhardwaj, Reena Gupta

Surface Modification of Bio-polymeric Nanoparticles and Its Applications

Abstract
Nanoparticle research is a vibrant area of interest due to its unique functionality and composition. It finds its application in wide variety of fields including biomedical, food processing and drug delivery systems. Polymers are used as a widespread medium for carriers of bioactive components. Biopolymers play a major role because of its biodegradable and biocompatible nature. These biopolymers-based nanoparticles have certain limitations because of their restricted behavior in different solvents. In order to fine-tune these nanoparticles and to make them fit into different real-time applications, surface modification becomes essential. Some of the approaches applicable to modify the polymeric surfaces of these nanoparticles are physical immobilization, adsorption coating or grafting, chemical modifications on the functional groups such as acrylation, amination and acetylation, radiation-induced grafting, UV-ray treatment and plasma surface modification. Such surface modifications on the functional groups provide improved stability and enhanced surface activity of polymeric nanoparticles which are helpful in reducing agglomeration, preventing oxidation and protecting labile compounds. Consequences of which enables specific targeting of active compounds to the site of action. In this view, the chapter explains about the various surface modifications and its applications in food preservation, packaging and controlled release of bioactives.
K. S. Yoha, S. R. Priyadarshini, J. A. Moses, C. Anandharamakrishnan

Biopolymer Nanocomposites and Its Application in Food Processing

Abstract
At present, nanotechnology is recognized as one of the promising and challenging areas for technology development in the food processing sector. Development of biopolymer nanocomposites is an evolving field in the food preservation research area, due to their added functionalities and enhanced structural and physical properties in food packaging industry, and delivery of nutraceutical products. Furthermore, the biopolymer and nanocomposite are deriving from the natural sources, which are abundant and available in nature, biodegradable and eco-friendly as well as economical. The conventional nanocomposites are synthetic non-degradable based on nylon commonly, considered as a solid waste, which is depleting our mother nature. Nowadays, consumer demand and expectation increase for fresh, nutraceutical-rich and good-quality foods, which enforce the industrial needs of biodegradable or edible materials extracted from renewable resources. Advanced bio-derived polymer nanocomposites will create a promising path to encounter the current and future needs and to overcome the environmental risk attributed by the conventional polymer.
R. Preethi, M. Maria Leena, J. A. Moses, C. Anandharamakrishnan

Tissue Engineering Applications of Bacterial Cellulose Based Nanofibers

Abstract
Bacterial cellulose derived extracellularly by specific bacterial genera is an environmentally friendly polymeric material. The structural properties of bacterial cellulose are greater to those of herbal cellulose, as BC possesses novel features such as high purity, high crystallinity, nanostructure networks, good light transmittance, remarkable mechanical properties, stress–strain characterization and in situ formability, porosity, uniformity, inherent biocompatibility, and improvement of cell enhancing, separation, and proliferation. In recent years, bacterial cellulose has many opportunity purposes in different applications in biomedicine such as wound-dressing materials, medical membranes, biosensors, regeneration of organs, pharmaceutical industries, food, and cosmetics. Herein, the potential applications of bacterial cellulose, alone or in combination with different components, have been focused on for the use in the regenerative and tissue engineering as an implant and scaffold.
Semra Unal, Oguzhan Gunduz, Muhammet Uzun
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