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2024 | Book

Greening Our Cities: Sustainable Urbanism for a Greener Future

A Culmination of Selected Research Papers from the International Conferences on Green Urbanism (GU) – 6th edition and Urban Regeneration and Sustainability (URS) – 2022

Editors: Alessandra Battisti, Cristina Piselli, Eric J Strauss, Etleva Dobjani, Saimir Kristo

Publisher: Springer Nature Switzerland

Book Series : Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation

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About this book

This thought-provoking book takes readers on a captivating journey through the realms of green urbanism, urban regeneration, and urban design, development, and preservation, providing an exploration of innovative approaches to creating sustainable and thriving cities of the future.

Discussing the pressing challenges of urban environments, this book offers practical insights for architects, urban planners, researchers, and sustainability enthusiasts. It introduces cutting-edge strategies for sustainable urban mobility, energy-efficient designs, and nature-based solutions implementation while showcasing case studies and comprehensive analyses that shed light on the complexities of urban regeneration. Moreover, this volume uncovers the importance of preserving cultural heritage and its role in shaping vibrant communities.

With its informative and engaging narrative, this book equips readers with valuable knowledge to make a positive impact on their urban surroundings. It deepens their understanding of urban challenges and illuminates ways they can contribute to transforming our cities toward a more sustainable and vibrant future.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Introduction

Frontmatter
Fragments of a World We Would Like to Live In

The recent global transformation is leading us toward an unpredictable future, an unknown territory in front of which there is a need for a global vision that underpins a new humanism and a complex network of objectives in coherence with international and European targets. The goal of sustaining human life on this planet implies intertwined objectives, including improving quality of life through energy, ecological, and digital transitions, limiting resource, land, and energy consumption, ensuring the sustainability of buildings and infrastructure, and adapting and mitigating climate change.

Alessandra Battisti

Green Urbanism

Frontmatter
Evaluating Sustainable Urban Mobility Strategies as a Tool to Provide Balance of Centrality Levels in Budapest City

The absence of balance among different urban areas and the centralization/decentralization aspects is one of the challenges that the cities have been facing. The level of centrality affects the distribution of the activities in the city. It also results in the marginality of other areas which face serious problems and may cause an obstacle to the development of a sustainable city. Transportation networks play an essential role in enforcing or weakening the level of centrality. This could be found in the proposed case study of Budapest where the distribution of transportation networks is a major contributor to the different levels of centrality among various urban areas. But, is Budapest city capable of overcoming the different levels of centrality, limiting the centrality problems; congestion, pollution, inequality, etc., and moving toward a more balanced city with strategies of Urban Sustainable Mobility? This will be examined in the proposed research by measuring the centrality levels via transportation networks, specifying the levels of the centrality of the different urban areas, evaluating the situation, and revising the plans of the responsible agencies of transportation for promoting sustainability. Achieving the previously mentioned steps and defining the path of Budapest towards more sustainable transport will help in providing an introduction for developing transportation strategies and improving Sustainable Urban Mobility criteria to provide balance for the different urban areas and reduce the problems of centrality.

Ola Qasseer, Gábor Szalkai
Formal Model for Green Urbanism in Smart Cities

The paper deals with the formulation of the principles of Green Urbanism in a smart city. According to some scholars, the main values provided by a smart city can be summarised as Sustainability, Quality of Life, Equity, Livability and Resilience. Most of these values have the green dimension as a foundation element. Measuring this green dimension can be fundamental to evaluating a smart city’s effectiveness in terms of provided values. The research question is how to formally and in a measurable way define the Green dimension in a smart city. Expected results are an improvement of the formal definition of Green Urbanism in the smart city context and, in general, of Green aspects of any built space. Another important result is a first theoretical core to plan and evaluate progress in the development of the Green dimension in a smart city. In this sense, the research results can be considered the starting point to develop a descriptive theory of Green Urbanism. The methodological approach starts by exploring the main business models, in a wider sense, applicable to a smart city, identifying the stakeholders and a framework to define, measure and develop the green dimension of a smart city. KPIs and concepts to be measured are derived from worldwide used standards. A peculiarity of the research is the use of a software engineering standard as a language and an approach to describe such a Green dimension. The standard is an Object Management Group official standard, Essence 1.2, the first formal descriptive theory in software engineering, and it has been applied and customised during the research to enhance the ability to implement, through the software and hardware elements of a smart city continuously keeping into account the Green requirements.

Luca Lezzerini
Challenges in the Implementation of Bike Lane Networks in Intermediate Latin American Cities. The Case of Arequipa Peru

Cycle lanes are transport systems recommended for large and intermediate cities because they desaturate vehicular traffic and at the same time promote non-polluting transportation; however, for this system to work, it must be linked to a public transport system that allows an integrated and multimodal model. As a result of the confinement caused by the covid-19 pandemic, a network of bicycle lanes was implemented in the city of Arequipa, Peru; prior to this circumstance, it was difficult for the municipality to implement them, due to the reluctance on the part of vehicular transport users. However, this proposal was developed with limited technical criteria, without properly studying the capacity of the roads, the volume of traffic, and the behavior of drivers and cyclists, which brought many problems that have resulted in the poor performance of the network. This study proposes a comprehensive model of bike lanes according to the principles of the World Bank, among other institutions, using an integrated multimodal system. For this purpose, in the first place, a general diagnosis of the current network of cycle paths and the complementary measures applied has been carried out, identifying their main problems. Secondly, the perception of the users was measured, using semi-structured questionnaires. Finally, urban design proposals that can help to develop a conceptual model of a cycle system are proposed.

Rocío Toni-Llerena, Eliot Loayza-Muñoz, Carlos Zeballos-Velarde
Sustainable Behaviour Assessment for Building Highways Inside Existing Neighbourhoods: A Case Study of Heliopolis–Cairo–Egypt

In the last two years, Egyptian government started a huge urban regeneration and road network rehabilitation projects in existing neighbourhoods; a massive establishment of highways, elevated highways and bridges are erected cutting through existing urban fabric, especially in Nasr city and Heliopolis. These projects aim to avoid traffic jams, increase trafic flow, reduce travel time and enhance urban mobility through the existing urban fabric. Establishing highways inside existing urban fabric is an international old phenomena in developed countries who first advocated and established highways a century ago followed with a scientific conscious of their negative impacts and governmental calls and actions for removing highways from cities especially American and Japan cities. On the contrary, Egyptian government started a huge highway erection, creating a new border that expected to highly change the existing continuity in socio-spatial fabric of current residential areas without taken into consideration that once the urban structure has changed, it could change neighbourhood behaviour including functional efficiency, urban mobility behaviour, social interactions and relations, and safety and security in somehow and could cause great impacts on existing neighbourhoods in terms of functionality, sustainability and satisfaction. Most local and international studies focused on the impacts of highways on macro-scale in terms of experts and resident’s satisfaction and perception of the impacts, whilst this research aims to test how far the impacts of such change on changing social and urban behaviour of micro-community residents and accordingly impacts sustainability of existing neighbourhoods, in order to help future research in building design guidelines taking into consideration the future plans for road rehabilitation. The result of the research demonstrates how establishing highways inside existing neighbourhoods of Heliopolis records low services efficiency, unsustainable urban mobility, unsustainable social bonds, and reduced sense of security and safety and accordingly negatively impacts functionality and sustainabilty.

Islam Ghonimi, Gehad Ghonemy
Sustainable Praxis on Istanbul’s Residential and Green Areas by the Henri Prost’s Development Plans

The idea of sustainability has not found place in the agenda of the city in Istanbul long years, which has rapidly developed and vastly overpopulated with immigration. Today on sustainability and green urbanism not only new and innovative design and planning ideas have been used, but also in old urban planning methods recently come-back. Istanbul’s first Master plans planned by French architect-urbanist Henri Prost with “residential areas,” and “green areas” in balanced. Almost after a century, his Master plan and these green areas still significant in the green planning of the city as nuclei. The founder of l’urbanisme (urbanism) theories of the twentieth century, French planner Henri Prost’s Istanbul city’s modernization plans considered vague and controversial many years. Although Prost plans always been popular in every period as the product of the doctrinal structure of the French Urbanism School (l’ecole), its effects have lasted from the 1950s to the 70s to 80s until today. The twentieth century’s vehicle-based urban planning theories and discourses of CIAM School evolved to the non-vehicle, green and human-oriented plannings with the climate concerns. By the last quarter of the twentieth century, with concern on increasing uncontrolled housing areas, road network, heavy traffic, high carbon emission and less green areas, the cities had to confront being as harmful places for human life. Today, world cities like Paris and London searching the solutions with the specifically arranged zone zoning regulations like the twentieth century planners Henri Prost. Hence, this research aimed to present solution of today’s cities problematics via re-examination Prost plans. Consequently, findings achieved after the re-examinations on Prost Master plans the purpose of the old “zoning” applications to separate cities into functions such as residential areas and green areas recently with the sustainability entered the city planning agenda the “zoning” planning for “sustainable protection” of the cities to develop balanced relations between “people” and “nature.” Also, recently many cities expanded the “zoning” regulations, initiated to maintain climate-change, sustainability, green architecture, pollution, even pandemic, etc.

Hülya Coskun

Nature Based Solutions in Mediterranean City

Frontmatter
An Ecological Study of Garden Cities (Case Study: Iranian Garden Cities—Isfahan)

Cities’ growth and rising demand for energy resources have created problems and hazards for human life due to resource depletion. Therefore, it is crucial to establish a framework that promotes resource efficiency to achieve sustainable development and energy preservation, which is now a vital daily requirement. Developing ecosystem services in today’s cities can guarantee resources for future generations, urban health, and the realization of a healthy city and life. Research on Iranian–Islamic garden cities has revealed their structure shares similarities and adaptations with the overall ecosystem services framework. These garden cities were designed to create healthy urban environments in their time and can serve as a model for developing sustainable towns today. Meanwhile, the Isfahan Garden City in the Safavid period is a perfect example of various sustainability and ecological functions. The analysis of the Isfahan city garden from the perspective of different sub-structures, including water, green, social, and economic, makes it possible to achieve this goal. This research aimed to compare Iranian–Islamic garden cities with typical urban areas, focusing on the various aspects of ecosystem services, their classification, and the strategies for developing sustainable and green cities. The study also analyzed the infrastructure services of Isfahan, a prominent Iranian–Islamic garden city, and explored how these services align with the ecosystem services of green cities. The research aimed to identify which ecosystem services present in Iranian–Islamic garden cities are compatible with the strategies for creating green cities. Or the answer to this year, which ecosystem service items have been considered in the design of Iranian–Islamic garden cities, especially Isfahan? The Iranian garden cities have established essential regulations and ecosystem support infrastructure, instrumental in their sustained existence as green and sustainable cities. These cities have promoted the creation of healthy urban environments and contributed to the ecosystem’s overall health. As a result, these garden cities have become crucial for the continuity of life and the sustainable development of both themselves and their residents.

Ali Moazzeni Khorasgani, Maria H. Villalobos, Ghazal Asadi Eskandar
Minimizing Energy Consumption of Educational Buildings by Testing Alternatives of Green Envelopes in Alexandria

A green building is a building that is ecologically responsible for using eco-friendly building materials and construction practices. By enhancing the process of design, construction, building running, maintaining, and removal, architects can preserve natural resources, contribute significantly to the decarbonization of the built environment and consequently improve quality of life. In that respect, building envelopes are not just physical separators between indoor and outdoor environments, but they have a significant impact on reducing the building’s overall energy consumption and in improving the indoor environmental quality. To make better decisions, technology can significantly assist architects in the pre-design stage or retrofit interventions to select the appropriate parameters of green buildings. In that matter, modeling and simulation tools for integrating the parameters and materials of green architecture in building envelopes are useful interfaces. Based on relevant bibliography, the research developed the parameters of green building envelopes, which were experimentally and numerically investigated one by one through a case study conducted on an educational building in Alexandria. Autodesk Revit Architecture software is used to create the building model, and energy simulation is performed using DesignBuilder to assess the indoor environmental quality and energy consumption. Hygrothermal comfort (interior air temperature and relative humidity) and greenhouse gas emission (indoor environmental quality), and cooling electricity (energy consumption) are assessed along the year to measure the difference between the performance of the building’s envelope before and after modifying the parameters of green buildings. The results show that by setting the interior air temperature at 25 °C in the simulation process, integrating parameters of green envelopes will decrease the energy consumption and CO2 emissions by 20% at June and by 19% at September.

Ahmed Soliman
Nature-Based Solutions Co-creation and Simulation of Land Use and Socio-economic Impacts in Genova, Italy

Urbanization alters urban patterns, which might decrease quality of life as well as its resilience to climate change impacts, namely in European contexts. Nature-based solutions (NBS) are acknowledged as effective tools to support urban sustainability, with environmental, economic and social benefits and co-benefits, having the ability to steer urbanization processes and increase urban resilience. Recent studies have mostly looked at the effects of NBS on flooding, urban heat island as well as air quality, while only few studies assess its socio-economic impacts, such as urban sprawl, gentrification and real-estate value, namely in combination with stakeholder engagement approaches. Hence, the objective of this study is to assess the land use and socio-economic impacts of NBS in an urban context through NBS co-creation and simulation. To this end, the Sustainable Urbanizing Landscape Development (SULD) model is used to assess the impacts of co-created NBS scenarios (i.e. urban park, green roofs and green and blue space) for the case study of Genova in Italy. Results show that NBS have the ability to promote urban compactness, population density and real-estate values while increasing the share of green urban areas and access to attractive amenities, depending mostly on their degree of attractiveness, size, location and the original amount of greenness. Nevertheless, the green and blue space NBS led to some green gentrification. Hence, this NBS, considered the most attractive NBS, had the greatest land use (urban contraction, ratio of open space to build form and per cent built up area) and socio-economic impacts (gentrification, real-estate value appreciation, household density and living space); followed by the urban park and finally green roofs, considered the least attractive NBS, that posed small land use and socio-economic impacts. Overall, NBS do have an impact on the urban form and its dynamics, however, they might cause some green gentrification.

Rita Mendonça, Peter Roebeling, Teresa Fidélis, Miguel Saraiva
Energy Savings of Green Roofs in Mediterranean Cities

Green roofs have shown great benefits to the built environment through both research, and application. One of the most important benefits is to increase the energy performance of the buildings. Green roofs can reduce energy demand due to the heat flow through the roof in the summer by more than 75% in some cases. In addition, they affect the reflected heat in the surrounding, humidity, and air quality in cities and urban areas. Nowadays the market offers many types of green roofs depending on their structure systems and type of vegetation. Moreover, different climates have different environmental and energy needs. One of the most populated areas are the Mediterranean cities. There are 285 Mediterranean cities with more than 126 million inhabitants. One of these cities is Tripoli, the capital of Libya. It has a unique built environment that has been responding to its climate through the ages. However, the city as other cities in the same region is failing to respond to the increase in energy demand due to the industrial revolution. This paper will investigate the contribution of the different types of green roofs in energy performance. To discover what gives Tripoli buildings more energy savings, it is important to recount these types’ vegetation and structure. Any differences might affect the roof energy performance. The research will use EnergyPlus simulation program to get results that support the green roof type choice for Tripoli climate. The aim of the research is to assume the best scenario in energy performance between the six types of roofs, namely extensive, semi-intensive, intensive, brown, white, and black.

Eman M. Elmazek, Aziza A. Safour
Nature-Based Solutions Framework for Wildfire Risk Reduction: Evaluating Governance Recommendations in Girona Province, Spain

Nature-based solutions (NBS) can have a significant role in wildfire management, since they effectively address key climate-induced impacts and simultaneously provide social benefits improving sustainable land management. However, the NBS framework has so far been underused in wildfire management for different reasons, such as more focus on fire suppression rather than prevention, and insufficient build-up of policy synergies among fire-related sectors. This research aims to contribute to the theme of NBS implementation in wildfire management, by drawing upon a case study in the Province of Girona, on the use of prescribed/targeted grazing practice as wildfire prevention tool. This case study advances wildfire governance research by providing an evaluation model to show up positive spillovers for the future empowering role of stakeholders affected by wildfires in decision-making. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with local stakeholders, structuring questionnaires according to the phases of the decision-making framework of NBS. Interview data were analyzed through NBS phases to provide evidence of (i) the prescribed grazing project’s contribution to the local governance; (ii) components that can improve the effectiveness of such a project for wildfire governance implementation over time. Results point out significant governance supported: shaping of polycentric governance from forestry to peri-urban scale; engaging stakeholders on shared values to be protected; integrating resources and local knowledge in wildfire management; establishing formal and informal agreements to reduce landscape vulnerability; disseminating information on financial resources to employ preventive measures. Such aspects have serious implications for risk prevention and sustainable planning to preserve natural resources.

Anna Giulia Castaldo, Israa Mahmoud

Challenges of Urban Regeneration

Frontmatter
An Integral Sustainable Design Framework to Evaluate Transferability of the 15-Minute City to Developing Cities: The Case of Blantyre, Malawi

Worldwide, the COVID-19 Pandemic Tested Policy Frameworks and Urban Systems, Highlighting Systemic Inequities and Vulnerabilities Among Many Communities. City Authorities and Urbanists Have Devised Strategies to Better Facilitate Resilient City Living to Enable Communities to Not Only Survive But Also Thrive in Times of Crisis, Such As the COVID-19 Pandemic. Urban Planning Concepts Such As Chrono-Urbanism Have Become Popular, and the 15-Minute City Has Particularly Shown Promise As a Planning Strategy for Resiliency in the Global North. However, Its Transferability to the Global South Is Unknown. Thus, This Research Posed the Question: to What Extent Is the 15-Minute City Model Integral and Sustainable Design, and Is It Transferable to Developing Cities? Using Secondary Quantitative Data Analysis and Convergence Analysis in the Urban Region of Blantyre, Malawi, this research aimed to test the conceptual approach of the 15-Minute City Against the Framework of Integral Design Theory and Explore Its Transferability to Developing Cities. This Study Used the Perspectives of Experience, Performance, Culture, and Systems to analyze and map the impacts of the 15-Minute City On Urban Dwellers. The Research Findings Showed That the 15-Minute City Model Could Not Be Transferred to Developing Cities Unless Modified to a Framework That Considered Developing Urban Phenomena Such As Informality and Low Digitization. Therefore, a More Suitable Approach Would Be the Integral Developing City Concept. This Model Can Be Deployed in Harmony With Informal Systems Prevalent in Most Developing Cities in the Global South and to steer sustainable development.

Chitsanzo Isaac
Assessing the Impact of Urban Regeneration in Districts with Cultural Heritage on Neighbourhood Satisfaction and Social Behaviour: The Case of Heliopolis, Cairo

With ever-growing populations in capital cities, governments are becoming more concerned with the economic aspects of urban regeneration and growth. Yet sometimes growth plans fail to create environments that reflect local values; it is then essential to recognise the effect of built cultural heritage on the satisfaction and subjective well-being of the local community. The study explores associations between regeneration of the built environment and corresponding changes in social behaviour as secondary effects of the decline in urban quality of life. The research is based on a case study approach that investigates the impact of urban regeneration in a district with rich cultural heritage, the “Heliopolis district” in Cairo, Egypt, on neighbourhood satisfaction as an indicator of urban livability. The methodology incorporated in this study is divided into two phases. The first phase was concerned with data collection using two tools: first, a site survey to document the changes that have been made to the urban fabric, and second, an online survey to assess neighbourhood satisfaction within four domains: place identity and legibility; transportation and mobility; walkability and safety; activity pattern and social behaviour. Data gathering is then followed by a descriptive analysis of the statistical results to explain frequencies and trends in social behaviour. Findings suggest that cultural heritage, whether tangible (built) or intangible (intellectual), is a key component of subjective well-being and consequently neighbourhood satisfaction. Demographic factors such as age, physical ability, and social status have a strong impact on neighbourhood satisfaction. Place identity, accessibility, safety, and perceived quality of space have all shown positive correlations to neighbourhood satisfaction. It is essential for policymakers to recognise the possible challenges of urban regeneration and the need for creating effective and equitable regeneration policies.

Ingy M. Rostom, Shaimaa M. Kamel, Laila M. Khodeir
Lost Waters of Istanbul: Deciphering Cultural and Natural Landscapes Through Mapping

Istanbul has been known as a water city since ancient times, with many conveyance structures built to meet the city’s water needs. Its unique landscape and aquifer systems have been part of the city’s daily life throughout history, but today they face extinction due to urbanization and extensive groundwater use. Of the 321 creeks, only 174 remain due to these factors. The Lykos Creek, depicted in Christoforo Buondelmonti’s engraving, was one of the main creeks that has been lost. The paper examines how natural systems like creeks and springs have shaped Istanbul’s urban heritage, specifically the bostan and hagiasma. Using GIS, we analyzed land use by comparing past and present conditions through historical maps, including the 1845 Istanbul map prepared by Mühendishane-i Berri Hümayun students and the “Carte de Constantinople” map by F. Kauffer and J. B. Lechevalier. Our analysis focuses on the historical peninsula, one of the earliest administrative regions of Ottoman Istanbul. By comparing the historical maps to current urban features, hydrogeological maps, topographical data, and water network systems, we revealed the historical and current relationships of the sites studied. This analysis significantly impacts land use, tourism, and historical heritage development policies.

Kaan Ozgun, Beliz Bayraktar
SRQL Index: An Assessment Tool to Promote Sustainability, Resilience, and Quality of Life in Informal Settlements in Egypt

This paper is part of a research project aiming at developing a smart decision support system (SDSS) to propose proper interventions for upgrading informal settlements in Egypt. The system depends on a multi-criteria assessment tool, namely the SRQL Index, developed to promote sustainability, resilience, and quality of life. The scope of this paper is limited to developing SRQL. A critical review of national and international resources has been conducted to derive 1645 indicators that promote SRQL in informal settlements. These indicators were filtered into 89 relevant indicators, and then were categorized into 4 domains, 10 dimensions, and 27 key-indicators. Using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), domains, dimensions, key-indicators, and indicators were assigned relative weights, depending on the input of two-round focus group sessions. Representatives of various backgrounds, e.g., academics, planners, local administration, and NGOs, participated in determining the relative weights of domains, dimensions, key-indicators, and indicators, respectively. Focus group sessions revealed that the socio-economic domain has the highest relative weight (43.94%), urban governance (25.11%), the environment (18.26%), and then urban aspects (12.69%). The top relative weight indicators are ‘income/capita’ (5.09%), and ‘population in hazard locations’ (4.69%), while the lowest relative weight indicators are ‘building heights’, ‘plot area’, and ‘vacant lands’ (0.04%).

Salwa A. M. Ahmed, Khaled A. Youssef, Amr Abdallah, Khaled S. Abdelmagid
Analysing Global Approaches for Urban Renewal: A Tool for Urban Conservation, Case Study of India

The purpose of the paper is to provide insight into the theoretical as well as practical processes of urban renewal. The study helps to understand the term urban renewal, urban revitalisation, urban regeneration, urban redevelopment, urban rehabilitation, and urban transformation through literature study. This study also analyses the various past and present approaches towards urban renewal in a pursuit to unlock the potential of future urban renewal projects. Today, as the world progresses on the path of urbanisation, the scope of urban renewal is very high. The paper tries to evaluate the current status of urban renewal and understand its future possibilities. It aims to analyse the global approaches for urban renewal, in order to understand its evolution towards becoming more holistic and inclusive, catering to social, economic, environmental, and cultural needs of contemporary areas. The objective is to review some of the approaches taken by leading countries in major urban renewal projects carried out through time. It is also to understand the various terms used by the countries for such interventions through extensive literature study. It is to glance at the Indian context to look into urban renewal schemes and practices within India, critically analyse newer approaches like participatory urban renewal and also scrutinises the future of urban renewal. This has been done by analysing Nizamuddin urban renewal project, India, where urban renewal has also been used as a tool for urban conservation. The paper concludes on a note on the future of urban renewal towards a positive impact. Urban renewal is the future of contemporary cities. Planned urban extension along with urban renewal is a reality that will shape the urban future. Next generation of urban renewal projects will have to combine considerations of economic growth and social equity, along with environment and cultural concerns, in order to make the whole exercise more relevant and impactful.

Kamini Sinha, Ashitha Tharian
Urbanization and Homicide in Modern Cities

The twenty first century and all that is happening in the local and global arena show us that everything is changing, everything is being transformed in political, urban, historical, and cultural content. Due to globalization, technological innovation, and rapid urbanization, the morphology of cities is also changing like other institutions of society including family, state, health, environment, etc. Apart from the buildings and construction, we should also take into consideration other issues of human capital, such as deviance and crime within urban life. In this paper, we will see if there is a correlation between homicide in the family and the pressure that the modern city offers. This hypothesis is true, especially in a culture where honor is a strong cultural syndrome, traditional norms are strong, and the gender gap in victimization is quite big. We build our theory on a qualitative approach where forty-five interviews were made in different Albanian jails with inmates who have killed someone in the family. Is it urban or rural deviance? The results of the interviews will be included for analysis in this paper.

Miranda Rira, Julian Çota

Designing of Urban Regeneration

Frontmatter
Design New Educational Building Energy-Efficient Shape with TS-825 Housing Standard Integrated Simulation

In the investigation, we try to design the newest energy-efficient educational buildings for Selçuk University Technology faculty by simulating the energy consumption in the building using Autodesk Revit BIM programs based on actual weather data of the site of the existing building to design near-zero energy educational buildings. To reach the goal of this paper, we suggested two new compact buildings enveloped (square shape with an aspect ratio of 1:1 and another basic circle cylindrical shape) to maximum reduce heat transfer from outside walls to the environment at the same volume of existing buildings of technology faculty. The second step is to select the optimum condition of envelopment constructions parameters. Select the energy-efficient envelope element from TS- 825 used in housing building codes by the Turkey government at the same high and level as the selected building model. As the result of simulations in the square envelop model saving of total air-condition load (19.304)% and about (20.76)% in heating load consumptions compared with the existing technical faculty building, but in the cylindrical envelope building model, the energy loads saved approximately equal to cubic model calculation about (18.7458)% in total air-conditioning load and (19.9)% of heating loads compared to existing building loads. At last, results of iterations by envelope construction elements (ground, walls, floor, windows, and doors) concerning TS-825 code hierarchical additional saving ratio to each other plus saving in the shape of model about (65.59) and (61.1)% for total air-condition load but the heating load saving was calculated at about (78.209) and (70.4)% in cubic and cylindrical educational building models at same floor area of technology faculty existing building.

Ashraf Najmaldeen Hussein, Mustafa Acaroglu
Examining the Impact of the Built Environment on Walkability and Physical Activity Among the Disadvantaged Population

The term “walkability” was coined to explain the effect that the built environment has on people’s propensity to walk about and be physically active. Walkability has been used to evaluate the physical aspects of walking facilities by comparing them to pedestrian perception. The evaluation result can then be used to directly address the concerns of pedestrians. Despite recent advances in research, the walkability notion still doesn’t account for the requirements of disadvantaged pedestrians. The gaps in research have been realized through anomalies in research findings which suggest deficiencies that failed to accommodate for the needs and perceptions of all pedestrians. This paper is a systematic structural review of the research on the walking behaviors, physical activity, and perceptions of the built environment for several disadvantaged groups, namely the elderly, the physically challenged, low-income, and racial minorities. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using Scopus search engine. Combinations of the keywords; built environment, walkability, age, disabilities, and income/cultural factors were used. A qualitative approach was used to analyze all evidence. Three disadvantaged population groups were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. Identifying the factors that influence neighborhood satisfaction for the disadvantaged will assist with planning and design of urban developments from a holistic view, enhancing quality and appeal for all social groups to help ensure a lower resident turnover rate. This review helps to identify groups that are marginalized in urban design and assessment methods as a step to design more holistic urban environments that include everyone.

Ingy M. Rostom, Shaimaa M. Kamel, Laila M. Khodeir
The Urban Regeneration of Detention Spaces: The Case Study of the Bolzano Prison

Urban regeneration requires a new look, attentive to social phenomena and their implications, even in relation to issues apparently distant from the community, such as prisons. There is a great opportunity in Italy for repurpose and redevelopment, linked to the disposal of old prison properties or prisons no longer able to ensure the necessary spaces and conditions to guarantee humanity and the dignity of the sentence. These buildings, often of architectural value, due to their size and location in the urban fabric can play an important role in the revitalization of historic centers. Another pressing issue is prison overcrowding. In many Italian territories, processes are underway to remove prisons from inhabited centers: the choice of the greatest possible distance, however, risks generating new forms of marginalization, discrimination and spatial and social isolation. The aim of the paper is to reflect on prison space and prison design as a space compatible with human and environmental health, in the idea of a new “empowering” prison model, which guarantees the prisoner a new centrality. The imprisoned person must be able to become an active subject of the fulfillment of the sentence so that it can become an opportunity for redemption, capable of guaranteeing conditions that conform to humanity and dignity and above all relations with the social, economic and environmental contexts of reference. The architectural project, as a form of knowledge, has the dutiful task of contributing to the change of course, dictating the rules and modes of coexistence of everyday environments. The question of the architectural quality of the prison is a complex issue that concerns both the search for innovative spatial models and the urgent need for adaptation and redevelopment of the existing heritage, as well as the forecasting of new interventions in the territory for urban regeneration. It is within this framework that the Bolzano case study is placed, whose prison turns out to be a structure absolutely unsuitable for a detention that respects human rights. The main problems associated with this reality are due to the scarcity of human and financial resources, but above all to the inefficiency and inadequacy of the spaces. The contribution analyzes the scenarios of the progressive decommissioning of the current prison, starting from the municipality's forecast of a new construction outside the historical center. This solution will make it possible to study innovative spaces, with a focus on the single dimension of the prisoner.

Claudia Battaino, Filippo Marconi
Assessing and Improving Walkability and Cycling in Urban Areas: A Case Study in Kuwait

Historically, street design in Kuwait has been focused on accommodating automobiles. Not only in Kuwait but also in other Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) nations, this has been a common design approach. Unfortunately, the vehicle-oriented approach to urban street design contributes to issues such as increased traffic congestion and travel delays, decreased safety, deteriorating public health, and increased environmental impacts. Moreover, it does not encourage the use of alternative modes of transportation, such as public transportation, cycling, or walking. Due to COVID-19, the significance of implementing road retrofits in Kuwait has recently been recognized. As the number of pedestrians and cyclists increased dramatically, people became acutely aware of the poor condition of the city's streets and sidewalks and the need for a retrofit. The sidewalks were not designed to accommodate such a large number of pedestrians and cyclists. This has been a dilemma in Kuwait for many years. This research will therefore employ a case study approach to investigate walkability and cycling in two local neighborhoods in Kuwait (namely Mishrif and Salem Sabah Al-Salem Al-Sabah Coastal Street) with contrasting characteristics and will propose urban solutions to the problems. It will discuss the procedures taken to retrofit the selected streets and present the possibility of simple, low-cost adjustments that can alter the level of service provided on the streets of Kuwait.

Mohamed M. Salem, Fatmah A. Abul, Fatemah A. Altarrad, Aseel D. Alrashidi
Deficiencies Within CE and LCA Models: Agrowaste Fibre and Conventional Insulation Materials

Energy consumption is rising in buildings due to constantly growing populations and the rapid growth of urban building construction projects. The poor thermal management of buildings adversely affects the economy, environment, and living standards. These issues entwine with the general need to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Hence, many researchers focus on energy efficiency in buildings through active and passive techniques using sustainable materials. Such passive techniques include agrowaste fibre insulation panels, which have received significant attention due to their environmental benefits, cost efficiency, and energy efficiency potential through satisfactory/good thermal insulation levels. However, further in-depth studies are required to understand how agrowaste fibre insulation performs within broader contexts. This chapter scrutinises the current literature on the Circular Economy (CE) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the most promising agrowaste materials, as well as the current conventional foam and plastic-based insulation. The previous studies conducted juxta positioned, fragmented, incomplete, and unrelated CE and LCA studies of each type of insulation panel rather than purposefully and holistically analysing the overall performance of conventional and agrowaste insulation from cradle to cradle or cradle to grave. Often only one or none of the methods utilised in the manufacturing, processing, disposal, and reuse of insulation phases are considered for judging which insulation type is better for the environment and energy efficiency. It is usually the thermal insulation value and cost of the raw materials used for production that determines which is chosen. This chapter has concluded that this methodology of juxta positioning LCA studies and simulation results presents an incomplete argument. An argument–which cannot be utilised—states that agrowaste fibres are or are not as preferable, from an environmental or thermally insulation perspective, as conventional insulation materials.

Farres Yasser, Anton Ianakiev, Marisela Mendoza, Hynda Aoun Klalib

Development of Urban Regeneration

Frontmatter
Enriching the “Communities-Cultural Heritage” Relationship to Ensure Effective Culture-Based Urban Development

As urban populations continue to grow, cities are compelled to tackle new challenges of a social, economic, and environmental nature. Therefore, it is necessary to limit what has been hindering the sustainable development of cities to overcome them and ensure their future prosperity. Since cities also depend on local and regional material and immaterial cultural resources, this contribution will consider culture-based urban development as a means to promote citizen participation. In the last decade, cultural heritage has become a prominent tool for social and economic improvement. It has also made its way into various European and international policies where cultural heritage is placed at the center of sustainable development. Consequently, interest in cultural heritage can help cities develop by attracting investments and creating job opportunities, as well as by embracing cultural identity, sense of belonging, and social cohesion. However promising culture-based strategies may seem, ensuring their successful implementation for the development of urban contexts is challenging and requires further exploration. For this reason, community participation is considered a promising approach. Local communities can themselves point out the difficulties facing their cities and take part in their problem-solving processes. Nonetheless, collaborating with local communities is problematic due to the digital gap within communities and the struggle to promote cooperation between non-experts with policymakers and other experts. Thus, the objective of this contribution is to enhance the relationship between “communities” and their “cultural heritage” through the exploitation of enabling digital tools as the means for enriching participatory approaches. As affirmation, this contribution will demonstrate the methods and processes through which new forms of community participation are possible and will showcase projects and good practices where these strategies have been effectively realized.

Nour Zreika, Daniele Fanzini, Elena Vai
From Temporary to Permanent: Strategy for Developing Public Spaces—Case of Bengaluru

Traditionally, planning and design have been limited to planners and engineers, leaving the voices of the public directly impacted by the design unheard. Cities today are undergoing unprecedented transformations, necessitating a rethinking of the approach to planning, and designing public spaces, and therefore have adopted unique practices such as participatory planning and tactical urbanism. The former is a method of designing liveable cities that is driven by active community participation where solutions are built with the help of local knowledge from the community, expert knowledge from professionals, and support from public authorities resulting in stronger outcomes whereas the latter is a temporary intervention using low-cost materials to catalyze long-term change. In Bengaluru, several placemaking projects were taken up using a data-driven approach, guided by tactical urbanism, and grounded in community participation to create better public places. Data collected through methods such as perception surveys, activity mapping, and interviews helped to strengthen the rationale for developing the interventions, tactical interventions helped in making crucial design decisions guided by temporary intervention and its impact, and public engagement helped create a functional design proposal through citizen interactions and build support for the project. The process was tested in three real-time projects; the first project was a “slow street project” which aimed to prioritize the safety of cyclists and pedestrians by introducing traffic calming measures; the second project was a street redevelopment project where pedestrian safety and the walking experience was prioritized through a series of measures including road dieting, and the third project revitalized an underutilized pocket in a densely populated residential area into an active community space. In all these cases, the importance and benefit of data-driven and participatory planning in shaping public space projects were gauged and, in a way, it also demonstrated that public support and stewardship demonstrate an alternate and emerging strategy for public placemaking. The outcome of these tactical urbanism projects led to formalizing a framework for undertaking tactical urbanism projects for public spaces using the three-prong strategy of test, observe and measure, and learn and modify. This research paper is an effort of the Directorate of Urban Land Transport, Government of Karnataka, to document and demonstrate the strategies used to develop and test public space designs on the ground driven by data, public engagement, and tactical urbanism, i.e., interventions that are short term, low cost, and scalable to catalyze long-term change, in a citizen-led format.

Sushmita Mudhol, Ann Jacob, Monica Kashkari, Manjula Vinjamuri
Lessons from Coastal Slums of Global South Toward Flood Resilience

Urban slums are among the areas most vulnerable to the impacts of climate extremes. At the same time hosts a major urban population in developing countries. More than a billion people in developing countries live in slums. Coastal and river basin slums are particularly vulnerable because they are located in low-lying marshy swamps and have limited options for prevention and absorption, far from the way developed countries do. The challenge put forward has forced slum dwellers to adopt vernacular measures. The objective of the paper is to identify and present these measures as a framework or a compendium of vernacular flood adaptation and mitigation actions. The excess of water which has been generally seen as a threat is progressively changing into also being seen as an opportunity. Cities from developing countries such as Jakarta, Dhaka, and Mumbai set an example while showcasing urban slum adaptation through measures particularly pertinent to public space retrofits. The methodology to identify the measures involves observations and interpretation from assessed cities. A framework of vernacular measures is created and presented from coastal urban slums within each studied city. Results provide a theoretical framework of vernacular measures, conceived for coastal urban slums in developing countries that complement state-of-the-art measures from the developed countries. It is therefore highlighted the significant role of urban slums of the global south in the search for local adaptation building for flood resilience.

Anubhav Goyal, Maria Matos Silva
Public Involvement in Sustainable Development: Sustainable Mobility Accords Programme (Case Study of Bengaluru, India)

Public involvement is widely recognised as an important element in planning and decision making pertaining to developmental works with public investment. People or communities, for whom any project or work is meant for, are best suited to identify what are their primary requirements and which solutions work well for them. The research paper covers a unique programme “Sustainable Mobility Accords (SuMA)” initiated by a government organisation, namely, Directorate of Urban Land Transport (DULT) partnering with communities at neighbourhood level. The programme is being implemented in the city of Bengaluru in India and focuses on creating sustainable neighbourhoods with major thrust on promotion of non-motorised transport (NMT) including walking and cycling and public transport (PT) for better health, environment, liveability, and ease of commuting. Since Bengaluru is one of the most congested cities fraught with vehicular pollution issues, the government has undertaken several measures including SuMA. In order to get a in depth understanding of the unmet requirements and key issues of the neighbourhood and their potential solutions, SuMA programme is designed with deep involvement of respective communities even ensuring representation of women, children, elderly people, and persons with disabilities. The involvement spans from baseline data collection (covering Household Survey, Focus Group Discussions, and Infrastructure Audits) through issues identification, preparation of proposals, prioritisation by means of consultations, and designing to implementation stage. The support to community partners includes capacity building, funding assistance to improve NMT and PT infrastructure and support in showing measurable impacts on ground. The main research aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of SuMA programme’s implementation from public engagement perspective and to underline the insights and learnings for reassessing how and where such public engagements can be further improved to derive additional benefits.

Manju George, Sanmay Bohidar, Manjula Vinjamuri
Digitalization and Smart Lab Concept

Introduction of smart labs in academic environments is a big step towards innovative and efficient learning spaces in order to develop and test ideas for a better future, including those for future smart cities. The diffusion of such facilities depends on a country’s degree of digitalization and technological progress. During the last three years, there have been registered many successful examples worldwide, preluding for their larger diffusion in future. In countries like Albania, after the important initiatives within the framework of the national digital agenda 2015–2020 and the more ambitious ones expected in the latest (2022–26 digital agenda), introduction of smart labs in academic institutions may result very advantageous. On this basis, the paper aims to describe the approach to adopt, and the eventual benefits that may result from the diffusion of smart labs in Albania. Before analysing the technical aspects, a literature review will be conducted a better comprehension of their importance and impact, as well the differences with other innovation spaces. In addition, it will be made a comparison of recent smart labs examples with a special focus on the recent the smart lab project in the Barleti University in Tirana.

Sokol Shurdhi, Saimir Shtylla
Nature and City: A Health Symbiosis

Cities should be the perfect symbiosis between urbanism and nature. The Anthropocene is evidence of the enormous impact that humans are having on the planet. In the context of cities, urban planning, architecture, and human development must interact with nature to offer a better quality of life to all citizens. Reflection and analysis are essential parameters for deciding which strategy is the most optimal in large and medium-sized cities so that they are correctly articulated and in harmony with their own interior and peripheral nature. This objective simultaneously entails the optimisation of our resources, from the most basic ones—air, water, and food—to the ecosystems and biodiversity that sustain us. This research, based on a literature review, studies some examples of cities where different strategies have been applied to achieve this regeneration in different contexts, such as the Asunción Plan in Paraguay, the ‘Open Shore’ project in West Palm Beach, Florida, the recovery of the natural geometry of the Aire River in Geneva, and the Cerdà superblocks in Barcelona. From this case study analysis, the conclusions point to the concealment of large infrastructures, the introduction of green corridors, the renaturation of river areas and waterfronts, the introduction of agriculture to the city, and the production of fresh water in coastal areas.

Marc Lostaló Vila-Trias, Joan Curós Vilá
Gijrokastra Regeneration Through Smart Technologies

The paper explores the use of digital tools in urban regeneration, the adaptive reuse of existing buildings, and the role of technology in co-living spaces. It is the evolution of previous research developed in 2021 and completes its original strategical picture with further considerations. The research question is how to reactivate Gijrokaster’s economy and development by leveraging existing resources, applying modern smart technologies, and focusing on a holistic perspective driven by the urban design and planning of the city. The results of the research are the definition of realistic urban planning and design strategy that could be applied to Gjirokaster. Other results are the application of smart technologies into an urban development or recovery strategy, and the creative and adaptive use of existing buildings and space to introduce new factors in city development. Future results could be the abstraction of the used methodology to define a general approach to identify space for improvement or recovery in crumbling cities. The methodological approach of the paper starts from the analysis of the Gjirokaster urban context, its history and its potential, and provides a strategy to generate a virtuous loop that leads to Gijrokaster rebirth, leveraging both traditional resources (like tourism and agriculture) but also leveraging other local resources (university, hospital, industrial area, natural resources, …) to create a synergy capable to start, in a sustainable and manageable way, the rebirth of the city. In this approach, the urban layout and its adaptation to the strategy is a key element, but also how to gather starting equity and maintain an economic flux is another.

Luca Lezzerini

Preservation and Conservation

Frontmatter
Registering the Mediterranean Gradient: A Journey Along the Ebro River (Iberian Peninsula)

The research presented in this article originated within the ‘MedWays’ Research Project, an international research cluster of the Beniamino Segre Interdisciplinary Liceo Centre at the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei (Italy) and the University of Trento (Italy). Following the invitation from MedWays, we responded to the Mediterranean topic with a research project (titled: ‘Mediterranean Sections’) conceived as a journey and, at the same time, as a collage. Our work gave rise to a representation of the forms of inhabiting the land–water interface of the Iberian Peninsula’s Ebro River, narrated in graphic and chromatic registers. From the urban, architectural, and landscape-oriented points of view, we considered how to probe the specifically Mediterranean nature of a river that feeds the sea of this name. Using resources afforded by the Web, we assembled plans, sections, and sets of views into Mediterranean Sections—representations that travel the length of the river from its mouth to its source, from city to city, and field to field. Sectioning the river through units of length that serve as ‘measures’, we fix photograms by which to explore the variation of what we call the ‘Mediterranean gradient’ of the Ebro River. Beyond the simple geographical sense, we understand the ‘gradient’ as what this river gives and receives from its Mediterranean identity, with consideration of how this translates in terms of its forms. This article is one further step in this research. Using cross sections of the river, this work aims to construct photograms in sequences in which we can read the particular ‘rhythm’ of the fluvial landscape of the Ebro River. As was the case with the earlier Mediterranean Sections work, our notion of ‘measure’ is taken with reference to fields, urban blocks, and mobility infrastructures, documenting their variation as they develop along the river. Our visual register is sequentially elaborated in plan and in section, depicting the forms by which the Ebro’s land–water interface is inhabited. These forms combine into the essence of its ‘specific rhythm’ (what we have termed the ‘Mediterranean gradient’) and provide the basis for its territorial project, which starts from the appreciation and preservation of its relationship with the (visible and invisible) water flowing across the territory.

Caterina Anastasia, Alessia Allegri
Re-naturalizing to Regenerate the Piedicastello-Italcementi Urban System of Trento

The regeneration of multi-layered urban structures involves complex theoretical, methodological, and technical issues that must be addressed to understand the reasons and means for a sustainable transformation that respects the distinctive characteristics of places and the demands of contemporary life. In its various forms, the need for regeneration concerns different types of urban fabric that have become dysfunctional, affected by abandonment and impoverishment, due to traditional functions succumbing to social and industrial transformation; in others, as in the case of historic centres, it corresponds to the physical abandonment of places where people struggle to survive. This paper seeks to outline possible strategies for the regeneration of multi-layered fabrics, starting from the present reality and from a deep knowledge that must be able to read and reinterpret the physical, social, and economic characteristics layered there. Controlled planning or any other way of reactivating the abandoned urban system, whether industrial or residential, can only be based on knowledge. The project, understood as a form of knowledge aimed at rethinking the natural and built landscape, proves to be an indispensable tool for creating a new, virtuous circle and creating better living conditions for the inhabitants (whether human, plant or animal). With regard to the Piedicastello district of Trento—the city's industrial and religious centre, while also being a mountainous area, leper colony, agricultural area, military centre, production centre, and residential district—it is essential to consider the district and the factors that have determined the evolutionary processes of this significant area of land, so that we may imagine the sustainability of an area that has undergone numerous and important transformations over time. Its various sections have also undergone radical changes in size and use, and over the course of abandonments and reuses they have remained viable. However, over the last 20 years, partly as a result of the loss of its twentieth century industrial purpose, and despite various regeneration proposals, the district, increasingly isolated and distant from the rest of the city’s structure, has become less and less dynamic. This paper analyses the current fragile state of this area, which plays a crucial role in the physical, social, and economic development of the city of Trento, in its interrelated historical, cultural, and environmental aspects. Piedicastello-Italcementi is a significant case because it includes an old core, residential buildings, infrastructure, the large empty space in the industrial section, an unresolved waterfront on the Adige River; it will be considered in its entirety as an urban system. Starting from a consideration of development, critical issues and potential, underutilization, and dysfunction, this paper will outline a regeneration strategy based on re-naturalization. It will have the aim of redeveloping the urban district, emphasizing the identity of its parts and separate environmental settings, and rediscovering a relationship with the city and the river, the green agricultural areas, and the mountains.

Claudia Battaino, Maria Paola Gatti
Urban Regeneration of Industrial Heritage, Tirana Case

The gradual delocalization of production activities, in the last decades of the last century, led to the progressive disposal of a considerable portion of the industrial heritage present in the periphery of the urban areas. Places originally characterized by a great productive fervor gradually have been transformed and now are presented in conditions of almost total abandonment and advanced degradation. Characterized by strong potential, many of the abandoned industrial sites were not perceived as resources to be used by their very existence. In the Albanian context, the industrial heritage is being completely or partially demolished, or alienated transformation, limiting the conservation interventions to a few isolated fragments, without any links with the context in which they are inserted. Tirana city nowadays is crowded with numerous used and unused buildings—such as former industrial buildings—which are the heritage of almost 50 years of the communist period. The process of de-industrialization and the late spontaneous development in Albania led to the depopulation and abandonment of entire industrial areas. With the phenomenon of Tirana city sprawl, former peripheral industrial sites are becoming degraded areas inside the city, now unable to communicate the relationships that originally existed between what remained and the disappeared activity, results meaningless today. This research aims to highlight the interest and the potential of the industrial heritage, with a focus on Tirana city, on the former industrial sites, with the challenge of how to develop and regenerate the former industrial sites. The assessment intentions at eventual acupuncture urban regeneration and to adapt and reuse these structures taking into consideration their former uses, for new future functions, and the influence these interventions have on a larger scale.

Juljan Veleshnja
Sustainable Architecture Techniques in Albanian Traditional Houses

The composition of an architectural space reflects the manner of life and culture of a society. In addition to building actual structures, architects also design spaces in which people might live. By using manual construction techniques and a lack of theoretical and in-depth technological knowledge, traditional homes usually reflect the society, culture, and technology of the era in which they were constructed. The boundaries between private and public spaces are typically merged in traditional homes, which frequently promote themselves as tiny communities. The development of the conventional home serves as evidence of logical semantic overlap since it is both a reflection of the collective symbolic universe and a manifestation of the dominant culture. The purpose of this article is to examine a variety of traditional homes in Albania and evaluate their plans, circulation patterns, accessibility, and relationship with light and the surrounding environment in light of their various geographic and cultural settings. The study’s main objective, the examination of the dwellings, shows how traditional homes can implement sustainability principles that are solely based on craft knowledge, societal expectations, and meteorological data. These results may aid in creating a traditional architectural legacy sustainability index that can be applied to homes and enhance the process of creating sustainable structures based on traditional ones without abandoning cultural heritage practices, memories, or identities.

Etleva Dobjani, Ajda Çarçani, Oltjon Luga
Α Pragmatism Approaching of Demography: Documentation from North Mediterranean

Firstly, during the ten years, the demography in the Mediterranean countries changed. The purpose is the visualization of this change. The paper has goals for the various digital products of the maps, graphs, tables, and shapes that present simple, understanding, and intelligent ways. The urban planner uses Geographic Information Systems software and Microsoft Office applications for data management analysis. The methodology builds around the European statistics Web site. The official statistical Web site included statistical, vector, and raster datasets. In continuous, the urban planner uses the QGIS and ArcGIS Pro. The process builds on symbology, classification, and the construction map in ArcGIS Online. The steps of analysis are in detail in the manuscript. The number forming spatial data (polygon, lines, and points). The previous process is the methodology of the final products. The maps, graphs, and table present the population of the leading countries in the Mediterranean. Finally, the process moves into three levels: the G.I.S analysis, the maps, and the dataset design. The mosaic is the triptych of the project. It is essential to build a very high-quality mapping product. The broad needs to understand this demographic transformation.

Efthymios-Spyridon Georgiou
Metadata
Title
Greening Our Cities: Sustainable Urbanism for a Greener Future
Editors
Alessandra Battisti
Cristina Piselli
Eric J Strauss
Etleva Dobjani
Saimir Kristo
Copyright Year
2024
Electronic ISBN
978-3-031-49495-6
Print ISBN
978-3-031-49494-9
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-49495-6