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About this book

This book presents theoretical, technical, and practical information on the modernization of future energy networks. All the basic requirements covering concepts, modeling, optimizing, and analyzing of future energy grids with various energy carriers such as electricity, gas, heat, and water, as well as their markets and contracts, are explained in detail. The main focus of the book is on modernizing both the energy consumers and the energy producers and analyzing various aspects of grid modernization such as reliability, resiliency, stability, and security. Coverage includes advanced communication protocols and solution methods for the Internet of Energy (IoE) infrastructure and energy trading in future energy grids with high/full share of renewable energy resources (RERs) within the transactive energy (TE) paradigm. Probabilistic modeling and optimizing of modern grids will be evaluated using realistic case studies considering the economic aspects of multi-carrier energy markets. This book will be welcomed as an important resource by researchers and postgraduate students studying energy systems, as well as practicing engineers working on modernizing energy grids and the design, planning, scheduling, and operation of smart power systems.

Proposes practical solutions for solving the challenges of modern multi-carrier energy grids;Examines various types of energy storage systems and distributed energy resources (DERs) with an emphasis on renewable energy resources (RERs);Provides comprehensive mathematical models for optimizing of future modern multi-carrier energy grids.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Overview of the Grid Modernization and Smart Grids

Abstract
Nowadays, the forms of energy generation, transportation, utilization, and application are changing all over the world. Given the significant penetration of intelligent systems in human society as well as modern energy distribution systems globally, smart grids are effectively developed to integrate various innovative technologies aiming to improve energy supply process. The array of these technologies has formed widespread efforts to ensure the satisfying of modern living standards that have led to the grid modernization process. In this regard, modernizing the future multi-carrier energy networks is essential for effectively handling the widespread presence of the numerous advanced technologies and intelligent systems in the network place. This chapter is targeted to analyze the role of electricity, natural gas, heat, and water networks in the modernization of the multi-carrier energy networks. Also, this chapter responds to this key question that why we need grid modernization by evaluating different aspects of the future modern grids. Finally, this chapter focuses on various energy markets and structures to give a superlative viewpoint of the future energy markets with the aim of laying the groundwork for energy market development in the modern power system landscape.
Mohammadreza Daneshvar, Somayeh Asadi, Behnam Mohammadi-Ivatloo

Chapter 2. Modernizing the Energy from Customer-Side

Abstract
Modern grids are the incorporation between the current power grid, information, and communication technologies in which different networking techniques are effectively adopted for monitoring key factors as well as exchanging information between various sectors to improve the overall condition of the energy networks. Among the diverse networking technologies in the smart grids, the first one is the home area network that focuses on managing the customer-side by developing broad synergies among the energy management systems. Indeed, grid-modernization efforts are not limited to a special part of energy networks, and all of these schemes are started by organizing the energy from the customer-side as the base layer of this process. Therefore, this chapter contains a comprehensive analysis regarding the smart homes, various types of high-performance buildings, hybrid systems, and their roles in modernizing the multi-carrier energy networks. The application of home energy management systems is discussed considering the different intelligent appliances in smart homes. Moreover, the structure of various types of buildings, as well as their design strategies and hybrid equipment, are described aiming to propose the appropriate ones for the future modern grids.
Mohammadreza Daneshvar, Somayeh Asadi, Behnam Mohammadi-Ivatloo

Chapter 3. Technical and Theoretical Analysis of the Future Energy Network Modernization from Various Aspects

Abstract
Generally, system availability for an aging electric power system infrastructure diminishes in the absence of modernization and maintenance activities. The degradation of power system infrastructure has made the prioritization of these schemes a more complex problem when it is coupled with the limited resources and growing backlog of needs as two other problematic items. By increasing the number of capable technologies as well as penetration of the stochastic producers in the energy production process, the current structure of the energy networks and existing techniques utilized for solving this problem lacks a topological aspect, holistic approach, and sufficient potential. Hence, the great need is felt for adopting innovative technologies and intelligent systems in the context of modern networks. In order to effectively fill these key gaps, this chapter is aimed at analyzing the modernization of the future multi-carrier energy networks from various aspects, including energy generation, storage, and management systems. In this respect, technical and theoretical requirements are discussed from the different viewpoints for the grid modernization due to the growing trend of energy consumption and the presence of various participants with different goals and strategies in the hybrid network.
Mohammadreza Daneshvar, Somayeh Asadi, Behnam Mohammadi-Ivatloo

Chapter 4. Data Management in Modernizing the Future Multi-Carrier Energy Networks

Abstract
Recently, diverse activities and initiatives for upgrading the existing power system to the modern energy network have led to discovering a significant requirement for a great revolution in the structure, design, and development of a communications infrastructure with the aim of creating effective interoperability among the controllable systems. In the meantime, the increasing penetration of an array of information technologies and controllable devices together suggests that the communications networks enact critical roles in the electric power infrastructure. Indeed, reconfiguration of the current structure of the multi-carrier energy networks by incorporating the advanced communication protocols is one of the essential steps in the grid modernization process. Therefore, this chapter is developed to introduce the required communication systems for modernizing future energy networks. In this regard, the key role of the communication platforms in coordinating the grid agents is examined considering the effective participation of the various control centers and intelligent devices throughout the modern grid. Also, this chapter investigates how to implement some effective technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT) in the modern energy grid by adopting capable technologies such as the Internet of Energy while satisfying the modern energy networks’ standards.
Mohammadreza Daneshvar, Somayeh Asadi, Behnam Mohammadi-Ivatloo

Chapter 5. Energy Trading Possibilities in the Modern Multi-Carrier Energy Networks

Abstract
Nowadays, innovations in communication and information technologies along with the massive deployment of renewable energy resources (RERs) have developed the energy grid structure from a hierarchical system to a network-based deregulated environment with the aim of making it more appropriate for the modern architecture of the energy networks. This transformation raises significant challenges regarding the energy markets and operational issues due to the uncontrollable factors of the stochastic producers. Thereby, there is a pressing need for innovative solutions more than ever to overcome the mentioned challenges, which these solutions can be effectively adapted to the modern paradigm of the system. In this regard, energy trading possibilities between various entities provide an exceptional opportunity for vanquishing the high level of uncertainties caused by the ever-increasing penetration of RERs. Therefore, this chapter is focused on evaluating the different types of energy trading mechanisms for the future structure of hybrid energy networks. In this respect, different types of energy trading platforms are effectively evaluated, which encourage direct energy exchanging between peers considering the key technologies and elements involved in the energy sharing process. Finally, transactive multi-carrier energy technology is proposed as the end-to-end energy trading paradigm for the future modern multi-carrier energy networks to establish a dynamic energy balance in a reliable and sustainable manner. In the end, the Grid Modernization-Version I (GM-V1) model is proposed for the future modern multi-carrier energy networks (MCENs).
Mohammadreza Daneshvar, Somayeh Asadi, Behnam Mohammadi-Ivatloo

Chapter 6. Mathematical Modeling and Uncertainty Management of the Modern Multi-Carrier Energy Networks

Abstract
In recent years, renewable energy resources (RERs) are taken into account as the popular generation units due to economic advantages as well as trouncing the environmental emissions. Indeed, increasing the level of RERs in the energy generation cycle has made the prediction of the amount of energy production more difficult and intermittent. Therefore, in spite of the existence of a strong motivation for high usage of RERs in the energy generation process, some basic challenges as well as uncertainty modeling of the system should be considered in optimal operation of the renewable-based multi-carrier energy networks (MCENs). After analyzing the MCENs from different aspects in the previous chapters, this chapter is targeted to provide the mathematical models for MCENs and their uncertainty quantification with the aim of facilitating their implementation in real hybrid energy networks. Given the provided mathematical models, the optimal scheduling of the interconnected microgrids with a full share of RERs is considered as a case study for examining a sample MCENs with real-recorded data. Indeed, each microgrid is only equipped with the RERs with the aim of the complete production of clean energy. In the studied system, the probabilistic modeling of the problem has been performed using the information gap decision theory (IGDT) method, in which both the robustness and opportunistic states of the RERs are respectively modeled as the risk-averse and risk-seeker strategies. In order to reliably meet the energy demand in the presence of 100% RERs, transactive multi-carrier energy technology is exerted for building a local energy trading environment considering both the economic and control mechanisms. The result analysis indicated the effectiveness of the proposed model for the MCENs with 100% RERs.
Mohammadreza Daneshvar, Somayeh Asadi, Behnam Mohammadi-Ivatloo

Backmatter

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