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About this book

This comprehensive text/reference presents an in-depth review of the state of the art of automotive connectivity and cybersecurity with regard to trends, technologies, innovations, and applications. The text describes the challenges of the global automotive market, clearly showing where the multitude of innovative activities fit within the overall effort of cutting-edge automotive innovations, and provides an ideal framework for understanding the complexity of automotive connectivity and cybersecurity.

Topics and features: discusses the automotive market, automotive research and development, and automotive electrical/electronic and software technology; examines connected cars and autonomous vehicles, and methodological approaches to cybersecurity to avoid cyber-attacks against vehicles; provides an overview on the automotive industry that introduces the trends driving the automotive industry towards smart mobility and autonomous driving; reviews automotive research and development, offering background on the complexity involved in developing new vehicle models; describes the technologies essential for the evolution of connected cars, such as cyber-physical systems and the Internet of Things; presents case studies on Car2Go and car sharing, car hailing and ridesharing, connected parking, and advanced driver assistance systems; includes review questions and exercises at the end of each chapter.

The insights offered by this practical guide will be of great value to graduate students, academic researchers and professionals in industry seeking to learn about the advanced methodologies in automotive connectivity and cybersecurity.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

1. Introduction

Abstract
This chapter provides a brief overview of the main topics of the book. Technology is arguably the most important driving force in today’s world. Recent progress in the digitalization of everyday objects is removing constraints and enabling new possibilities that affect humans’ lives, enterprises, businesses, mobility, and much more. The technological progress has always had a big impact but has accelerated in recent years. The past decade has witnessed remarkable advances in digital technologies that have far surpassed the decade of personal computers through cutting-edge innovations, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and Open Artificial Intelligence Technologies (OAIT) like Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL), as well as Big Data Analytics (BDA), Cloud Computing (CC), and others. These technology advances are fast and breathtaking with regard to the ways they are affecting and changing humans’ lives and work as well as companies’ business models. The companies that use digital technologies achieve significantly higher levels of profit, productivity, and performance through smarter decisionmaking, elimination of inefficiencies, and a better understanding of their customers (Westerman et al. 2014).
Dietmar P. F. Möller, Roland E. Haas

2. The Automotive Industry

Abstract
This chapter provides an overview of the global production and sales of the automotive industry. Thus, Sect. 2.1 reports on the current global automotive market. The focus of Sect. 2.2 is on the megatrends in the automotive industry, such as tighter emission controls and the rise of electric vehicles (Sect. 2.2.1), car ownership versus mobility Sect. 2.2.2, and Chaps 5 and 8), connectivity (Sect. 2.2.3), advanced driving assistance systems (ADAS) (see Chap. 11) and autonomous driving (Sect. 2.2.4 and Chap 6), and digitalization (Sect. 2.2.5). Section 2.3 introduces the supply chain between original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and suppliers. Section 2.4 describes new players and challenges. Finally, Sect. 2.5 introduces the background of the digital transformation in the automotive industry. Section 2.6 contains a comprehensive set of questions on the challenges, while Section 2.7 includes references and suggestions for further reading.
Dietmar P. F. Möller, Roland E. Haas

3. Automotive Research and Development

Abstract
This chapter gives an overview of the research and development approach in the automotive industry. Therefore, Sect. 3.1 focuses on the automotive development process, specifically the complexity involved in developing a new vehicle model, an elaborate process involving thousands of engineering staff employed by the automaker and its Tier 1 suppliers. This section describes on proven processes and new technologies, such as the Stage-Gate® controlled development process, the digital mock-up process, requirements engineering with regard to automotive electrical/electronic (E/E) systems (see Chap. 4), and the diverse disciplines that enable new product creation processes which lead to constantly shrinking development times, better maturity, and overall product quality. The focus in Sect. 3.2 is on modularization and platforms used in the automotive industry which will allow to cope with an ever-increasing multibrand vehicle model line. In Sect. 3.3, virtual product creation is introduced which integrates the product data management concept to fully achieve the required computer-aided design (CAD)-based development pipeline as an integrated CAD format. Section 3.4 introduces the idea of product life cycle management, an approach that facilitates collaborative work processes for the various phases of the product or system life cycle represented by a number of phases and activities spread out across the automakers organization and its suppliers, each of which builds on the results of the preceding phase or activity. The sum of all these activities is called the product or system life cycle, which can be described using a model that contains the conceptualization phase, the utilization phase, the evolution phase, and the ultimate disposal phase. Section 3.5 contains a comprehensive set of questions on automotive research and development, while the final section includes references and suggestions for further reading.
Dietmar P. F. Möller, Roland E. Haas

4. Automotive E/E and Automotive Software Technology

Abstract
This chapter begins with an overview of mechatronic systems in the automotive domain in Sect. 4.1. Section 4.2 focuses on automotive electronics, taking into account body, chassis, comfort, driver assistance electronics, electronic control units (ECUs), and entertainment/infotainment electronics, as well as sensor technology. In Sect. 4.3, electrical and electronic (E/E) architectures and bus system requirements are introduced, with emphasis on disciplined approaches to their design. Section 4.4 discusses the concept of functional safety. Thereafter, Sect. 4.5 focuses on automotive software engineering, taking into account the increasing role of software content and product complexity, model-based software development, and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) tests. Section 4.6 refers to the AUTomotive Open Source Architecture (AUTOSAR) platform and Sect. 4.7 to the AUTOSAR Adaptive Platform. In Sect. 4.8, the GENIVI Alliance®, essential for telematic and infotainment components, is introduced. Section 4.9 provides examples of advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs) (see also Chap. 11), and Sect. 4.10 looks at future trends. Section 4.11 contains a comprehensive set of questions on automotive E/E and automotive software engineering, and finally followed by references and suggestions for further reading.
Dietmar P. F. Möller, Roland E. Haas

5. The Connected Car

Abstract
This chapter introduces the key technologies essential for the evolution of connected cars. Section 5.1 introduces cyber-physical systems (CPS) and describes engineered systems that integrate computing and networking technologies. The cyber part of CPS is deeply embedded in and interacts with physical processes, the physical components. Section 5.2 presents the concept of the Internet of Things (IoT) with regard to its communication capabilities anytime, from anywhere, with everything and key object radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology, which enables objects, things, or entities to be connected wirelessly. Section 5.3 focuses on telematics, infotainment, and the evolution of the connected car, taking into account technology maturity levels, driving factors, and business models of connected cars. Section 5.4 refers to platforms and architectures with regard to connected cars as well as the connected car reference platform and the connected car in the cloud. Section 5.5 introduces autonomous vehicles with regard to the respective guidelines for the testing and deployment of autonomous vehicles published by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). In Sect. 5.6, the GENIVI Alliance®, essential for the telematic and infotainment components, is introduced. Section 5.7 introduces several case studies of specific themes essential for the evolution of the connected car, such as the BMW ConnectedDrive Store, the Mercedes COMAND® Online, and HERE, which provides digital mapping for fully autonomous driving. Section 5.8 contains comprehensive questions for verifying the knowledge gained and finally followed by references and suggestions for further reading.
Dietmar P. F. Möller, Roland E. Haas

6. Automotive Cybersecurity

Abstract
Cybersecurity is the body of technologies, processes, and practices designed to protect computers, data, networks, and programs against intrusion, damage, or unauthorized access by cyberattacks. Therefore, this chapter begins, in Sect. 6.1, with an overview of automotive cybersecurity issues subdivided into ten subsections. It focuses on the scale and complexity of vehicles cyber and physical components’ vulnerability to a variety of security challenges, intrusions, threats, and malicious cyberattacks whose intent is to disrupt communication, steal sensitive information or records, and impair the functioning of the system, identifying the risk level as a function of likelihood and consequences. Hence, a solid theoretical foundation for cybersecurity of vehicle cyber-physical systems is introduced too, based on concepts of artificial intelligence, deep neural networks (DNN), and deep learning (DL), control theory, epidemic theory, game theory, graph theory, and the importance of cybersecurity w.r.t. different kinds of attack scenarios, for example, the spear phishing attack. Section 6.2 introduces information technology security in automotive cyber-physical systems (CPSs) and the measures taken to ensure that automotive cyber-physical systems remain secure while interacting with other digital systems connected to a controller area network (CAN) system bus. It also describes the characteristics of today’s attack taxonomies. As a logical next step, Sect. 6.3 focuses on hacking, automotive attack surfaces, and vulnerabilities and summarizes the anatomy of attack surface intrusion points in vehicles and the associated risks. Therefore, vehicle security depends on a variety of different methods and tools that systematically perform security testing, such as functional security testing, fuzzing, penetration testing, and others. Section 6.4 discusses intrusion detection, described as the detection of any set of actions that attempts to compromise the integrity, confidentiality, or availability of a system, as well as intrusion prevention, actions which attempt to prevent a detected intrusion from succeeding. Different detection methods for different kinds of intrusion types are described, including numerous static, dynamic, and hybrid methods for prevention. Section 6.5 discusses security and functional safety with regard to wireless mobile and sensor networks, platform security, cloud computing, and data security, as well as functional safety. Section 6.6 includes several examples of car hacking. Section 6.7 contains a comprehensive set of questions on automotive cybersecurity topics, and and finally followed by references and suggestions for further reading.
Dietmar P. F. Möller, Roland E. Haas

7. Mobile Apps for the Connected Car

Abstract
This chapter presents a field with a huge innovation potential for the automotive industry, apps for connected cars. Section 7.1 reports on the current situation of the global automotive and IT market and its management and systems. In this regard, the focus in Sect. 7.2 refers to the actual trend on agile software development in the automotive industry. Agile software development places a strong focus on fast response to customer requirements, turning speed and agility into a key competitive advantage whereby the Agile Manifesto laid out the underlying concepts of agile development. In Sect. 7.3 the importance of smartphones and the corresponding app market is introduced as well as their unprecedented growth in numbers. This raises the question for their usage in vehicles. Therefore, Sect. 7.4 focuses on the iOS operating system which offers a rich set of features and a powerful application programming interface (API) for mobile app development and is fully integrated with Apple’s iCloud ecosystem. Henceforth, Sect. 7.5 launches the background of Xcode, an integrated development environment (IDE) for developers which allows multi-language and multi-target platform development for native macOS, iOS, tvOS, and watchOS applications. The supported languages are Apple’s Objective-C and Swift with the Cocoa framework, but it is also possible to develop C and C++ applications. Section 7.6 introduces into Android applications which are usually developed in the Java language using the Android Software Development Kit. Android is a powerful operating system competing neck-to-neck with Apple’s iOS. Section 7.7 focuses on the topic how car manufactures are embracing the smartphone technologies by integrating Apple’s and Google’s hardware and software into the car’s infotainment system. Apple’s technology is called CarPlay, Google’s Android Car. In Sect. 7.8 the required programming languages for mobility app development such as Objective-C, Swift, and Java App Development are introduced. Moreover, Sect. 7.9 introduces the requirements of the use case example of the car ride-sharing models carpooling and cab sharing. Wrapping up, in Sect. 7.10 the source code of some of the key classes in the several applications is discussed. Finally, in Sect. 7.11 exercises are included in a form of a questionnaire to be answered. The last section is followed by references and suggestions for further reading.
Dietmar P. F. Möller, Roland E. Haas

8. Carsharing

Abstract
This chapter discusses carsharing. Section 8.1 introduces the carsharing concept and the different variants of it as well as carsharing services offered so far. The focus in Sect. 8.2 is on the carsharing concept by Daimler, its Car2Go business model. In Sect. 8.3 the use cases in regard to the different phases of carsharing are analyzed, and the resulting requirements are discussed. Section 8.4 describes significant modifications to the hardware and software infrastructure of a smart car for using it in the carsharing business model. The focus of Sect. 8.4 is on connectivity which is realized through a GSM module that is embedded in the telematics unit. In Sect. 8.5 the impact of electric vehicles in carsharing applications is discussed. It also shows the block diagram of a standard electric vehicle. Section 8.6 refers to the carsharing activities by other OEMs and their brands. Since the whole use case of carsharing relies on the constant connectivity between the car and the backend system, the proper security of the used vehicles is a major concern which can be realized by intrusion detection and prevention to avert vulnerabilities through cyberattacks. In this regard Sect. 8.7 introduces cyberattack surfaces and discusses the mitigation of cyberattacks (see also Chap. 6). Section 8.8 finally wraps up within a conclusion, while Sect. 8.9 contains a comprehensive set of questions on the carsharing business model, and finally followed by references and suggestions for further reading.
Dietmar P. F. Möller, Roland E. Haas

9. Car Hailing and Ridesharing

Abstract
This chapter is about car hailing and ridesharing. Section 9.1 introduces car hailing and ridesharing as a promising approach for reducing own car usage in a city cutting down the needed parking spaces, reducing traffic jams, and for the city as a whole helping to reduce pollution. Section 9.2 discusses online transportation network companies offering cab services/car hailing and ride-hailing which provide cab services through their respective apps for smartphones (see also Chap. 7). Section 9.3 focuses on the metropolitan area of Bangalore as an example of ridehailing and ridesharing operations with regard to cab types and prices as well as services offered. Section 9.4 describes surge pricing mechanisms taking into account peak hours where cab aggregators charge two or three times more. In Sect. 9.5 the problem of safety and initiatives to increase safety are discussed to prevent crime and increase the safety both for the customers as well as for the drivers. In this regard, Sect. 9.5.3 refers to crime incidents in ridesharing, while Sect. 9.5.4 introduces government policies for ridesharing companies and Sect. 9.5.5 presents important legal cases. Section 9.6 refers to fraud, cyberattacks, and cybersecurity in ridesharing (see also Chap. 6). Section 9.7 finally wraps up within a conclusion, while Sect. 9.8 contains a comprehensive set of questions on the carsharing business model, and the last Section 9.9 includes references and suggestions for further reading.
Dietmar P. F. Möller, Roland E. Haas

10. Connected Parking and Automated Valet Parking

Abstract
This chapter discusses one of the most relevant and straightforward application of connected cars—connected parking. Everybody who is driving a car has had some experience with the difficulty to find a parking space and to park the car in narrow lots. Fortunately, technology is available to help, and it will potentially have a major impact on traffic, parking accidents, and space utilization in cities. After a brief discussion of parking from a business perspective in Sect. 10.1, analyzing the main challenges, the chapter discusses the opportunities for connected parking in Sect. 10.2. A multitude of new apps provides information, often in real-time, about available parking spaces; manages the booking; often allows for cashless billing; and can be integrated with OEM’s connectivity services. This chapter gives an overview of major players and discusses the core features and services of their solution. Section 10.3 presents parking assistance systems. The most sophisticated—as of today—automates the complete parking process; however, the driver still has to be in the car and has to oversee the process. The next step, automated valet parking (AVP), is discussed in Sect. 10.4. AVP systems turn the vehicles into a robot car that automatically finds parking space and maneuvers the car into a free slot. The first commercial systems will soon be available in high-end cars, soon, and also will be deployed for carsharing. Sections 10.5 and 10.6 deal with the cybersecurity impact of connected parking and automated valet parking analyzing the major cyber threats and look at potential solutions for increasing the cybersecurity, like intrusion detection and prevention (see also Chap. 6). Such systems are in place to protect large-scale IT infrastructure and recently have been applied to the cybersecurity of vehicles, which is discussed more in detail in Chap. 6. Section 10.7 finally wraps up with a conclusion and recommended further readings. Section 10.8 contains a comprehensive set of questions on the connected parking and automated valet parking and the final section includes references and further readings.
Dietmar P. F. Möller, Roland E. Haas

11. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems and Autonomous Driving

Abstract
This chapter discusses advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and autonomous driving. ADAS are systems to help the driver in his driving process. When designed with a safe human-machine interface (HMI), they could increase vehicle safety and more in general road safety. Autonomous driving is based on increasing vehicle automation that leads to autonomous or self-driving or semiautonomous vehicles. Self-driving vehicles are one of the major drivers of change in the automotive industry. This has been discussed in Chap. 2, showing how major OEMs reacted to this development, for example, the CASE organization in Daimler, the introduction of CDO positions in BMW and VW, and others. In Sect. 11.1 ADAS are introduced beyond the automotive E/E perspective, which has been described in Chap. 4, focusing on the popular driver assistance functionality parking with the ParkPilot ADAS beside other essential ADAS functionalities. It also refers to sensor applications for different ADAS functions. Section 11.2 gives a quick recap of the main ADAS functions like lane keeping assistant, lane departure warning, and others in more detail. It also refers to the situation of objects moving across, either in front or behind, the vehicle and the most advanced methods for pedestrian and object detection.
Dietmar P. F. Möller, Roland E. Haas

12. Summary, Final Remarks, Outlook, and Further Reading

Abstract
This chapter summarizes the investigation conducted by the authors of this book and gives an outlook on future trends, technologies, innovations, and applications.
Dietmar P. F. Möller, Roland E. Haas

Backmatter

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