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About this book

Seaport Container Terminals (SCT) operate as central nodes in worldwide hub-and-spoke networks, and link ocean-going vessels with smaller feeder vessels, as well as with inbound and outbound hinterland transportation systems using road, rail, or inland waterways. The volume of transcontinental container flows has gained enormously over the last five decades frequently leading to double-digit annual growth rates for the SCT.

The 2nd edition of the Handbook of Terminal Planning also deals with problems being induced by questions of terminal development on a long-term basis (strategic level). Facing present and upcoming challenges for SCT operation—such as more and more mega vessels, extremely high hinterland peaks, higher environmental standards, less public acceptance and the stronger competition between terminals serving the same hinterland—the focus of the book is on successful approaches and solutions primarily addressing the planning of terminal structures. Nevertheless, operational aspects are considered, as well as how they effectively contribute to problem solving on the strategic level.

Table of Contents




Chapter 1. General Considerations on Terminal Planning, Innovations and Challenges

The chapter provides a brief overview of the major tasks of container terminal planning as well as planning activities and results associated with task processing. Furthermore, the main causes for innovation activities of container terminals are analyzed and subdivided in three areas: changes in technology, changes in customer demands, and changes in environmental rules. For each area, typical terminal innovations before and after the global economic and financial crisis are being compared regarding their respective scale of challenge for container terminals. The results enable a better understanding of the cause-and-effect relationships of terminal innovations and the kind of relationships leading to (particularly) challenging innovation processes. Finally, the chapter provides a brief overview of the contents of all Handbook chapters.
Jürgen W. Böse

Basic Aspects: Instruments, Technologies, Management, and Environment


Chapter 2. Advanced Simulation Technology in Planning, Implementation, and Operation of Container Terminals to Cope with the Varying Challenges Caused by the Shipping Industry

The container terminal industry is meant to be quite conservative. However, ever faster changes in global container transport (e.g., increasing vessel and package sizes or concentration in the hand of fewer global consortiums) lead to continuously growing productivity and efficiency requirements in recent years. As a result, container terminals have to become more and more flexible to adapt their processes to the changing conditions. Thus, during the last 60 years simulation technology found its way from technical applications to the world of logistics and specific software tools for simulation and emulation have been developed for container terminals. Nowadays, change and innovation processes (e.g., regarding terminal dimensioning and configuration or process and equipment automation) just like daily operations may be accompanied by means of simulation and emulation to secure the efficiency of the operation. A holistic approach of using means of simulation or emulation in the field of planning, implementation, and operation of container terminals is introduced in the following to explain the possible range of application from global to detailed analysis, testing of control systems, new ways of training as well as terminal process optimization and shift and personnel planning. In this respect, it will be emphasized that the terminal operator himself will be enabled to use these technologies as tools without being a simulation specialist.
Holger Schütt

Chapter 3. Modeling Techniques in Planning of Terminals: The Quantitative Approach

Ensuring Planning Becomes Reality – Even in Challenging Times
The use of models in the process of planning a container terminal, or optimizing day-to-day operations, as well as to ensure the quality and configuration of the control software at a terminal, has proven to be of great value in practice. Simulation models, as one kind of models, are particularly well applicable due to the variable and interdependent nature of processes at a container terminal. For the various stages in terminal planning and expansion, various types of models are needed. At the early stages, more abstract models are applicable, and in later stages this can lead to very detailed models, capable of answering very detailed questions, such as about ways to control the terminal and about the exact kinematic specifications of equipment. A crucial part in the process of applying models is validation – making sure the models are representing reality for the scope of the analysis, as well as accreditation – making sure that the users of the results the models provide are actually trusting, and therefore also use them. We have seen that the lifespan of simulation models, in particular, has been extended from early design-engineering questions to final commissioning of control software and day-to-day operations, where models serve as a means for answering questions in a quantitative way, as well as project memory. In the near future, we expect more advanced models to play a role in the decision-making during operation by taking the data off-line and advancing the operation in an accelerated way to see where problems might arise.
Yvo A. Saanen

Chapter 4. Comparison of Fleet Size Determination Models for Horizontal Transportation of Shipping Containers Using Automated Straddle Carriers

Planning of horizontal transport is a significant problem with material impact on the development budget and productivity of a container terminal. This contribution uses Queuing Theory, Petri Networks and Discrete Event Simulation to address the fleet size determination problem for tactical planning. Considering the different information and modelling effort required for the three methods, it is recommended that Queuing Theory be applied in the preliminary planning stage as it is conservative, while Discrete Event Simulation which can yield significantly more cost-efficient results is applied for the detailed planning stage. Further development would be still required towards an easily applicable tool based on Petri Nets for practitioners to use in current planning problems, but the methodology itself can provide reasonable yet conservative results at a preliminary planning stage.
Bani Anvari, Apostolos Ziakopoulos, James Morley, Dimitris Pachakis, Panayotis Angeloudis

Chapter 5. Automation and Electric Drives

A Powerful Union for Sustainable Container Terminal Design
Despite a reduced annual growth in trade volumes, major shipping lines continue to invest in ULCVs (Ultra Large Container Vessels with 20,000+ TEU). For efficiency reasons shipping lines operate in alliances and joint services, to maintain attractive shipping services to shippers/consignees and to benefit from economies of scale and enlarged buying power. Parallel to this, the complexity of logistics is growing and the society and port authorities put stronger demands on environmental control and sustainable designs. These developments influence terminal designs and terminal operations, which have to deal with much larger vessel call sizes, longer container dwell times, and frequent changes in handling volumes from varying alliance policies and shipping services. A growing amount of container terminals have recognized (partly) automation as an appropriate tool for cost control and performance improvement, required by the powerful shipping alliances. The application of state-of-the-art electric drive technologies will support an increased use of renewable energy and long-term cost reductions.
Joan C. Rijsenbrij, Armin Wieschemann

Chapter 6. From Digitalization to Data-Driven Decision Making in Container Terminals

With the new opportunities emerging from the current wave of digitalization, terminal planning and management need to be revisited by taking a data-driven perspective. Business analytics, as a practice of extracting insights from operational data, assists in reducing uncertainties using predictions and helps to identify and understand causes of inefficiencies, disruptions, and anomalies in intra- and inter-organizational terminal operations. Despite the growing complexity of data within and around container terminals, a lack of data-driven approaches in the context of container terminals can be identified. In this chapter, the concept of business analytics for supporting terminal planning and management is introduced. The chapter specifically focuses on data mining approaches and provides a comprehensive overview on applications in container terminals and related research. As such, we aim to establish a data-driven perspective on terminal planning and management, complementing the traditional optimization perspective.
Leonard Heilig, Robert Stahlbock, Stefan Voß

Chapter 7. Pavements for Container Terminals

The pavement of container terminals requires high investment costs. In case its design is not appropriate to subsoil conditions and load impacts, any necessary reconstruction is time-consuming and costly. The latter also implies to an overdesign of the pavement. After a compilation of terminal equipment loads, the chapter gives an overview of practical proven pavement solutions for different operational areas on container terminals. Both advantages and disadvantages of different available pavement types are summarized and suitable wearing courses for the different operational areas are proposed.
David Schnabel

Chapter 8. Quay Wall Structures in Container Sea Ports and Influences on the Design

The decision for a quay wall construction type for a new container terminal is made at the end of a comprehensive planning process, taking into account local conditions, ecological factors, building and operational aspects and economic considerations. In this chapter, different quay wall construction types are presented as well as it is given an overview of the most important criteria in the process for finding a preferred option.
Jan Meyer

Chapter 9. The Value of a Cluster and Network Orientation for Container Terminals

Container Terminal Operating Companies (CTOC) are very focused on operational excellence today. Major reasons for this are the dominating position of shipping companies in the supply chain and highly competitive market conditions in many regions of the world. Such a focus on efficient terminal operations causes many CTOCs to put their “own processes” into the center of attention. In this chapter, we argue that in addition to an orientation on the terminal processes, CTOCs benefit from an orientation on the overall supply chain of which they are a part, as well as an orientation on the port cluster of which they are a component. First, the literature on an orientation beyond the company boundaries in general is briefly discussed. Second, the embeddedness of CTOCs in international supply chains is discussed, with examples of how a supply chain orientation is valuable for CTOCs. Relevant issues include information exchange, extended gates, and the revenue model of the CTOC. Third, the role of CTOCs in port clusters is discussed with examples of how a cluster orientation is valuable for CTOCs. Relevant issues include, e.g., education and training, intra-port container flows, and port marketing. The chapter ends with a concluding section providing insights on how CTOCs can improve their cluster and network orientation.
Peter W. de Langen

Chapter 10. The Impact of Air Emissions Regulations on Terminals

This chapter aims to outline the applicable international and regional regulation on air emissions from ship operations, as well as to analyze their impact on port and terminal decision-making and functioning. The analysis also focuses on effective solutions, especially those promoted by the port or terminal management.
Orestis Schinas

Planning Area: Seaside Access and Terminal Quayside


Chapter 11. Cost and Performance Evaluation Impacts of Container Ships on Seaport Container Terminals: An Update

The subject of this chapter is a method of evaluating costs and performance of container ships as means of transport in the main part of the intermodal transport chain for ISO containers. The rational is the continuous development in the size of container ships, the infrastructure development to cater for them and the strong variations in bunker prices over the past years. Furthermore, the complete transport chain development with pre- and on-carriage cannot be seen as risk-free. The method described will make clear that the factors for success or lack of success for large container ships can be found almost exclusively in the ports and their hinterland infrastructure in combination with the general loop design.
Axel Schönknecht

Chapter 12. Ensuring Navigational Safety and Mitigate Maritime Traffic Risks While Designing Port Approaches and Ship Maneuvering Areas

Safety of ships is of major importance when approaching a port and berthing at a terminal. Continuously increasing ship sizes raise the pressure on proper design of new waterborne infrastructure, but also on safety and risk assessment methodologies when applied to ships of the new generation for existing infrastructure. The chapter introduces international accepted approaches on how to design waterborne infrastructure (especially port approaches and related maneuvering areas) for ensuring safe ship navigation and maneuvering. Moreover, basic methods and guidelines of safety and risk assessment used for this purpose in the maritime world are presented.
Hans-Christoph Burmeister

Chapter 13. ITSS: The Integrated Terminal Ship System

Direct Loading and Unloading of Transshipment Containers Between Ultra Large Container Vessels and Feeder Vessels
Ultra Large Container Vessels (ULCV) with high trade volumes per port are making fewer calls per round trip with more transshipment cargo and more port times at higher costs. Innovations which increase handling productivity and streamline handling operations of feeder vessels (in short: feeders) are required to avoid inefficient long stays in ports as well as to reduce the costs resulting from ULCV processing. The patented “Integrated Terminal Ship System” (ITSS or ITS system) satisfies these requirements by the innovation of direct container handling between ULCV and feeder vessels. Basically, there are two technical solutions possible: Transshipment containers are simultaneously handled on both ULCV sides using two finger piers (first alternative) and im-/export containers are un-/loaded at the ULCV quayside while transshipment containers are directly handled between ULCV and feeders at the ULCV waterside using one finger pier (second alternative). Both ITSS system alternatives use traction engines which move on the finger pier(s). The engines facilitate direct handling of transshipment containers by shifting the feeder vessel(s) alongside the pier(s) to the respective container bays required as per stowage plans.
Johannes March

Chapter 14. Planning Approach for Quayside Dimensioning of Automated Traffic Areas and Impact on Equipment Investment

In this chapter, the author first provides an overview of the quayside activities of a modern seaport container terminal. On this basis, he compares the space requirements of two different operations systems for horizontal container transport and derives reasonable planning assumptions for dimensioning their terminal layout: The focus is, on the one hand, on automated guided vehicle systems which perform quayside container transport, e.g., at several terminals on the Maasvlakte (Rotterdam) and, on the other hand, on automated straddle carrier systems being in operation, e.g., at the Brisbane Container Terminal on Fishermans Island or the TraPac Container Terminal in Los Angeles. Both system alternatives are investigated in combination with semi-automated cranes at quay wall and automated (rail-mounted) yard cranes working perpendicular to quay. Noting that in practice, only pure automated SC systems can be met until today taking both the quayside container transport and the stacking operations within the yard. Main areas for analysing planning assumptions are the quay crane portal and backreach as well as the traffic area in front of the yard blocks. Based on the findings gained by the analysis, for both systems, the author provides a viable quayside layout and an investment comparison of the equipment required for operating a mainliner berth.
Michael Ranau

Chapter 15. Raising Efficiency of Straddle Carrier Operations by Twin Container Handling

Within the last 15 years the capacity of the largest deep-sea container vessels has more than doubled, bringing more containers to terminals within each single call. For the economies of scale to work, the throughput at container terminals also needs to increase. Among the strategies to increase quayside productivity are, e.g., pooling of carrying equipment as well as dual cycle and twin lift operations of quay cranes. The latter may be implemented with least impact on spatial and process change requirements and include the joint vertical movement of two 20 foot containers. But only if applied to operations of both lifting and carrying equipment container terminals will fully benefit from each twin move. Here, we see a gap regarding the assessment of the potential productivity gain by twin carry operations. In this chapter we want to fill this gap by the example of the implementation of twin carry operations for straddle carriers at the HHLA Container Terminal Tollerort.
René Eisenberg, Thomas Koch, Marcel Petersen, Frank Wagner

Planning Area: Terminal Yard


Chapter 16. Container Rehandling at Maritime Container Terminals: A Literature Update

This chapter provides an updated survey on rehandling of containers at maritime container terminals. In particular, we review contributions with a particular focus on post-stacking situations, i.e., problems arising after the stacking area has already been arranged. Three types of post-stacking problems have been identified, namely (1) the re-marshalling problem, (2) the pre-marshalling problem, and (3) the relocation problem. This research area has received an increasing attention since the first version of this contribution appeared in 2011. Within this update, we discuss recent developments presented in literature. In particular, available solution approaches from the fields of exact and (meta-)heuristic methods are given and benchmark datasets are summarized. Moreover, an overview on extensions of post-stacking problems and according solution methods are discussed.
Marco Caserta, Silvia Schwarze, Stefan Voß

Chapter 17. State-of-the-Art Yard Crane Scheduling and Stacking

As the interface between waterside and landside transport chains, the container yard plays a vital role for the performance and competitiveness of container terminals as a whole. Most terminals of relevant size nowadays deploy gantry cranes for container stacking operations, which are therefore key elements of modern terminal planning. The creation of an efficient terminal design therefore requires a profound understanding of the capabilities and performance of gantry cranes, which is in turn largely determined by the rules and strategies defining the way these machines are deployed in operation. Against this background, the present work firstly reviews academic works on container stacking and yard crane scheduling, then critically discusses their practical relevance, and finally explains the strategical implications of these strategies for terminal planning.
Nils Kemme

Chapter 18. Comparison and Optimization of Automated Yard Crane Systems at Container Terminals

In this chapter, four different automated Rail-Mounted Gantry (RMG) yard crane systems – Single RMG, Twin RMG, Double RMG (DRMG) and Triple RMG (TRMG) – are compared with respect to their characteristics and performance. Furthermore, different approaches for their scheduling are presented: On the one hand, a branch-and-bound procedure for single yard block optimization which incorporates important aspects like crane interference, and on the other hand, an integrated scheduling approach which optimizes the equipment at terminal yard and waterside simultaneously, taking the interrelations with horizontal transport and quay cranes into account. Moreover, a combination of the two approaches is studied. Using a specifically designed simulation model, both the crane systems and the different scheduling approaches are extensively examined with respect to their performance and practical use, e.g. in case of disturbances. Standard priority rules (e.g. First-IN-First-OUT) serve as a benchmark here. It turns out that both approaches are advantageous compared to simple priority rules, and that the crane systems with overtaking possibility are well-adaptable, optimizable, flexible and productive. Moreover, it can be concluded that optimization aspects should already be taken into account in the terminal planning phase, in order to reach optimal productivity levels later on.
Ulf Speer, Kathrin Fischer

Chapter 19. Optimal Stack Layout Configurations at Automated Container Terminals Using Queuing Network Models

A well-designed stack layout is crucial for container terminals to maximize both the internal efficiency and the responsiveness to customers (such as vessels, trucks, and trains). One key performance indicator influencing both efficiency and responsiveness is the container seaside lead time for unloading a container from the vessel, transporting it to the stack area and storing it in a stack block, or vice versa, loading it in a vessel. The terminal performance depends not only on operational variables such as the location of the container in the stack, but also on design decisions, such as the type and the number of stacking cranes per stack, the type and number of internal transport vehicles, the layout of the stack (parallel or perpendicular to the quay), and the dimensions of the stack. In this chapter, we present an overview of analytical models that rely on queueing network theory, for analyzing stack layout decisions in automated container terminals and summarize the design and operational insights.
Debjit Roy, René de Koster

Planning Area: Terminal Landside and Hinterland Access


Chapter 20. Port Feeder Barges as a Means to Improve Intra-Port Container Logistics in Multi-Terminal Ports

The unique Port Feeder Barge (PFB) can be considered as a “green logistic innovation” for container ports. The self-propelled and self-sustained container pontoon of double-ended configuration (capacity: 168 TEU) can release the terminal gates from queuing trucks and the terminal ship-to-shore gantry cranes from inefficiently serving small inland barges. The PFB can be employed in three business fields: Shifting container haulage within ports from road to waterway, supporting feeder operation, and loading and discharging inland barges. The PFB can be easily integrated in the container logistics within a port. In congested ports or ports with limited water depth and/or insufficient container handling capability even deep-sea vessels can be directly served midstream by the PFB. Hence the PFB can also be used as an emergency response vessel to quickly lighter grounded container vessels. The green potential of the vessel can be further exploited by using LNG as fuel.
Ulrich Malchow

Chapter 21. Drayage Port: City Trucking

Ports close to cities or even embedded within a city increasingly suffer from truck traffic to and from the terminals. Especially container drayage causes high traffic peaks to serve ultra large container vessels. Citizens complain about traffic jams, hazardous emissions and noise, forcing politicians to think about restricting rules and regulations having an impact on port productivity. Sustainable mobility is not at all a new idea; however, applicable technologies to make heavy port traffic more environmentally friendly without losing efficiency are just emerging. Most of the solutions described here are either in their early phase of introduction or currently under consideration. This explains the fact that the topic is a very dynamic one and there is a lack of references to proven applications. As new technologies might finally show deficiencies once deployed and others, not yet considered, may come up, this chapter will certainly require frequent updating during the next few years.
Jens Froese

Chapter 22. Port and Dry Port Life Cycles

Aligning Systems Complexity
The aim of this chapter is to revisit in the context of more recent work in the field the work of Cullinane and Wilmsmeier (The contribution of the dry port concept to the extension of port life cycle. In: Böse JW (ed) Handbook of terminal planning. Springer, New York, pp 359–380, 2011) on the contribution of the dry port concept to the extension of the port life cycle. This extension relied on the use of vertically integrated corridors between the port and the dry port to move containers quickly and smoothly from the port to the hinterland for processing and stripping. This chapter brings another layer to this conceptualisation by adding the inland context, applying the intermodal terminal life cycle of Monios and Bergqvist (Intermodal freight terminals: a life cycle governance framework. Routledge, Abingdon, 2016), in order to discuss synchronicities between the port and inland terminal (or dry port) life cycle. Both seaport and dry port in the hinterland have their own institutional governance structures, national and local policy and planning regimes and internal investment strategies regarding infrastructure capacity limits, and these change over time according to the different life cycles. Yet the demand for improved quality of port–hinterland access to facilitate trade means that the two nodes must increasingly work together, which is already demonstrated in increasingly integrated ownership and operational models. However, for port–hinterland transport to function smoothly, it is essential to understand both potential synergies and conflicts between various stages of the port and dry port life cycles.
Gordon Wilmsmeier, Jason Monios

Chapter 23. Flashlight on Intermodal Transport Innovation in European Seaport Hinterland

The chapter describes the characteristics of European intermodal transport in seaport hinterland and pure inland relations (terminal-to-terminal). The market situation in these fields is assessed as well as existing problems of current intermodal services. Based on the apparent limitations of intermodal transport systems, the author describes the requirements of the market and possible factors for a more consumer-oriented intermodal service. The chapter closes with an innovative concept for a prime service as a means of increasing the competitiveness of intermodal hinterland transports in a sustainable way.
Thore Arendt

Chapter 24. Importance of Hinterland Transport Network Structures for Seaport Container Terminals: An Update

In recent decades, the intermodal container transport has emerged more and more as the basis for a globalized economy. This results in appropriate seaport container terminal requirements with terminals serving as transshipment nodes and as an important interface between different transport modes. However, the operational performance in such network nodes is only one fundamental aspect. Especially the capacities of inbound and outbound flows, i.e., the deep-sea and the hinterland transport, play an essential role, in particular because hinterland transport is a typical bottleneck. To solve these problems, different concepts are presented including a dislocation of the terminal structures as well as an increased involvement of rail freight transport. However, some crucial problems and questions should be investigated. Although after the economic crisis in 2009 the international container transport increased again, it is much lower than predicted in previous years. Furthermore, there are some uncertainties that need to be analyzed with regard to future developments.
Joachim R. Daduna, Robert Stahlbock


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