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Wind power is currently considered as the fastest growing energy resource in the world. Technological advances and government subsidies have contributed in the rapid rise of Wind power systems. The Handbook on Wind Power Systems provides an overview on several aspects of wind power systems and is divided into four sections: optimization problems in wind power generation, grid integration of wind power systems, modeling, control and maintenance of wind facilities and innovative wind energy generation. The chapters are contributed by experts working on different aspects of wind energy generation and conversion.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Optimization in Wind Power Generation

Frontmatter

Reliability Assessment Unit Commitment with Uncertain Wind Power

Abstract
This book chapter reports a study on the importance of modeling wind power uncertainty in the reliability assessment commitment procedure. The study compares, in terms of economic and reliability benefits, the deterministic and stochastic approaches to modeling wind power. The report describes the mathematical formulation of both approaches and gives numerical results on a 10-unit test system. It is found that scenario representation of wind power uncertainty in conjunction with a proper reserve margin to accommodate for wind power uncertainty may provide higher benefits to market participants.
Jianhui Wang, Jorge Valenzuela, Audun Botterud, Hrvoje Keko, Ricardo Bessa, Vladimiro Miranda

The Wind Farm Layout Optimization Problem

Abstract
An important phase of a wind farm design is solving the Wind Farm Layout Optimization Problem (WFLOP), which consists in optimally positioning the turbines within the wind farm so that the wake effects are minimized and therefore the expected power production maximized. Although this problem has been receiving increasing attention from the scientific community, the existing approaches do not completely respond to the needs of a wind farm developer, mainly because they do not address construction and logistical issues. This chapter describes the WFLOP, gives an overview on the existing work, and discusses the challenges that may be overcome by future research.
Michele Samorani

Risk Management Tools for Wind Power Trades: Weather Derivatives on Forecast Errors

Abstract
One of the most difficult issues for using wind power in practice is that the power output largely depends on the wind condition, and as a result, the future output may be volatile or uncertain. Therefore, the forecast of power output is considered important and is key to electric power generating industries making the wind power electricity market work properly. However, the use of forecasts may cause other problems due to “forecast errors”. The objective of this chapter is to summerize conventional tools to manage such risks in the wind power electricity market. In particular, we focus on possible insurance claims or the so-called weather derivatives, which are contracts written on weather indices whose values are constructed from weather data.
Yuji Yamada

Innovative Wind Energy Models and Prediction Methodologies

Abstract
Energy sources are among the major driving forces almost all the societal activities and its rather easiest way of extraction is from the fossil fuels, especially, coal and petroleum. However, their exploitations have direct and side effects on the most essential substances, air and water, because of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Recent climate change effects are all related to fossil fuel exploitation, and therefore, the trend in the world now is towards excessive use, if possible, of clean and hence environmentally friendly energy sources among which apart from other alternatives wind power is present day attraction. In open literature there are many classical wind power calculation methods. In this chapter innovative ones are explained with applications. Among these stochastic temporal, cumulative semivariogram spatial, statistical perturbation, and innovative wind energy formulation and its Betz limit comparisons are presented.
Zekâi Şen

Grid Integration of Wind Power Systems

Frontmatter

Integration of Wind Power Production in a Conventional Power Production System: Stochastic Models and Performance Measures

Abstract
A stochastic programming model for the daily coordination of hydro power plants and wind power plants with pumped storage is introduced, with hourly wind power production uncertainty represented by means of a scenario tree. Historical data of wind power production forecast error are assumed to be available, which are used for obtaining wind power production forecast error scenarios. These scenarios are then combined with information from the weather forecast, resulting in wind power production scenarios. Ex-ante and ex-post measures are considered for assessing the value of the stochastic model: the ex-ante performance evaluation is based on the Modified Value of Stochastic Solution for multistage stochastic programming, introduced independently in Escudero (TOP 15(1):48–66, 2007) and Vespucci (Ann Oper Res 193:91–105, 2012); the ex-post performance evaluation is defined in terms of the Value of Stochastic Planning, introduced in Schütz (Int J Prod Econ, 2009), that makes use of the realized values of the stochastic parameter. Both measures indicate the advantage of using the stochastic approach.
Maria Teresa Vespucci, Marida Bertocchi, Asgeir Tomasgard, Mario Innorta

Grid Integration of Wind Power Systems: Modeling of Wind Power Plants

Abstract
In the United States, wind power is expected to make up a significant portion of future generation portfolios. A scenario in which wind power will supply 20 % of U.S. peak demand by 2030 has been examined and found feasible [1]. A challenge facing power system planners and operators, in the near future, is the grid integration of large amounts of wind power. To determine the impacts of large wind power plants on system stability, reliable computer models are necessary. However, wind turbine models are not readily available in most dynamic simulation software. The diversity and manufacturer-specific nature of technologies used in commercial wind turbines exacerbates the modeling problem. A solution to this problem is to develop a generic, manufacturer-independent modeling framework that can be implemented in any software capable of simulating power system dynamics.
Mithun Vyas, Mohit Singh, Surya Santoso

Deterministic Approaches for the Steady-State Analysis of Distribution Systems with Wind Farms

Abstract
Wind farms have several impacts on the steady-state behavior of an electrical distribution system, and these impacts must be taken into consideration. This chapter dealt with deterministic approaches for the steady-state analysis of distribution systems with wind farms, considering both balanced and unbalanced systems. The steady-state analysis was performed by using appropriate algorithms to solve the load-flow non-linear equation system. Several models of wind farms are illustrated and included in the load-flow analysis, i.e., fixed-speed, semi-variable-speed and variable-speed wind generation systems were considered. Numerical applications on a 17-bus balanced system and an IEEE 34-bus unbalanced test distribution system are presented and discussed considering various wind farm models.
P. Caramia, G. Carpinelli, D. Proto, P. Varilone

Probabilistic Approaches for the Steady-State Analysis of Distribution Systems with Wind Farms

Abstract
This chapter deals with probabilistic approaches for the steady-state analysis (probabilistic load flow) of distribution systems with wind farms. The probabilistic analysis is performed taking into account the randomness of both the distribution system loads and the wind energy production. Several approaches are presented to obtain the probability functions of state and dependent variables (e.g., voltage amplitudes and line flows). These approaches are mainly concentrated on wind farm probabilistic models, using one of the classical probabilistic techniques (e.g., Monte Carlo simulation, convolution process, and special distribution functions) to perform the probabilistic load flow. Numerical applications on a 17-bus balanced test distribution system and on an IEEE 34-bus unbalanced test distribution system are presented and discussed, considering the various wind farm models.
A. Bracale, G. Carpinelli, A. R. Di Fazio, A. Russo

Advanced Control Functionalities for Grid Integration of Large Scale Wind Generation

Abstract
Many system operators have issued grid code requirements to ensure a reliable and secure operation of power systems with high integration levels of wind generation. Then, wind farms are required to behave as much as possible like conventional power plants equipped with synchronous generators, providing thus active and reactive power regulation and fault ride through capability. In addition, it is necessary to assure that problems of small signal stability do not arise. This chapter deals with advanced control functionalities to improve the performance of double fed induction generators, regarding frequency control and fault ride through capability, and with robust tuning of classical power system stabilizers installed in double fed induction generators to provide damping as an ancillary service. Since fault ride through is a matter of major concern for many system operators, the control functionalities of a static compensator based solution to provide fault ride through capability of wind farms equipped with fixed speed induction generator s are also addressed. The effectiveness of the above mentioned advanced control functionalities is demonstrated through numerical simulations.
Fernanda Resende, Rogério Almeida, Ângelo Mendonça, João Peças Lopes

Network Stability Under High Wind Power Penetration

Abstract
This chapter addresses Network stability issues associated with high wind power penetration in a power system. Nowadays several countries and regions all over the world, either already operate under high wind power penetration or they have concrete plans to increase it. Thus, their grids and operation strategies should cope reliable with this wind penetration level. Some of the main identified solutions that will help the power systems to overcome the current network stability constraints are presented.
Emmanuel S. Karapidakis, Antonios G. Tsikalakis

Power System Operation with Large Penetrations of Wind Power

Abstract
The characteristics of wind power result in unique challenges for system operators when integrating large penetrations of wind generation into power systems. This chapter discusses some of the power system operational challenges associated with large penetrations of wind generation, such as increased reserve requirements and the costs associated with increases in the variable operation of conventional generators. A number of power system optimization techniques with wind generation are discussed, namely the fuelsaver approach, deterministic optimization, rolling commitment and stochastic optimization. Also, a discussion of certain flexibility solutions which may reduce the system costs of increased wind penetration levels is provided.
Eleanor Denny

Operational Reserve Assessment Considering Wind Power Fluctuations in Power Systems

Abstract
Discussions on innovative criteria, operation strategies, and assessment tools are important insights when monitoring the security of supply considering renewable power sources for the years to come. In order to deal with the power fluctuations that come from wind uncertainties, this chapter explores a probabilistic methodology based on the chronological Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) to evaluate the long-term reserve requirements of generating systems considering wind energy sources. A new alternative to assess the power amount needs to adequately meet all assumed deviations is presented. Case studies with the IEEE-RTS 96 generating systems and some planning configurations of the Portuguese and Spanish generating systems are presented and discussed.
Mauro Rosa, Manuel Matos, Ricardo Ferreira, Armando Martins Leite da Silva, Warlley Sales

Modeling, Control and Maintenance of Wind Facilities

Frontmatter

A Review of Floating Wind Turbine Controllers

Abstract
A review of the most important contributions made towards designing and testing controllers for floating wind turbines is presented in this chapter. These controllers range in complexity, description detail, simulation results and testing styles, and floating platform structure. Furthermore, they have not yet been compared against each other quantitatively using the same simulation conditions. However, the attributes of each control approach documented in the literature are listed in this chapter. Several approaches that deal with the reduction of platform pitch damping are discussed such as the use of individual blade pitching and tuned mass dampers.
H. Namik, K. Stol

Modelling and Control of Wind Turbines

Abstract
This chapter provides a basic understanding of modelling of wind turbines, including both the mechanical and electrical systems, and control schemes that enable a suitable operation of the wind turbines. An overview of the most widely used wind turbine concepts is performed and their models for integration in large power system dynamic simulations are described. The wind turbine concepts studied are: fixed-speed squirrel cage induction generator (FS-SCIG), wound rotor induction generator (WRIG) with variable rotor resistance (VRR), doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), and direct drive synchronous generator (DDSG).
Luis M. Fernández, Carlos Andrés García, Francisco Jurado

Modelling and Control of Wind Parks

Abstract
Wind parks have experienced a great increase over the last years, from small wind parks with a few wind turbines connected to utility distribution systems, to large wind parks connected to transmission networks that may be considered, from the network system operators point of view, as a single wind power plant with operational capabilities similar to a conventional power plant. In this chapter, three main aspects concern to wind park grid integration are considered: the necessity of suitable wind park models for transient stability studies; the wind park control to fulfill system requirements and the application of special devices to enhance grid integration capabilities.
Carlos A. García, Luis M. Fernández, Francisco Jurado

Grid Support Capabilities of Wind Turbines

Abstract
Wind power has gained a significant penetration level in several power systems all over the world. Due to this reason modern wind turbines are requested to contribute to power system support. Power system operators have thus introduced grid codes, which specify a set of requirements for wind turbines, such as fault ride-through and reactive power supply during voltage sags. To date different wind turbine concepts exist on the market comprising different control features in order to provide ancillary services to the power system. In the first place the present chapter emphasizes the most important issues related to wind power grid integration. Then different wind turbine concepts are characterized and their grid support capabilities are analysed and compared. Simulation cases are presented in which the respective wind turbine concepts are subjected to a voltage dip specified in a grid code.
Gabriele Michalke, Anca Daniela Hansen

Coordination Between Wind Farms and Storage Devices, Technical and Economic Aspects

Abstract
The increased participation of the wind power production in the electric systems requires the analysis and adoption of new operational techniques. One of the alternatives most frequently cited in the literature is the coordination of wind farms with storage devices, with different purposes. The present chapter studies different approaches for this methodological option, presenting results from the recent literature. Also, this chapter presents an alternative for calculating the optimal operation of storage devices in coordination with wind generation. Finally, the interaction of wind farms with reserve markets is fully explained.
Edgardo D. Castronuovo, J. Usaola

Prototype of HOTT Generation System

Abstract
The innovative renewable energy conversion system called “Hybrid Offshore wind and Tidal Turbine (HOTT) Generation System” is proposed. “Offshore-wind and Tidal Turbine” hybrid and autonomous power system research will demonstrate the feasibility of using hybrid wind and tidal current power to provide reliable electrical energy, and to create a push toward the development of a sustainable commercial market for this technology. This chapter describes the control system for a small laboratory based hybrid power system that uses two types of power generation, offshore-wind and tidal turbines, connected on the DC side. HOTT generation system energy can have numerous benefits from both the environmental and socioeconomic perspectives. An unenclosed HOTT generation system can avoid many of the detrimental environmental effects, including CO2 emission, which is becoming a key issue, while providing significant amounts of distributed renewable energy.
Mohammad Lutfur Rahman, Shunsuke Oka, Yasuyuki Shirai

Wind Energy Facility Reliability and Maintenance

Abstract
The global wind power industry involves operations in highly stochastic environments and thus faces challenges in enhancing reliability and reducing maintenance costs. Earlier studies related to wind energy facility reliability and maintenance focused more on qualitative aspects, discussing the unique influencing factors in wind power operations and their effects on system performance. With operational experience accumulated for more than a decade, the most recent focus has shifted to a more structured approach using analytical and/or simulation methods. In this chapter, we provide a comprehensive account of the existing research regarding wind energy facility reliability and maintenance. We group the relevant studies into three major categories. The first category addresses the degradation and failure pattern of wind turbines, aiming at optimizing the operations and maintenance. The second and third categories discuss the reliability issues in a broader sense, focusing on reliability assessment at the wind farm level and at the overall power system level, respectively.
Eunshin Byon, Lewis Ntaimo, Chanan Singh, Yu Ding

Wind Turbine Power Performance and Application to Monitoring

Abstract
The concept of power performance is introduced as the ability of a wind turbine to extract power from the wind. The general performance estimates such as the power coefficient or the theoretical power curve are introduced in laminar conditions. Following Betz’ limit, an upper limit for the power available in the wind is derived, as well the main sources of energy loss. This laminar theory is too simple to describe operating wind turbines, and turbulent and atmospheric effects call for statistical tools. An IEC norm defines the international standard to measure and analyze power performance. The resulting IEC power curve gives a first estimation, and can be used to evaluate the annual energy production. An alternative is proposed with the Langevin power curve, which quantifies the high-frequency dynamics of a wind turbine power production to changing wind speeds. This brings further insight on the overall performance, and allows for applications such as performance monitoring or power modeling.
Patrick Milan, Matthias Wächter, Joachim Peinke

Innovative Wind Energy Generation

Frontmatter

Satellite Remote Sensing in Offshore Wind Energy

Abstract
Satellite remote sensing of ocean surface winds are presented with focus on wind energy applications. The history on operational and research-based satellite ocean wind mapping is briefly described for passive microwave, scatterometer and synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Currently 6 GW installed capacity is found in the European Seas. The European Wind Energy Association, EWEA, expects the cumulative offshore capacity in Europe will reach 150 GW in year 2030. The offshore environment is far less well-known than over land and this increases the challenge of planning, operation and maintenance offshore. Satellite-based ocean surface wind data can fill a gap in our understanding of marine winds, their temporal and spatial variations. The statistics from satellite-based ocean surface wind maps include wind resources, long-term trend analysis and daily variations in winds. Some examples using data from passive microwave radiometer, scatterometer and SAR are presented from the North Sea and Baltic Sea. These seas are home to the majority of offshore wind farms today and many new offshore wind farm projects are in progress here.
Charlotte Bay Hasager, Merete Badger, Poul Astrup, Ioanna Karagali

Optimization of AC Electric Power Systems of Offshore Wind Farms

Abstract
Onshore wind energy has experienced a rapid growth in recent years due mainly to the maturity achieved by its technology and the institutional support for renewable energy. Offshore wind energy also faces a very promising future as an extensive development of offshore wind farm (OWF) projects is planned in many regions of the world. The electric power system is a prominent part of an OWF since its design exceedingly affects the cost structure and operation of the entire facility. Thus the electric power system of an OWF must be optimized in order to minimize the life-cycle cost, while maintaining an adequate level of technical performance. The optimization of the electric power system of an OWF poses a complex mathematical problem since it requires considering jointly the key aspects that characterize its design: system component costs, system efficiency and system reliability. This problem may be addressed satisfactorily by using optimization models based on classical and metaheuristic optimization approaches.
Marcos Banzo, Andres Ramos

Low-Power Wind Energy Conversion Systems: Generation Configurations and Control Objectives

Abstract
This chapter focuses on the formulation and solving of the main control problems specific to low-power wind energy conversion systems (WECS) depending on their use either for grid-connected or for stand-alone application systems. This chapter approaches three classes of problems—namely, the low-power WECS specificity, operation of low-power WECS within grid-connected applications and use of low-power WECS as parts of stand-alone multi-source systems supplying isolated loads—with special focus on the associated control problems. A comprehensive synthesis of main results from the literature is aimed at, also giving the opportunity of presenting some results obtained by the authors.
Iulian Munteanu, Antoneta Iuliana Bratcu, Emil Ceangă

Small Wind Driven Devices for Environment Friendly Power Generation and Consumption

Abstract
The present chapter is written to highlight how the utilization of wind can be maximized for clean, pollution and hazard free power production and reduce consumption of electricity of households. The materials presented are built around the author’s experiences while working on environmental friendly wind driven devices at the University of New South Wales in Australia. The chapter broadly considers two themes. The first theme deals with the methodologies associated with the design of rotors for small horizontal axis wind turbines to operate in low to high gust wind conditions for direct electricity generation. These are discussed in Sect. 2 of this chapter. The second theme considers wind driven devices whose operation can minimize the electricity usage of a household. The device discussed is rotating wind turbines that are used in building ventilation and can reduce the electricity bill of a household significantly with minimum carbon footprint. These are presented in Sect. 3 of this chapter. In Sect. 4, the author outlines his vision of future possibilities and foresees incorporation of flow control technologies to enhance the performance of future wind turbines and roof top ventilators. Finally in Sect. 5, overall conclusions are made about harnessing wind power for a sustainable future and living.
N. A. Ahmed

Backmatter

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