Skip to main content
Top

2024 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

10. Heat Flux and Thermal Resistance

Authors : Haukur Ingason, Ying Zhen Li, Anders Lönnermark

Published in: Tunnel Fire Dynamics

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

Activate our intelligent search to find suitable subject content or patents.

search-config
loading …

Abstract

Heat flux is a major issue that must be considered for evacuation, fire spread and structure protection in tunnel fires. The three heat transfer mechanisms – convective, radiative and conductive heat transfer – are described with a focus on correlations related to tunnel fires. The Reynolds-Colburn analogy is introduced as a basis for the calculation of convective heat transfer. Characteristics of the absorbing, emitting and scattering gases are summarized, together with radiation between multiple surfaces. Analytical solutions for heat conduction into tunnel walls are summarized for different types of simplified boundary conditions. The overall heat transfer from flames and gases to the tunnel structure involves all three heat transfer mechanisms; their correlations are illustrated using an electrical circuit analogue. Simple models for calculating heat flux in small and large tunnel fires are presented with a focus on radiation. Correlations for incident heat flux are proposed and verified for small and large fires in tunnels, taking radiation from both flames and smoke into account. Different radiation models used for jet flames in an open environment are also discussed.

Dont have a licence yet? Then find out more about our products and how to get one now:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 102.000 Bücher
  • über 537 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 390 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe




 

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 340 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Versicherung + Risiko




Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Literature
1.
go back to reference Holman JP (1992) Heat transfer, 7th edn. McGraw-Hill, Singapore Holman JP (1992) Heat transfer, 7th edn. McGraw-Hill, Singapore
2.
go back to reference Lienhard JH IV, Lienhard V, John H (2012) A heat transfer textbook. Phlogiston Press Lienhard JH IV, Lienhard V, John H (2012) A heat transfer textbook. Phlogiston Press
3.
go back to reference Siegel R, Howell JR (1992) Thermal radiation heat transfer, 3rd edn. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation Siegel R, Howell JR (1992) Thermal radiation heat transfer, 3rd edn. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation
4.
go back to reference Wickström U (2004) Heat transfer by radiation and convection in fire testing. Fire Mater 28 Wickström U (2004) Heat transfer by radiation and convection in fire testing. Fire Mater 28
5.
go back to reference Tien CL, Lee KY, Stretton AJ (2002) Radiation heat transfer. In: DiNenno PJ (ed) SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering. National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, pp 1-73–71-89 Tien CL, Lee KY, Stretton AJ (2002) Radiation heat transfer. In: DiNenno PJ (ed) SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering. National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, pp 1-73–71-89
6.
go back to reference Lattimer BY (2002) Heat fluxes from fires to surfaces. In: DiNenno PJ (ed) SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering. National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, pp 2-269–262-296 Lattimer BY (2002) Heat fluxes from fires to surfaces. In: DiNenno PJ (ed) SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering. National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, pp 2-269–262-296
7.
go back to reference Petukhov BS (1970) Heat transfer and friction in turbulent pipe flow with variable physical properties. Adv Heat Tran 6:504–565 Petukhov BS (1970) Heat transfer and friction in turbulent pipe flow with variable physical properties. Adv Heat Tran 6:504–565
8.
go back to reference Bhatti MS, Shah RK (eds) (1987) Turbulent and transition convective heat transfer in ducts. Handbook of Single-phase Convective Heat Transfer. John Wiley, New York Bhatti MS, Shah RK (eds) (1987) Turbulent and transition convective heat transfer in ducts. Handbook of Single-phase Convective Heat Transfer. John Wiley, New York
9.
go back to reference Haaland SE (1983) Simple and explicit formulas for the friction factor in turbulent pipe flow. J Fluids Eng Trans ASME 105:89–90CrossRef Haaland SE (1983) Simple and explicit formulas for the friction factor in turbulent pipe flow. J Fluids Eng Trans ASME 105:89–90CrossRef
10.
go back to reference DiNenno PJ (2002) SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering. National Fire Protection Association, Quincy DiNenno PJ (2002) SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering. National Fire Protection Association, Quincy
11.
go back to reference Karlsson B, Quintier JG (2000) Enclosure fire dynamics. CRC Press, New York Karlsson B, Quintier JG (2000) Enclosure fire dynamics. CRC Press, New York
12.
go back to reference Wickström U (2016) Temperature calculation in fire safety engineering. Springer International Publishing, Cham. Wickström U (2016) Temperature calculation in fire safety engineering. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
13.
go back to reference Ingason H, Wickström U (2007) Measuring incident radiant heat flux using the plate thermometer. Fire Saf J 42(2):161–166CrossRef Ingason H, Wickström U (2007) Measuring incident radiant heat flux using the plate thermometer. Fire Saf J 42(2):161–166CrossRef
14.
go back to reference Andreas H, Johan S, Wickström U (2013) Using plate thermometer measurements to calculate incident heat radiation. J Fire Sci 31(2):166–177CrossRef Andreas H, Johan S, Wickström U (2013) Using plate thermometer measurements to calculate incident heat radiation. J Fire Sci 31(2):166–177CrossRef
15.
go back to reference Ingason H, Lönnermark A, Li YZ (2011) Runehamar Tunnel Fire Tests. SP Technicial Research Institute, SP Report 2011, p 55 Ingason H, Lönnermark A, Li YZ (2011) Runehamar Tunnel Fire Tests. SP Technicial Research Institute, SP Report 2011, p 55
16.
go back to reference Hamilton DC, Morgan WR (1952) Radiant-interchange configuration factors. NASA Hamilton DC, Morgan WR (1952) Radiant-interchange configuration factors. NASA
17.
go back to reference Chung BTF, Kermani MM (1989) Radiation view factors from a finite rectangular plate. J Heat Transf 111(4):1115–1117CrossRef Chung BTF, Kermani MM (1989) Radiation view factors from a finite rectangular plate. J Heat Transf 111(4):1115–1117CrossRef
18.
go back to reference Ingason H, Li YZ (2010) Model scale tunnel fire tests with longitudinal ventilation. Fire Saf J 45:371–384CrossRef Ingason H, Li YZ (2010) Model scale tunnel fire tests with longitudinal ventilation. Fire Saf J 45:371–384CrossRef
19.
go back to reference Ingason H, Li YZ (2011) Model scale tunnel fire tests with point extraction ventilation. J Fire Prot Eng 21(1):5–36CrossRef Ingason H, Li YZ (2011) Model scale tunnel fire tests with point extraction ventilation. J Fire Prot Eng 21(1):5–36CrossRef
20.
21.
go back to reference Sivathanu YR, Gore JP (1993) Total radiative heat loss in jet flames from single point radiative flux measurements. Combust Flame 94(3):265–270 Sivathanu YR, Gore JP (1993) Total radiative heat loss in jet flames from single point radiative flux measurements. Combust Flame 94(3):265–270
22.
go back to reference Hankinson G, Lowesmith BJ (2012) A consideration of methods of determining the radiative characteristics of jet fires. Combust Flame 159(3):1165–1177 Hankinson G, Lowesmith BJ (2012) A consideration of methods of determining the radiative characteristics of jet fires. Combust Flame 159(3):1165–1177
23.
go back to reference Molina A, Schefer RW, Houf WG (2007) Radiative fraction and optical thickness in large-scale hydrogen-jet fires. Proc Combust Inst 31(2):2565–2572 Molina A, Schefer RW, Houf WG (2007) Radiative fraction and optical thickness in large-scale hydrogen-jet fires. Proc Combust Inst 31(2):2565–2572
24.
go back to reference Studer E, Jamois D, Jallais S, Leroy G, Hebrard J, Blanchetière V (2009) Properties of large-scale methane/hydrogen jet fires. Int J Hydrog Energy 34(23):9611–9619 Studer E, Jamois D, Jallais S, Leroy G, Hebrard J, Blanchetière V (2009) Properties of large-scale methane/hydrogen jet fires. Int J Hydrog Energy 34(23):9611–9619
25.
go back to reference Li YZ (2019) Study of fire and explosion hazards of alternative fuel vehicles in tunnels. Fire Saf J 110:102871CrossRef Li YZ (2019) Study of fire and explosion hazards of alternative fuel vehicles in tunnels. Fire Saf J 110:102871CrossRef
26.
go back to reference Lowesmith BJ, Hankinson G, Acton MR, Chamberlain G (2007) An overview of the nature of hydrocarbon jet fire hazards in the oil and gas industry and a simplified approach to assessing the hazards, Process Safety and Environmental Protection 85 (3):207–220 Lowesmith BJ, Hankinson G, Acton MR, Chamberlain G (2007) An overview of the nature of hydrocarbon jet fire hazards in the oil and gas industry and a simplified approach to assessing the hazards, Process Safety and Environmental Protection 85 (3):207–220
Metadata
Title
Heat Flux and Thermal Resistance
Authors
Haukur Ingason
Ying Zhen Li
Anders Lönnermark
Copyright Year
2024
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-53923-7_10