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About this book

This book highlights the significance of using sustainable energy to prevent the deterioration of our planet using heat pumps. Energy sustainability can be achieved through improved energy efficiency. In this regard, heat pumps offer an energy-efficient alternative for heating and cooling. To drive the adoption of heat pumps as a key component of sustainable buildings, the authors focus on examining sustainable practices in heat pump operations and innovative system design.
In view of the growing desire to use sustainable energy to meet heating and cooling demands and improve indoor air quality, this book offers a valuable reference guide to the available options in HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning) system design. To begin with, the authors define sustainable energy and discuss the trend of “thinking green” in building design. They then discuss sustainable practices and heat pump applications in mapping out HVAC systems. In turn, they examine the use of green operations to promote sustainable practices and, in order to highlight the importance of innovative design, discuss the configuration options and precision control aspects. In closing, the authors illustrate innovative sustainable design on the basis of several energy-efficient cases.
The book’s main goal is to drive the adoption of sustainable energy solutions. Heat pumps, it argues, represent the most efficient system for meeting commercial/recreational/residential heating and cooling demands. The book not only examines industrial practices in heat pump application, but also discusses advanced heat pump technologies and innovative heat pump designs.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Principles of Heat Pump

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Think Green

Abstract
Both sustainable energy and renewable energy are important issues related to energy efficiency. While renewable energy originates from natural resources, sustainable energy can be achieved through improved energy efficiency. To care for our globe, it is desirable to use renewable sources to supply sustainable energy. Air is the most popular source of renewable energy. Based on the physical characteristics of energy transfer, heat pump uses renewable energy as energy source with power input to drive compressor to generate useful energy via refrigeration cycle. Utilizing the refrigeration cycle, heat pump absorbs energy from renewable source to provide heating/cooling for buildings. With increasing concern on environmental quality, the concept of green building (or called sustainable building) attracts attention from various perspectives. Green building is the practice of reducing the negative environmental impacts of buildings and enhancing the health and well-being of building occupants. Energy efficiency and renewable energy are core components of green building.
Y. H. Venus Lun, S. L. Dennis Tung

Chapter 2. Sustainable Energy

Abstract
There are many factors to study in designing sustainable heat pump systems. Among them, the loading calculation dictates the system’s equipment selection. Calculating the loading demand for equipment sizing and selecting high-performance system are important in the process to plan for sustainable energy system. When sizing a heat pump, it is essential to determine the required cooling and heating capacity. To begin, this chapter examines factors affecting the heating/cooling demand for indoor thermal comfort. Key variables of thermal comfort are also discussed. To further investigate energy efficiency, coefficient of performance (COP) is examined. There are several methods that exist in determining COP. Equations and methods to determine COP are investigated. Examples of COP calculation on water-to-water heat pump and air-to-water heat pump are illustrated. The findings indicate that the COP level varies with types of heat pumps.
Y. H. Venus Lun, S. L. Dennis Tung

Chapter 3. Sustainability in Heating and Cooling

Abstract
Heat pump systems become preferable for heating and cooling in buildings due to economic benefits resulting from high COP. The COP and energy efficiency are closely associated. This chapter begins with a discussion of sustainable energy development. In addition to energy efficiency, other key dimensions of building performance are also examined. Next, the four subsystems of HVAC, namely cool generation, heat generation, water transport, and air transport, are investigated. After examining options for cool generation and heat generation, heat pump systems to provide sustainable heating and cooling are discussed. The comparison between air source heat pump and water source heat pump is presented. Strategies to enhance energy efficiency of heat pump system are also discussed. To adopt the principle of 3R (i.e., reduce, reuse, and recycle), the use of recover heat in heat pump system for space heating and water heating is also examined.
Y. H. Venus Lun, S. L. Dennis Tung

Heating and Cooling

Frontmatter

Chapter 4. Air Handling Unit

Abstract
Air handling unit (AHU) is one of the most important equipments in HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning) system particularly in large-scale buildings for providing both heating and cooling for multiple zones. This chapter starts with a discussion on AHU and indoor air quality. AHU operations not only significantly impact supply air temperature and humidity levels, but also the energy consumed for heating, cooling, and ventilation. It is essential to implement measures to reduce energy consumption. Various operating modes and ventilation systems of AHU are also discussing. AHU dehumidification by using direct expansion (DX) coil and rotary desiccant dehumidifier is investigated. Furthermore, hybrid systems on integration of rotary desiccant dehumidification with AHU unit and primary handling unit are examined. To illustrate the design of AHU system, a case study on cold vault is presented.
Y. H. Venus Lun, S. L. Dennis Tung

Chapter 5. Total Energy Heat Pump

Abstract
Air source heat pump is one of the most popular heat pump systems. This chapter starts with the discussion of heat rejection and heat absorption operations of air source heat pump. Power consumption of key components of the heat pump is also examined. Then the operations of water-to-water heat pumps are discussed. Heat pumps are devices that operate in the vapor compression refrigeration system. Energy and exergy analysis are important in investigating vapor compression refrigeration system. With advanced technology, heat pump is capable to provide many functions. The basic functions of heat pump are heating and cooling. Water-to-water heat pump is capable to provide both hot water for heating and chilled water for cooling. However, the water-to-water heat pump is unable to apply to system that does not have a balance demand for heating and cooling. With recent heat pump technology, total energy heat pump is available to serve chilled water and hot water plant and is capable to produce chilled water and hot water to meet fluctuating cooling and heating demand. A case study on hotel is employed to illustrate the application of total energy heat pump.
Y. H. Venus Lun, S. L. Dennis Tung

Chapter 6. Innovation in Heat and Cooling

Abstract
This chapter aims to examine the design of innovative heat pump for indoor air quality, thermal comfort, energy saving, and environmental protection. To begin, the heat pump as primary air handling with precision constant temperature and humidity control is presented. The heat pump PAU unit is an innovative product aims at efficiency improvement. Then, heat pump with DX heat recovery system is discussed. The heat recovery system not only reuses waste heat to contribute to remove undesired by-product of the cooling and heating system, but also improves the overall system efficiency. The air-to-air heat exchanger as energy recovery is also discussed. The benefit of using air-to-air heat exchanger is that hot or cold air can be transported through a cross-sectional area with no additional power input to the system except for the fan power to drive the air streams. The use of air-to-air heat exchanger for cooling and heating is the most energy efficiency. To extend the application of air-to-air heat exchange, the multiple-stage heat pump with air-to-air heat exchanger is examined. Furthermore, a case study of air-to-air heat exchanger is present to better understand the application of energy recover system.
Y. H. Venus Lun, S. L. Dennis Tung

Green Operations

Frontmatter

Chapter 7. Operating Mode

Abstract
This chapter aims to discuss the modes of operations of heat pumps. Newly designed multiple functions heat pump is employed to describe various operating modes. The operating modes of the heat pump include dehumidification, ventilation, space cooling and heating, and water heating. Benefits of using this innovative heat pump include: (1) comprehensive functions to provide indoor comfort climate, (2) remote condenser for both heat rejection and heat absorption, (3) integrate air source heat pump with air handling unit, (4) energy saving to use aerothermal for space heating and water heating, and (5) build-in control system to maximize indoor air comfort and minimize energy consumption. A case study on energy simulation is also presented to illustrate the load calculation of an envelope.
Y. H. Venus Lun, S. L. Dennis Tung

Chapter 8. Reverse Cycle

Abstract
This chapter aims to examine the innovative development of multiple functions of heat pump with reverse cycle operations. The operating modes of the multiple functions heat pump include dehumidification, ventilation, space cooling and heating, and water heating. Benefits of using this innovative heat pump include: (1) comprehensive functions to provide indoor comfort climate, (2) remote condenser for both heat rejection and heat absorption, (3) integrate air source heat pump with air handling unit, (4) energy saving to use aerothermal for space heating and water heating, and (5) built-in control system. The development of heat pump system is examined. A case study on indoor swimming pool is also presented.
Y. H. Venus Lun, S. L. Dennis Tung

Chapter 9. Heat Pump Configuration

Abstract
Heat pump system is efficient to generate cooling and heating with various applications. This chapter starts with the discussion on heat pump system development on operating efficiency and system integration. The topics cover multistage operations, compressor, and refrigerant development. Various heat pump configuration options are presented. Options include hybrid system, heat recovery system, and reverse cycle system. The discussion is then extended to heat pump control systems with sensor to monitor and control indoor air quality to maximum comfort climate and minimize energy consumption. A case study to examine cooling tower is also presented.
Y. H. Venus Lun, S. L. Dennis Tung
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