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About this book

Die inhaltlichen Schwerpunkte des Tagungsbands zur ATZlive-Veranstaltung Heavy-Duty-, On- und Off-Highway-Motoren 2016 liegen unter anderem auf neuen Motoren und Komponenten für Nutzfahrzeuge, Off-Highway sowie Marine und Stationäranlagen, der Schadstoffreduzierung, der Einspritzung sowie Lösungen zur Motor- und Systemoptimierung. Die Berichte der Konferenz zeigen aktuelle und künftige Entwicklungen bei schweren Diesel- und Gasmotoren für verschiedene Anwendungen auf. Die Konferenz ist eine unverzichtbare Plattform für den internationalen Erfahrungsaustausch der Großmotoren-Experten. Die Steigerung der Effizienz bei gleichzeitiger Reduzierung der Schadstoffe und des Kraftstoffes sind weiterhin wichtige Zielsetzungen bei der Entwicklung neuer Motoren. Hierfür benötigt man einerseits neue, innovative Konzepte und Lösungen, andererseits muss aber auch das Zusammenspiel bestehender einzelner Systeme und Komponenten genau analysiert werden.

Table of Contents


The new MAN D26 marine engine for yachts and workboats

With the new D26 marine engine MAN has developed a compact and fuel-efficient engine series with extraordinary power-to-weight ratio. It is optimized for light duty applications in yachts as well as medium and heavy duty applications in workboats on the basis of the D26 truck engine that has proven its worth over many years. The engine series does not only fulfil the latest emission standards but is also prepared for future emission legislations.
Stefan Löser, Bernd Huneke, Johannes Kleesattel, Martin Zundel

Development of a new generation of GE’s Jenbacher type 6 gas engines

Modern gas engines for power generation are a key part of today’s world-wide decentralized energy supply and they are expected to play an even more significant role in future. GE’s engine versions operate at high power densities, high efficiencies and low emission levels – and always with a high degree of availability.
GE’s Jenbacher Type 6 gas engines cover the 1.5 to 4.5 MW power range and are efficient, flexible and reliable with high power density. Since 1989 more than 4200 gensets have been delivered to customers all over the world. More than 40 different versions are available to provide an optimal solution for every application.
To further strengthen the Type 6 platform position, GE’s Jenbacher gas engine product line has been continuously working on product improvements. The recent development efforts result in the introduction of a new engine generation, both for single-stage turbocharging and two-stage turbocharging variants. Improving various engine components like cylinder head, valve train, cam shaft, power unit and combustion chamber enables noticeable improvements in performance, reliability and product flexibility. A dedicated version management results in tailor-made engine versions for various market segments. As an example, the new version J624 K09 provides an electrical efficiency of 47.0 % at 24.5 bar BMEP. In summary, a very comprehensive Type 6 gas engine product portfolio can be offered for various applications around the world.
Jürgen Lang, Peter Schäffert, Robert Böwing, Sandro Rivellini, Fabrizio Nota, Johann Klausner

Lean-burn direct injection natural gas engine control for transient applications

It is a continuous objective of the transport industry to reduce harmful tailpipe emissions while keeping the total cost of ownership low. A broad range of technologies have been examined throughout the years by Ricardo and/or partners to meet the above objective. Each of the examined technologies have a variety of technical challenges, advantages and disadvantages.
Panagiotis Katranitsas, Andrew Auld, Adam Gurr, Anthony Truscott

Prediction of burn rate, knocking and cycle-to-cycle variations of methane / hydrogen mixtures in stoichiometric and lean engine operation conditions

Legal CO2 emitting requirements and an increasing worldwide need for energy demand a diversification on the fuel market, especially in terms of automobile applications. When it comes to reaching the emission targets, natural and bio gases (CNG, Compressed Natural Gas, respectively BNG, Bio Natural Gas) as well as synthetic methane based fuels (SNG, Synthetic Natural Gas) can play an important role in passenger and freight transportation. The advantages compared to conventional fossil fuels are well known: CO2 savings of approximately 20% compared to gasoline can be realized just by the favorable H-to-C-ratio of methane.
S. Hann, L. Urban, Michael Grill, M. Bargende

Analysis of the influence of different common rail injector concepts on injection and mixture formation in a high-pressure / high-temperature spray chamber and a single cylinder research engine

New emission limits demand the continuous research and optimization of inner engine processes. The injection and mixture formation is a significant factor for the diesel combustion and the formation of emissions and as such it is the object of ongoing study. In order to evaluate possible engine strategies for fulfilling current and upcoming emission limits in marine, locomotive, construction and genset applications, three injectors were thoroughly tested on a 125 kW single cylinder engine and a high-pressure high-temperature injection chamber.
Martin Drescher, Fabian Pinkert, Bert Buchholz

Enabling Stage III B engines (< 56 kW) for Stage V by SMF®-AR

The growing demand for energy, with consumption being generated primarily through the combustion of fossil fuels, means atmospheric pollution is one of the most serious challenges the world faces today. The quality of the air we breathe is influenced by many different variables. Along with the emissions produced by industry, domestic households and power stations, the pollutants from road traffic are of major significance in this respect.
Dominik Lamotte, Klaus Schrewe, Thomas Gornik

PM reduction over vanadium SCR

Emission limits and legislative boundaries at the On-Road and Off-Road applications are steadily tightened. Beside Europe and the USA even at the BRICS states (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) a stricter legislation is visible.
The limits of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) are strictly lowered. Optimization of engine parameters like EGR and injection technology is not sufficient. Adapted exhaust gas aftertreatment (EGA) systems have to be used to reach the targets. A combination of different catalyst systems is suitable.
Recent EU VI systems use particle filters, Diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) as well as lean NOx trap catalysts or SCR systems. For emerging markets, the combination of increased mobility requirements and the need of cheap and resilient exhaust gas aftertreatment systems lead to SCR-only systems based on vanadium (V-SCR). Beside the positive effect of low costs, vanadium SCR systems show a positive particulate emission reducing effect under different circumstances. The observed values for PM and hydrocarbons present significant reductions, but this property has not yet been adequately studied and understood. CO2 is the favored outcome after oxidation, but also CO and byproducts of partial oxidation can been found.
It was shown that especially smaller particles are preferably reduced by the oxidation at the V-SCR. This is advantageous because studies arise that small particles seem to be more harmful to human health. A high efficiency application of the engine shows the best results of the oxidation effect and furthermore low tailpipe emissions of TPM, NOx and CO2, which leads to an additional benefit for a possible series application.
Alexander Feiling, Christian Beidl

Analysis of field-aged and artificially aged SCR catalysts for model development

Regarding the entire drive train using a combustion engine today is close-coupled to an exhaust gas aftertreatment (EAT) system. Only by using an efficient EAT concept it is possible to attain highest conversion rates and fulfill the emission limits. In doing so it is not only necessary to match the limits for type approval and initial operation but also to guarantee compliance over the engines life time cycle.
Robert Bank, Uwe Etzien, Bert Buchholz, Georg Töpfer, Adrian Troeger, Horst Harndorf

Applying CAE technology to the medium-speed four-stroke engine development methodology at Niigata

In recent years, applying Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) technologies have become common in the engine development. Especially in recent engine development, it is necessary to utilize these technologies for achieving sophisticated design owing to meet enhanced environmental regulation and keen competition at the market. Niigata Power Systems has been developed and provides light-weight and compact modern reciprocating engine based on applying CAE technologies for whole engine development term.
Toshiyuki Saito, Satoru Goto

New MAHLE steel piston and pin coating system for reduced TCO of CV engines

Total cost of ownership is requiring further improvements to piston friction reduction as well as additional gains in thermal efficiency. A piston compression height reduction in combination with carbon based piston pin coatings is enabling advancements in both demands. MAHLE implemented a new innovative metal joining technology by using laser welding to generate a cooling gallery. The MonoLite concept offers design flexibility which cannot be matched by any other welding process. Especially an optimum design and position of the cooling gallery as well as durability for very high peak cylinder pressures can be matched. This is particularly advantageous for complex combustion bowl geometries that are needed in modern diesel engines to meet fuel economy and emission requirements. The MonoLite steel piston technology offers a superior compression height reduction potential compared to typical friction welded designs. Using this benefit to reduce side forces by a longer connecting rod, the full friction reduction potential is achieved by a combination with a new low friction carbon based coating on the piston pin. The new coating shows best-in-class performance in terms of friction and high temperature resistance compared to currently available pin coatings. The shorter compression height also results in reduced oscillating masses. This can be used for further weight reduction in the whole drivetrain, which allows the implementation of further systems for better fuel efficiency, e.g. waste heat recovery, without reducing payload.
Marco Maurizi, Daniel Hrdina

New ABB turbocharger series for large high-speed diesel engines

Large high-speed diesel engines are among the most versatile workhorses of industry. Used in various application segments such as power generation, marine, mining and railway, high speed diesel engines are often the prime mover of choice due to their high power density, good efficiency and proven reliability.
Michael Gisiger, Tobias Gwehenberger

Aspects of the development and application of ported fuel injection valves in large engines

During the last decades, gas engines have gained additional share on the global industrial engine market. Global emission legislatives have been changing over recent decades, low prices for natural gas have additionally increased the market interest. As the demand for efficient and robust engine solutions is increasing, gas engines have become increasingly important to provide reliable solutions for decentral power supply.
Peter Christiner, Markus Schmitzberger, Claudia Gasselsdorfer, Christoph Kammerer, Michael Köhler

Potential for CO2 reduction on a heavy-duty diesel engine for on-road applications: experimental investigations

Since the launch of the Euro VI applications for our Cursor engines, FPT has embarked on an on-going program to further improve the brake thermal efficiency of the base engine. Efforts have focussed on all engine sub-systems, targeting improvements in mechanical, combustion and gas exchange efficiencies. Parallel activities addressing recovery of waste-heat via Rankine cycle and turbocompound were also done, but are beyond the scope of this paper.
Jonathan Borg, Wolfgang Gstrein, Harald Fessler, Philippe Zimmermann

Optimization of oil mist separation within the complete crankcase ventilation system

Figure 1 is showing the gravimetric measurement system Topas GMS 141. The system is used to measure the condensate and oil concentration (oil carryover) in the full blow by stream of combustion engines. The quantity of the fluid blow by fraction is measured by the determination of the mass of a filter paper. The oil emission is determined in a steady state condition of the engine.
Stefan Ruppel, Daniel Schatz, Michael Wöhler, Alfred Elsäßer

A catalytic evaporation process for in-cylinder soot and NOx reduction in internal combustion engines

In this work, a novel catalytic evaporator was tested in a single-cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel engine in order to achieve low NOx and soot emissions as well as to control the combustion phase for homogeneous Low-Temperature Combustion (LTC). Conventionally, two fuels with different ignition properties are used to control the combustion phasing, however in this study only diesel is used. As a consequence of our presented approach, the ignition properties of the fuel vapour can be adjusted by changing the operating parameters of the catalytic evaporator.
Robert Szolak, Ivica Kraljevic, Florian Rümmele, Alexander Susdorf, Eric Alexander Morales Wiemer, Achim Schaadt, Jan Boekelmann

Investigation of a ‘SCR-free’ system to meet the Stage IV and beyond emissions limits

In the emission power band above 55kW Kohler Engines have developed the KDI 3.4 litre engine to meet the Stage IV exhaust emissions limits using the Ricardo TVCS low soot combustion system plus DOC and SCR aftertreatment system, without DPF. For Stage IV, currently the 3.4 litre engine uses 2000 bar Denso Common Rail system with moderate EGR rates and requires a reduction in NOx emissions of around 90% over the SCR system.
Paolo Gatti, Simon Fagg, Richard Cornwell, Federico Millo, Giulio Boccardo, Daniele Porcu, Stefano Manelli, Christian Capiluppi, Andrea Marinoni

Developing a 55+ BTE Commercial Heavy-Duty Opposed-Piston Engine Without a Waste Heat Recovery System

Heavy-duty vehicles, currently the second largest source of fuel consumption and carbon emissions are projected to be fastest growing mode in transportation sector in future. There is a clear need to increase fuel efficiency and lower emissions for these engines. The Achates Power Opposed-Piston Engine has the potential to address this growing need. In this paper, results are presented for a 9.8L three-cylinder OP Engine that shows the potential of achieving 55% brake thermal efficiency (BTE), while simultaneously satisfying emission targets for tail pipe emissions. The Achates Power OP Engines are inherently 20% more cost effective. The OP Engine architecture can meet this performance without the use of waste heat recovery systems or turbo-compounding and hence is the most cost effective technology to deliver this level of fuel efficiency.
The Achates Power OP Engine employs currently available engine components, such as supercharger, turbocharger and after-treatment and features a uniquely designed piston bowl shape to enhance mixing with a swirl-to-tumble conversion as the piston bowls approach minimum volume. This design improves fuel-air mixing and hence, results in low soot values, higher indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) due to better combustion phasing because of faster mixing controlled combustion and lower NOx due to lower fueling requirement because of two-stroke and more efficient combustion system. The OP Engine has a lower heat transfer loss due to the inherent design of the combustion chamber, which provides lower surface area-to-volume ratio compared to a conventional engine. This results in further benefits of reduction in fuel consumption and green house gases (GHGs).
The Achates Power OP Engine also makes use of internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) by using an optimized design of intake and exhaust ports that improves scavenging. This reduces engine-out NOx along with lower requirement of flowing external EGR and hence reduction in pumping requirement. 1-D and 3-D-CFD models developed for the analysis were correlated to the Achates Power 4.9L OP Engine dynamometer measured data. The correlated models were used as tools to make predictions for the 9.8L heavy-duty engine. The optimized system include high trapped compression ratio piston bowl, ports design to provide best scavenging performance, thermal barrier coating on piston bowls and dual injector with having an optimized spray pattern layout. Results show that the OP Engine results in a BTE of 55%, while meeting stringent emission standards without the use of expensive waste heat recovery systems and/or turbo-compounding components. The Achates Power OP Engine offers a solution to the automotive industry in providing a commercially viable, highly efficient and clean heavy-duty diesel engine that will reduce GHGs and carbon footprint for heavy-duty vehicles such as Class 8 trucks.
Neerav Abani, Michael Chiang, Isaac Thomas, Nishit Nagar, Rodrigo Zermeno, Gerhard Regner


Mobile, stationäre und maritime Anwendungen haben global betrachtet eines gemeinsam: Sie benötigen leistungsstarke Großmotoren. Die Industrie arbeitet daher mit Hochdruck an neuen Lösungen für den weltweiten Einsatz. Um möglichst wenige Motorenvarianten hierfür zu benötigen, müssen von Entwicklungsbeginn an die teilweise widersprüchlichen Anforderungen berücksichtigt werden.
Andreas Fuchs
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