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23-11-2020 | Original Article

Hierarchical extreme learning machine with L21-norm loss and regularization

Journal:
International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics
Authors:
Rui Li, Xiaodan Wang, Yafei Song, Lei Lei
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Abstract

Recently, multilayer extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithms have been extensively studied for hierarchical abstract representation learning in the ELM community. In this paper, we investigate the specific combination of \(L_{21}\)-norm based loss function and regularization to improve the robustness and the sparsity of multilayer ELM. As we all known, the mean square error (MSE) cost function (or squared \(L_{2}\)-norm cost function) is commonly used as optimization cost function for ELM, but it is sensitive to outliers and impulsive noises that are pervasive in real-world data. Our \(L_{21}\)-norm loss function can lessen the harmful influence caused by noises and outliers and enhance robustness and stability of the learned model. Additionally, the row sparse inducing \(L_{21}\)-norm regularization can learn the most-relevant sparse representation and reduce the intrinsic complexity of the learning model. We propose a specific combination of \(L_{21}\)-norm loss function and regularization ELM auto-encoder (LR21-ELM-AE), and then stack LR21-ELM-AE hierarchically to construct the hierarchical extreme learning machine (H-LR21-ELM). Experiments conducted on several well-known benchmark datasets are presented, the results show that the proposed H-LR21-ELM can generate a more robust, more discriminative and sparser model compared with the other state-of-the-art multilayer ELM algorithms.

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