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About this book

This book acts as a compilation of papers presented in the Human Engineering Symposium (HUMENS 2021). The symposium theme, “Human-centered Technology for A Better Tomorrow,” covers the following research topics: ergonomics, biomechanics, sports technology, medical device and instrumentation, artificial intelligence / machine learning, industrial design, rehabilitation, additive manufacturing, modelling and bio-simulation, and signal processing. Fifty-nine articles published in this book are divided into four parts, namely Part 1—Artificial Intelligence and Biosimulation, Part 2—Biomechanics, Safety and Sports, Part 3—Design and Instrumentation, and Part 4—Ergonomics.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Artificial Intelligence and Biosimulation

Frontmatter

Heart Rate Variability (HRV) as a Physiological Marker of Stress Among Electronics Assembly Line Workers

The increase in the prevalence of workplace stress is closely related to adverse effects, such as reduced organizational performance, damage to overall employee performance, high employee turnover, and absences due to health problems. On the other hand, the stress response can be expressed by a change in a physiological index, that is, heart rate variability (HRV). Therefore, the main purpose of this article is to assess the impact of workplace stress on HRV, and how HRV is assessed compared to stress self-reports. Participants are 36 assembly line workers, divided into high and low DASS scores. The name with the highest DASS score is the treatment group, consisting of 18 workers who admitted to experiencing extremely high levels of self-reported depression, anxiety, and stress (DASS) measures. Among 301 participants with normal to moderate DASS scores, 18 were randomly selected as the control group. Both groups participated in the HRV measurement meeting using EmWavePro computer system equipment. The results showed that compared with the control group (1.28), it was more difficult for the participants in the treatment group to achieve a high coherence rate (0.69). A follow-up analysis using Mann-Whitney statistics showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups (p < 0.001). These findings indicate that the use of DASS for self-reported stress assessment is parallel to HRV measurement, indicating that participants have a comprehensive understanding of the psychological and physical conditions. Further research using HRV biofeedback mechanisms to improve HRV continuity may help reduce negative emotional symptoms among high-stress operators.

Kamarulzaman Mahmad Khairai, Muhammad Nubli Abdul Wahab, Auditya Purwandini Sutarto

Dynamic Propagation Area to Simulate Soft Tissue Deformations Using Mass Spring Method

Modeling soft tissues during deformation is a real challenge in the development of a surgical simulation. Modeling techniques must be able to model deformations accurately in real-time interactions. Mass Spring Method (MSM) is one of the well-used modeling techniques. Most MSM models were developed via force propagation, where the definition of the propagation area is crucial for realism and optimum computational efficiency. In this paper, a new technique for establishing the area of propagation is proposed in which the area of propagation is determined by identifying a distance from contact point where minimum displacement occurs. The distance is calculated using the Bossiness equation, which considers the material properties and the magnitude of the subject load. Implementation of the proposed method and validation with Finite Element Method (FEM) assessments show that the proposed method provides better rationale for the area of propagation and optimized computational efficiency.

Mohd Nadzeri Omar, Muhammad Hilmi Jalil

EMG Signal Segmentation to Predict Driver’s Vigilance State

Road accidents are the serious matter and need to be taken care of by certain parties. Some causes of road accidents are due to the poor driver vigilance when most drivers show signs of fatigue and loss of vigilance during long and monotonous driving. Muscle fatigue develops due to changes in the efficiency of the nervous system that can be seen in the declining the performance. This study will present a brief explanation of different methods for processing and classifying the electromyogram (EMG) signal to estimate driver’s muscle fatigue. The signal was obtained by pairing the electrode to the bicep brachii for two hours. Before that, the subject will answer a set of questionnaires and the score will be calculated to determine whether the driver in non-fatigue or fatigue condition. Signals were filtered and undergone feature extraction method. Then, the extracted features were undergoing feature selection method. Finally, to evaluate the performance measure of the feature selection method and classify the driver’s condition, ANN was applied. From the results obtained, ANN performance using features that undergo feature selection method produce a better classification accuracy compared to the ANN performance without feature selection method. Apart from that, EMG Signal Segmentation (ESS) methods were applied. The filtered signals were partitioned into few segments in segmentation process. The two hours signals were split into 60 and 30 min long segments for the first methodology and second methodology respectively. From each segment, the features were analysed to contemplate the progressions of the features and based on result, the change of features shows that every subject yields different result because the different person has different muscle condition. As a conclusion, relevant parameters that useful for the development of human safety by assessing muscle fatigue during the driving task were found.

N. A. Ab. Rahman, M. Mustafa, N. Sulaiman, R. Samad, N. R. H. Abdullah

Prediction of Blood Glucose Level Based on Lipid Profile and Blood Pressure Using Multiple Linear Regression Model

Diabetes mellitus refers to a metabolic disorder that occurs due to insulin resistance and/or inability to produce enough insulin from islet β–cells in pancreas leads to increasing levels of blood glucose. Due to perturbation towards current diabetes screening and diagnosis procedures that require fasting, oral glucose consumption and involve invasive and finger-pricks, numbers of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus kept increasing due to hesitation of these people to take screening tests as their routine check-up. Since diabetes mellitus is closely related to blood glucose level, a multiple linear regression model for predicting the blood glucose level gives the impression as one of the alternatives. Thus, this study proposed a multiple linear regression equation for predicting the fasting blood glucose level based on independent parameters of lipid profile and blood pressure as high blood cholesterol and high blood pressure are known as risk factors for diabetes. There are 302 data collected from UMP’s retrospective data via data directory from University Health Centre in 2017 to 2018. This study shows that the adjusted R2 of 46.8% for multiple linear regression model of fasting blood glucose level was obtained to predict the possibility of pre-screening diabetes without fasting procedures. This model equation was solely based on high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and systolic blood pressure levels with the prediction made by the model are acceptable with moderate accuracy (MAPE = 9.46%). In order to increase the accuracy of the model, future research should consider a bigger and wider cohort from different comorbidities background which can be an alternative method in screening diabetes mellitus.

Q. ’A. A. Ahmad Fazil, Ummu Kulthum Jamaludin

Study on the Enhancement of Malaysian ICU Centre and Introduction of STAR Performance

Stress-induced hyperglycaemia commonly occurred in the ICU. It is known that the majority of the ICU centre in Malaysia is using intensive insulin therapy (IIT) protocol in order to control glucose level in critically ill patient blood within the targeted level to achieve required safety goals. However, alterations to the current practice needed to be considered to minimize the risk of hypoglycaemia and mortality while reducing the case of hyperglycaemia event. Therefore, the objective of this research paper is to weigh and evaluate the performance of a modern practice known as Stochastic Targeted (STAR) Protocol in managing blood glucose (BG) levels in Malaysia ICU cohort and to compare its performance between the three participating hospitals (HTAA, HUSM and PPUM) via MATLAB simulations. STAR is a tablet-computer based protocols that provide patient-specific glucose control framework accounting for patient variability with a stochastically derived maximum 5% risk of hypoglycaemia events. The in-silico trials were simulated with controlled goal feed (GF) and without GF. Only one type of nutrition is considered in this study, which is Glucerna. The results show that all three ICU centre with STAR simulation have a tight glycemic control with HTAA (83.6%), HUSM (76.8%) and PPUM (80.6%) in terms of BG within the targeted band of 4.0–10.0 mmol/L. Also, the median BG measurement level and insulin secretion shows decrease in percentage for all ICU cohort, HTAA (12.3%; 30.2%), HUSM (21.6%; 9.9%) and PPUM (17.9%; 13.3%). The insulin sensitivity (SI) of STAR simulations have a significant increase when compared with IIT protocol, HTAA (26.1%), HUSM (33.3%) and PPUM (50%). The Kruskal-Wallis test was utilized to test the BG, SI and insulin secretion median. There are significant differences between IIT protocol and STAR simulations among the three cohorts ICU centre with p-value < 0.05.

Che Zafirah Rosly, Ummu Kulthum Jamaludin, Khalijah Khalid, Fatanah Suhaimi, Normy Norfiza Abdul Razak, Mohd Basri Mat Nor, Azrina Md Ralib

Modeling of Soft Tissue Deformation Using Mass Spring Method with Nonlinear Volume Force

Soft tissues displayed two phases of deformation, linear behavior during small deformation and nonlinear behavior during large deformation. Mass Spring Method (MSM) is one of the preferred methods for simulating soft tissue deformations. MSM-based models provide simpler calculations that allow real-time interaction. However, only a small number of MSM models are capable of simulating two phases of soft tissue deformation. This study introduces a new approach to modeling the deformation. The conventional MSM model, which is governed by Hooke’s law, is coupled with the nonlinear volume force defined using the conical spring methodology. The nonlinear volume force is triggered by a change in volume in the structure of the MSM model. With the implementation, at small deformation where volume change is also small, only the Hooke’s law equation is activated resulting in linear deformation. Whereas, during large deformation, nonlinear deformation occurs as a result of a large change in the MSM volume. Analyzes conducted show that the proposed model can simulate the two phases of deformation. The proposed model can also control each phase independently, which shows that it has a high degree of flexibility on modeling various of soft tissue deformation.

Mohd Nadzeri Omar, Nasrul Hadi Johari, Mohd Hasnun Arif Hassan, Mohd Amzar Azizan

Chaotic Map Initializations with Tiki-Taka Algorithm for Software Remodularization Problem

Software system is often a dynamic entity. During its lifecycle, software system often evolves to reflect the bug fixes and upgrades as well as the addition/removal of features from its users. As the evolution process takes place, the modularization becomes complex and gradually loose its quality. Addressing this issue, this paper evaluates the performance of automated software remodularization using the newly developed Tiki-Taka Algorithm (TTA) and its variants with four chaotic map initializations based on Chebyshev map, Circle map, Logistic Map and Piecewise Map. Remodularization results of 3 selected case studies (i.e., Printer Manager, IOT controller, and Layer Monitor) demonstrate that TTA with Chebyshev map gives the best overall performance over other initializations including the pseudo-random initialization within the original TTA.

Kamal Z. Zamli, Md. Abdul Kader

Development of Real-Time Emotion Recognition System Based on Machine Learning Algorithm

Human behavior and emotion are two important elements that correlate with each other. Data from road safety research showed that driving impairment caused by unstable emotion may lead to road accidents and cause injury. This research aims to investigate the driver’s emotion while driving and relates with the driving comfort and safety. Therefore, a device called Emotion Recognition Action Savvy (ERAS) has been invented. By measuring the eyes aspect ratio and developing the algorithm for face recognition, this smart device can detect human emotion while driving. The system is connected to the car Global Positioning System (GPS) and detects the face for every 20-min. The system also provides a connection to interactive mediums such as music apps and navigation. A front camera is installed at the driver seat to monitor the face changes and provide variable suggestion solutions on a screen. Drivers are free to choose the solutions based on their emotion at that particular time. The smart system aims to improve the interaction between cars and humans, reduce accidents risk to emotion driving, save lives and enhance road safety.

Mohd Amzar Azizan, Muhammad Ismail Al Fatih, Alya Nabila, Nurhakimah Norhashim, Mohd Nadzeri Omar

Development of Sign Language Translator for Speech Impairment Person

Although many assistive technologies have been developed to help disabled people, however, in Malaysia the technology for the speech impairment person is still left behind and currently researchers are exploring the technologies. Assistive technology is defined as assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices for Person with Disabilities (PWD) and for the elderly generation. This research focuses on the development of a sign language translator device specialty for a speech impairment person. By capturing a real-time sign language and gesture movement using a high-resolution camera, the system will process the signal and translate the data into visual information. The device is programmed to recognize different alphabets and digits based on the Malaysian Sign Language (MSL) standard. The accuracy of the system obtained was 65.3% for alphabets and 90.6% for digits. It is aimed that this intelligent device invention will bridge the communication barrier and help disabled people to experience a more healthy lifestyle and feel appreciated among the society. The engagement with society will be much easier with the translator device.

Mohd Amzar Azizan, Iman Zulkiflee, Nurhakimah Norhashim

Comparative Study of Five Metaheuristic Algorithms for Team Formation Problem

This paper presents a comparative study of five metaheuristic algorithms, namely, salp swarm algorithm (SSA), owl search algorithm (OSA), sooty tern optimization algorithm (STOA), squirrel search algorithm (SqSA), and crow search algorithm (CSA) adopted in the Covid19 team formation (CTF) problem. The performance comparison of these algorithms is conducted by executing each algorithm twenty times to ensure the statistical significance. The study considers the minimum number of experts and the minimum team formation cost in defining the objective function. The CSA was found to be the more effective metaheuristic algorithm for the Covid19 team formation problem from the optimal results in terms of overall solution quality and runtime efficiency.

Md. Abdul Kader, Kamal Z. Zamli

Automatic Identification of Plastic Waste by HSV Colour

People don’t enjoy living without plastic nowadays. It happens because, in almost every industry, plastic has become a commonly used material. However, at present, it causes the waste of plastic to increase. The process needs to be recycled to reduce the contamination of plastic waste. The manual recycling method has a high possibility of human error, therefore, this automatic system is designed to minimize human error. This research applies Artificial Neural Network (ANN) with three types of plastic to construct an automatic framework to classify and categorized plastic waste. This study also used HSV color space with six input characteristics (RHSV, GHSV, BHSV, mean2, entropy, and variance). The database analysis collected by the training and testing process focused on the implementation of an automatic identification and classification method for plastic bottles, and the rate of the percentage of progress achieved from the training process is 65.3%. The research process’s percentage effectiveness is 57%.

Irsyadi Yani, B. Firmansyah, Yulia Resti, Yenni Arnas, Rb. Budi Kartika, Todung Mulia Raja Nasution, W. Hendro, Ika Endrawijaya

Validation of Compressive Test of Biodegradable Lumbar Interbody Spinal Cage with Different Porous Structure Using Computed Tomography-Based Finite Element Analysis

Evaluation of spinal cage structures had been done using Computed tomography-based finite element analysis (CT/FEA) with homogenous bone properties. However, it is important to consider the inhomogeneity of bone properties in order to obtain more precise validation. This study compares the experimental and numerical analysis of CT/FEA by establishing relation between the Hounsfield Unit (HU) values, bone density and material properties. 6 cage designs with different pore structure were created and optimized based on the conventional bullet-shaped tip cage design. Specimens were fabricated using a fused deposition method (FDM) 3D printer. Unidirectional compression test machine was done and evaluated using FEA tool. A conventional bilateral mode configuration was applied to simulate standard PLIF procedure in the L4–L5. CT/FEA was done to characterize the stress profile of cage-endplate interface, cage body and failed element distribution. From the results, layers deviation and severe micro crack were seen at ruptured spinal cage specimen’s side surface. OPEN SOLID showed highest value of compressive value in the experiment and simulation. Finally, FEM stress profiles indicated that subsidence might have occurred for CLOSE 1 mm, OPEN SOLID, and OPEN 1 mm cage designs at the cage-endplate interface due to the sudden spike at endplate region. Overall, optimally designed PLA spinal cages have sufficient mechanical properties to support lumbar interbody loads. Furthermore, this optimization technique may be utilized to balance the complex requirements of load-transfer, stress shielding, and porosity when using biodegradable material for fusion spinal cages.

Muhammad Hilmi Jalil, M. H. Mazlan, M. Todo

Node-Based Soft Object Deformation Using Stress Estimation Method

Modeling of soft object deformation was dominated by the Mass Spring Method (MSM) and the Finite Element Method (FEM). Both methods require the discretization of a soft object into interconnected elements. The element-based deformation, however, has several weaknesses, such as it requires high computational costs to mesh the object, difficulty in handling topological changes, and complex mathematical calculations to describe the interconnected elements. This paper presents an initial investigation to address such deficiencies through a node-based approach associated with a stress estimation method. When a soft object is subjected to a load, the induced stresses at each node can be estimated using the Boussinesq equation. The estimated induced stress is then converted into movements based on the principle of energy conservation. The simulation model was developed in the MATLAB software. Simple deformation can be simulated with a high similarity to the FEM model generated by ABAQUS software. In terms of time performance, the proposed method clocked a slightly higher computational time with a difference of 1.0 s compared to the FEM model. Nevertheless, the findings show a promising performance of the proposed method.

Mohd Nadzeri Omar, Yongmin Zhong

Effect of Airway Stent on Stenosed Trachea

Tracheal stenosis is a windpipe obstruction that can cause breathing problems. Besides, complications from past surgery or external injuries are several other common causes of tracheal stenosis. Besides, some other common causes of tracheal stenosis are complications from previous surgery or external injuries. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique is allowed to understanding to flow characteristic inside stenosed trachea. This study uses patient computed tomography (CT) images to investigate the relationship of pressure distribution and air flow rate in the tracheal airway. In order based on CT-scans of a patient for all breathing condition. We assessed flow patterns and pressure drops over tracheal stenosis artificially inserted into a actual three-dimensional upper airway model. The actual airway model is extremely irregular and the presence of stenosis adds to its geometrical complexity, resulting in very complex flow patterns with flow separations. In this analysis, the findings show air flow velocity and pressure with trachea stenosis and stenting.

Mohd Norhakem Hamid, Kahar Osman, Zuliazura Mohd Salleh, Rima Efriani Rusli, Mohamad Ikhwan Kori, Ahmad Zahran Md Khudzari

An Improved Momentum Rate in Artificial Neural Networks for Estimating Product Cycle Time at Semi-automatic Production

Among all the prediction techniques, the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) shows excellent performance. The ANN technique has a momentum rate to slow down the ANN learning process. However, the value of the momentum rate has no restriction since it is commonly based on the experiment with different values as presented in the previous studies. In this regard, the objective of this study is to formulate a momentum rate to achieve a better prediction result. The proposed momentum rate equation was tested on three ANN models. Subsequently, the 3-2-1 network emerged as the best network based on the smallest mean square error. To evaluate the proposed momentum rate, a problem based on a real company situation in producing audio products was considered. Cycle time of the new audio products at its semi-automatic production line was predicted based on several factors, which were manpower shortage, material preparation time and machine breakdowns through the 3-2-1 network. As a result, the best cycle time to complete new audio products can be estimated accurately. In conclusion, the proposed momentum rate can improve the convergence of the ANN learning process for a better prediction result. Consequently, audio products delivery is smooth and fulfil customer’s demands.

Ahmad Afif Ahmarofi

A Review of Mass Spring Method Improvements for Modeling Soft Tissue Deformation

Significant research efforts have been dedicated to the creation of virtual reality simulators that empower medical students to learn anatomy and surgery in a virtual environment and allow surgeons to practice surgical operations. The degree of realism is determined by the simulation's accuracy and the processing efficiency of its underlying models. Deformable models should ideally be able to precisely recreate soft tissue deformation simultaneously providing real-time visual and force feedback. One of the most well-known approaches is the Finite Element Method (FEM). It has been demonstrated that the FEM can effectively replicate soft tissue deformation, but it requires a significant processing cost to enable real-time interaction. In this context, the Mass Spring Method (MSM) has been suggested as an alternative. The standard MSM model mimics soft tissue deformation with excellent computational performance but is constrained to linear behavior because it is based on simple Hooke's law theory. This paper provides recent studies on the enhancement of the standard MSM model to examine the viability of the MSM model to simulate soft tissue deformation for surgical simulation.

Mohd Nadzeri Omar, Yongmin Zhong

Biomechanics, Safety and Sports

Frontmatter

Injury Pattern Among Drivers Involved in Single Frontal Crash Based on the Police Reported Accident Data in Malaysia

More than 8.2 million police reported motor vehicles crashed, resulting in 67,882 fatalities and over 140,000 injured victims from 2009 to 2018 recorded by Ministry of Transport, Malaysia. Single-vehicle crash can cause more fatalities than multi vehicle crashes as reported in previous study. Therefore, a better understanding of real frontal crashes is needed to support the decision making for future frontal test program. One of the important part to discover is the injury pattern of occupants based on real accidents. Furthermore, different frontal crash configurations may result in different level of injury severity. The objective of this study is to analyse the injury severity category and body part injury of drivers based on police reported single frontal crashes in Malaysia. Reported accident cases from 2015 to 2018 were gathered from Bukit Aman Traffic Investigation and Enforcement (JSPT), Royal Malaysia Police. The single-vehicle crashes categorized under full-width and offset and sideswipe configurations were selected. 757 cases were meeting selection criteria. 81.9% of the cases involved in the full-width and offset type of crashes configuration, while the sideswipe crash configuration contributes to 19.1% of the cases. Most of the drivers were reported with no injury (64%), fatal (17.6%), slight injury (11.8%) and severe injury (6.6%) of categories in both crash configurations. The most frequent injury sustained by fatal drivers were head injury for full-width and offset configuration, and multiple body parts injury for sideswipe configuration. The chi-square test was used to study the association between the crashes configuration and injury severity category. The p-values are less than 0.05, hence there is a significant effect between frontal crash configuration and injury severity category. Based on calculated odd ratio, full-width and offset configuration is 6.88 more likely to be fatal than sideswipe.

M. N. Noordin, H. Osman, Hanida Abdul Aziz, N. Rosli, M. Widia, E. H. Sukadarin, Nur Syafiqah Fauzan, H. R. Zadry, Ahmad Azad Ab. Rashid, Zulhaidi Mohd Jawi

Traffic Accident in Indonesia and Blind Spot Detection Technology—An Overview

The development of the number of motorized vehicles in Indonesia has increased every year. The increasing number of vehicles affects the number of developments in traffic accidents. It has a direct effect on the increase in the number of victims and losses due to accidents. This paper provides an overview of traffic accidents in Indonesia and the importance of efforts to prevent them. An accident, especially road traffic, results from a cumulative number of factors causing accidents, such as human factors, facility factors, infrastructure factors, and environmental factors. By knowing the leading causes of road traffic accidents, mitigation measures and recommendations can be determined to reduce the number of accidents. Traffic accidents can be reduced with a road safety management program that can be interpreted as an effort to deal with accidents that occur on the road crashes and improve vehicle technology that can minimize the impact and losses caused by accidents. Blindspot is one of the causes of accidents from the side. Blind-spot detection and blind-spot visualization (BSD/BSV) would help provide early detection/image to avoid collision with the motorcycle. It is expected that 37% of collisions can be avoided if all cars are equipped with such technology.

Hilma Raimona Zadry, Hanida Abdul Aziz, Mirta Widia, Ezrin Hani Sukadarin, Hairunnisa Osman, Zulhaidi Mohd Jawi, Muhammad Afif Rahman

Contributing Factors Towards Human Errors on Road Transport Safety Among Commercial Vehicle Drivers

Human errors have consistently been implicated in a high percentage of road transport accident. In this study, there are three factors that have been considered as contributing factors to the human error which are social factor, driving behaviour and also individual factors. The aims of this research were to study the level and to compare the contributing factors to the human error among commercial vehicle drivers at Pahang and Terengganu. The relationship between factors that contribute to human error and road transport accident also determined. Data were collected from 80 respondents. Plus, observational technique was conducted at two roads chosen in Pahang and Terengganu. The questionnaire results concluded that there had association between factors that contribute to human error and road transport accident. Observational technique results indicate that drivers had highest percentage in not wearing seatbelts. Therefore, this research concludes that the factors that contribute to human error have the tendency to road transport accident.

J. Syarah Adibah, Y. Mohd Najib

Sprint Performance in Rugby Players: A Systematic Review

The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent research that has examined the sprint performance and training of rugby players at different playing standards. Research articles published between 2010 and 2020 in PubMed, Science Direct and OATD were searched using key terms related to rugby player and sprint movement. Twenty related articles investigating sprint performance in both men and women players were included. Sprinting training were differently assessed using GPS device, timing gate, high speed camera, stopwatch and performance profiler database (PPD). Back rugby players were recorded sprint faster than forward players with the average of 1.69 s ± 0.06 s for 10 m sprint. On top of that, professional back rugby players logged longer sprint distance in 15 side rugby game for male (353.0 ± 147.0 m) and 7 side rugby game both male (168.0 ± 88.2 m) and female (133.0 m) player. Comparative analysis in terms of sprint performance between professional and amateur players were also presented. The sprint performance recorded in this review will be useful as the benchmark and guide for rugby training strategy at different playing standards. Future studies should investigate the factors likely to influence the player sprinting performance, especially on the technique and skills.

Sharul Nizam Turiman, Zulkifli Ahmad, Nasrul Hadi Johari

Brief Review on Recent Technology in Particle Image Velocimetry Studies on Hemodynamics in Carotid Artery

Cardiovascular disease is number one causes of morbidity and mortality in global. In-vitro studies are widely applied in the investigation of blood hemodynamics under pathological conditions to diagnose atherosclerosis in carotid artery. This article presents a brief review on the latest published articles was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses on the particle image velocimetry (PIV) studies of blood flow in carotid artery geometries. Fourteen (14) recent articles from 2016 to 2020 in main databases i.e. Scopus, PubMed and ScienceDirect were included. The data of the published articles were focused on the technical aspects of PIV flow measurement and were organized in two categories i.e. carotid phantom geometries constructions and the blood mimicking flow circuits. This systematic review paper summarises the updated methodology in the PIV and identify potential areas to elucidate the accuracy and limitations of each method.

A. Fahmi Huwaidi M. Noor, Nasrul Hadi Johari

Characterization Porous HA/SiO2 Composite Prepared Using Natural Space Holder

Hydroxyapatite based on bovine bone has been developed in addition to medical needs, adsorbents, catalysts, and other engineering applications. The use of hydroxyapatite-based catalysts in the industry is still very high, one of which is solid catalysts. This study aims to develop a solid porous catalyst from a HA/SiO2 composite. The porous composite was prepared with SiO2 as much as 25% of the total weight fraction and utilized sweet potato powder heated at a temperature of 150 °C as a space holder. The manufacturing process begins by mixing hydroxyapatite powder (200 µm), SiO2 powder (200 µm), and purple sweet potato powder (200 µm), then mixing it using a ball mill with a rotating speed of 225 rpm for 1 h. The mixture was then put into the molding and compacted with a pressure of 69.805 MPa. The green body was then sintered at 1100 and 1200 °C and held for 3 h. Apparent density measurements were carried out using the Archimedes method, and the highest density was 1.4983 g/cm3 with a porosity of 50.34% in the 30% space holder specimen. The XRD test shows that the dominant phases are hydroxyapatite (HA), β-TCP, and SiO2. The compressive strength test showed the highest average compressive strength of 33,073 MPa in the 30% space holder specimen. The SEM observations showed pores formed in the samples with varying sizes ranging from 4.510 to 67.32 µm and showed interconnecting porous.

Amir Arifin, Gunawan, M. Wahyudi Amin, Alim Mardhi, Ganang Trycahyono, Firmansyah Burlian

Fabrication of Titanium-Matrix Composite with 40 wt% Hydroxyapatite by Powder Injection Molding

In this work, the performance of composites feedstock HA/Ti for metal injection molding is investigated by rheological characterization with powder loading 65%. Titanium and Hydroxyapatite (HA) powder are mixed with a composite binder, which consists of Palm Stearin (PS) and Polyethylene (PE). The rheology properties are investigated by Shimadzu CFT-500D rheometer. Thermal debinding is utilized for removing the binder system under argon gas. The sintering process is performed under argon conditions at temperature 1200 °C for 2 h. The feedstock 60 wt%Ti and 40 wt%HA show pseudopalstic behaviour which is indicating suitable for MIM application. On the sintered part, Ca:P ratio of HA has changed based on the standard value of HA(1.67) as an indication decomposition of HA. Cracks have been observed on part of composite HA/Ti by SEM due to differences in thermal expansion of the two materials and not a good diffusion between HA and Ti. For further work, modification in the composition of mixture and sintering parameters are required to reach an optimal result.

Aditya Reza Haswendra, Amir Arifin, Abu Bakar Sulong, Norhamidi Muhamad, Gunawan, Barlin

Analysis of the Influence of Service Quality and Audience Loyalty Interest in the Volleyball Tournament Events: A Case Study of Tulungagung Regency

Tulungagung Regency is one of the districts whose people are very enthusiastic about volleyball. The main research aim for this paper is to examine the service quality by the volleyball tournament organizer at Tulungagung and its relationships towards satisfaction and audience loyalty in the game of volleyball. This research adopts a descriptive methodology with mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches. The population in this study were a total of 100 volleyball viewers in Tulungagung Regency taken by random sampling. The data collection technique is using a questionnaire. From the analysis, the level of audience satisfaction towards event organizers involved in the arena is 46%, while for the influential category it reached 54%. Security is very influential, reaching 55%. The quality of the national level professional players who competed was very influential, reaching 72%. The ticket to the match has less effect alone, reaching to 25%. Means for entertainment are also very influential, reaching 33%. Regarding doorprize, it is less influential, whereby 63% has no effect. The quality of the field, the influential category reached 72, 24% is effective, and 4% had no effect. The findings are hoped to be beneficial to every event organizer that will hold volleyball tournament events in terms of ensuring quality of services and retaining audience loyalty.

Tito Pangesti Adji, Mansur, Kukuh Hardopo Putro, Kukuh Wahyudin Pratama, Aida Mustapha

The Influence of Ball Impact Angle on the Brain Deformation in Soccer Heading: A Finite Element Analysis

Soccer is the most popular sport in the world. One of the manoeuvres in a soccer game is known as heading, in which the player uses the head to hit the ball. There have been concerns as to whether this purposeful head impact may lead to brain injury. Studies have shown some compelling evidence that purposeful heading of a soccer ball may cause adverse effect to the brain. One of the contributing factors that may lead to head injury when heading a soccer ball is the improper heading technique. This study investigates the effect of ball impact angle on the brain deformation, a parameter used to evaluate head injury. A series of finite element simulations were performed with various ball inbound velocities and impact angles. It was found that heading at an angle resulted in higher brain deformation as opposed to central impact heading. The impact angle of 45° was found to produce the highest brain deformation. This study shows that a proper heading technique is essential to prevent brain injury when performing soccer heading.

Mohd Hasnun Arif Hassan, Mohd Alimin Mohd Anni, Fu Yang Tan, Nasrul Hadi Johari, Mohd Nadzeri Omar

Classification of Sepak Takraw Kicks Using Machine Learning

Sepak Takraw has gained popularity over the years. Kinematics of the leg determine the quality and accuracy of the kick. However, the classification of Sepak Takraw kick using machine learning has never been explored. This study aims to classify the most typical kicks in Sepak Takraw namely the serve (or known as tekong), feeder and spike based on the leg’s kinematics using machine learning. Collegiate sepak takraw players participated in the data collection. The participants wore the inertial measurement unit sensor on their shank while performing the kicks. From the kinematics data recorded, several mathematical features were extracted and calculated. Machine learning algorithms such as the k-nearest neighbors (kNN), support vector machine (SVM), artificial neural networks (ANN), naive bayes (NB), random forest (RF), and logistic regression (LR) were applied to classify the types of kicks performed using fivefold cross-validation technique with 70% train data and 30% test data. It was found that ANN predicts all the test data correctly with 100% accuracy, followed by NB, SVM, RF and LR with 1 misclassification at 96.3% accuracy, kNN has the lowest prediction accuracy at 77.78%. This study shows that machine learning model is capable of classifying sepak takraw kicks. This can be used in training young athletes to ensure they perform the kicks properly, with correct skills.

Fu Yang Tan, Mohd Hasnun Arif Hassan, Anwar P. P. Abdul Majeed, Mohd Azraai Mohd Razman, Muhammad Amirul Abdullah

Preliminary Study on Drivers Satisfaction and Continuance Intention to Use Automatic Emergency Braking in Malaysia

The automobile industry has been one of the most open industries to new technologies throughout history. Due to evolvement of technology, automated driving systems has been introduced. This has also influenced the whole spectrum of human driver operation in newer cars. Even so, the issue remains as to whether or not customers can consider emerging technologies. In this study, one of the prominent vehicle technology is focused. It is the Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB). Recently, carmakers are competing with each other to produce the AEB that is efficient. Since 2015, consumers in Malaysia started to get the opportunity to buy AEB equipped vehicles. So, it is important to understand how vehicle customers or potential customers choose to use or not to use AEB and what they expect or understand about AEB. This study aims to explore consumer's expectation, experiences, and outcome of technology continuance intention to use. A sum of 204 respondents were gathered via online survey. Data collected were then analysed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 26. Results show that out of 204 respondents, only 70 people has experienced the function of AEB. 89.7% of respondents have high expectations of AEB functionality while driving and 21.6% of them would still using the AEB feature even if they do not favour it.

Nuruzzakiyah Mohd Ishanuddin, Nur Ezzati Rusli, Ezrin Hani Sukadarin, Hanida Abdul Aziz, Mirta Widia, Nur Syafiqah Fauzan, Junaidah Zakaria, Hairunnisa Osman, Ahmad Azad Ab. Rashid, Zulhaidi Mohd Jawi, Nur Syazwani Mohd Nawi, Eida Nadirah Roslin, Yassierli

The Association Between Rear Impact Crash Characteristics and Risk of Injury

Rear-end collisions are among the most common types of crashes on the highway, where Malaysia also has one of the highest fatality rates for traffic in the region. This research aimed to determine the association between the characteristics of rear-impact crash and the risk of injury. The accident rate data during 2016–2018 were collected from Bukit Aman Traffic Investigation and Enforcement (JSPT), Royal Malaysia Police (RMP) Pol 27. A Chi-square test was applied to achieve the study objectives. A total 271 of single-vehicle rear-impact crashes were recorded in the dataset. Passenger car contributed the highest number of rear impact crash with 70% compared to other types of vehicles such as 4-wheel drives and lorry. The injury-severity level showed that the rear impact crash fatalities represent about 11% of total rear impact crash, followed by 9% of a slight injury, 6% of severe injury, and 74% with no injury. The result highlighted that six characteristics were found to be significantly associated with the risk of injury. They are driver’s age, road system, road surface condition, light condition, main vehicles’ part damage, and speed limit. This analysis has provided a useful new perspective on rear-end impacts crashes in Malaysia.

Afiqah Nadhirah, Mirta Widia, Nur Syafiqah Fauzan, Yassierli, Ahmad Azad Ab. Rashid, Hanida Abdul Aziz, Ezrin Hani Sukadarin, Hairunnisa Osman, Zulhaidi Mohd Jawi, Eida Nadirah Roslin, Hilma Raimona Zadry, Yogi Tri Prasetyo, Manida Swangnetr Neubert

Aircraft Noise Exposure and Effects on the Health of Nearby Residents: A Review

Noise exposure is a prevalent issue, where the people exposed to loud sources of sound. This paper presents a concise review on aircraft noise exposure and its effects on the health of people in nearby residences and public areas, particularly on the health problems resulting from prolonged aircraft noise exposure and the noise levels that can cause disturbance to human hearing. For this review, 27 key works published from 2010 to 2020 was studied to find out the issues regarding the effect from aircraft noise exposure. Based on the growing number of published studies in this area, there is growing concern on noise pollution worldwide, with aircraft noise being one of the major types of noise pollution. Thus, the key findings were extracted from the published literature into the following categories: (1) source of noise and propagation of noise, (2) recommendation of noise level from various boards, (3) effect and impact on nearby residents, and (4) remedial actions to mitigate the effects of aircraft noise. This paper provides insight on aircraft noise, including ways to reduce the effects of aircraft noise based on the guidelines set by the authorities.

B. Athirah, M. S. Nurul Shahida

Anxiety Performance Among Athlete in Response to Theories and Standard Instruments: A Systematic Review

Successful sports performance is determined on how skillful the athlete perceives the anxiety into positive performance. This study purposely assesses the background of recent studies on anxiety theory, assessment instrument and map the anxiety literature survey into a simple taxonomy. Current research intends to identify the vital aspects that affect athlete performance in the sports field that remain a challenge nowadays. Most related articles on (1) anxiety theory (2) athlete (3) sports performance through three (3) popular databases are searched on Clarivate Analytics, Scopus, and PubMed. These databases are deemed broad to cover both relevant theoretical and technical literature. Thirty-three studies (N = 33) were selected after screening process and biddable to the inclusion criteria mentioned. Background data of studies provided varying samples, sports, and conditions. The study finding has highlighted the functional of anxiety theory to measure anxiety performance assisted with an anxiety assessment. The ability of the anxiety theories getting robust toward athlete performance by integrating with anxiety assessment.

Wan Nurlisa Wan Ahmad, Zakri Ghazalli, Mohd Azrul Hisham Mohd Adib

The Association of Socio-demographic Characteristics Towards Driver Behaviour and Traffic Fatality in Selangor, Malaysia

There are more than 6,000 road traffic fatalities each year in Malaysia since 2004, although the index of road traffic fatality per 100,000 population is decreasing steadily each year. Selangor, one of the states in Malaysia, has recorded the highest road traffic fatalities in 2019. Since traffic accidents and driver’s behaviour is correlated, this study aims to understand the association between the socio-demographic characteristics and driver’s behaviour, and the correlation between these parameters and road fatality. Road traffic accidents in Selangor in the year 2019 were used as the input data in this study. The selected socio-demographic characteristics are gender, age group, ethnicity, level of education, job specification, and type of driving licence. The statistics show that most of the fatalities involve employed young Malay drivers with more than five years driving experience. A classification model was formulated to classify the driver’s behaviour based on the socio-demographic characteristics and vehicle type data. In addition, another classification model was developed, combining the aforementioned parameters as independent variables to classify the occurrence of fatal accidents. The supervised machine learning analysis was conducted using classifiers such as Random Forest, Classification Tree, Neural Network, Support Vector Machine, and Naïve Bayes using Orange data mining software. Random Forest was found to produce the most accurate classification of both driver’s behaviour based on the socio-demographic characteristics, and the occurrence of fatal accidents as compared to other classifiers. This study shows that socio-demographic characteristics are indeed associated with driver’s behaviour, and both socio-demographic characteristics and driver’s behaviour are among the causes of fatal accidents.

Nurul Qastalani Radzuan, Mohd Hasnun Arif Hassan, Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim, Ahmad Azad Ab. Rashid, Intan Suhana Mohd Razelan, Nur Aqilah Othman

Design and Instrumentation

Frontmatter

The Development of Golden Apple Snail Eggs Picker

Several potential benefits of Golden Apple Snail, or GAS have been reported, including its use as a source of food, use in the trade of aquariums, biological control of plants, as a source of protein for fish, ducks and crocodiles, and as a liquid biofertilizer. However, its physiological adaptability and capacity to travel a long distance within a water system has become an invader of new habitats. Thus, GAS is now a major pest in the cultivation of rice. Numerous research have shown that GAS can be managed at various stages of cultivation by combining chemical, mechanical, and biological steps. Nevertheless, GAS eradication has become a laborious and expensive task. This study aims to design the biological tool or prototype to eradicate this major pest. More particularly, the invention relates to a tool that adapts hand-picking method in controlling and eradicating the eggs of these pests. This study provides a society implication for paddy farmers, in which the creation of this tool is effective and important to drive the farmers to better productivity with the eradication of GAS eggs.

Wan Zaiyana Yusof, Azmir Mamat Nawi, Puteri Fadzline Muhamad Tamyez

Validity and Reliability of Instruments to Measure Knowledge, Motivation and Mindset Among Industrial Design Students in Universiti Malaysia Kelantan

The principal goal of this article is to discuss the validity of the instrument with its reliability index in measuring knowledge, motivation and mindset among industrial design students in Universiti Malaysia Kelantan throughout Makerspace learning environment session. This article also will explain the procedure taken in ensuring the reliability and validity of the instrument which has been developed and adapted from previous research. The result indicates that the internal consistency of instruments (Cronbach Alpha) surpass the threshold value of 0.7. Throughout the face validity process, experts have shown that the level of high validity regarding the construct and the instrument itself. Besides, correlation values between items and total scores exceed the value of 0.3, which is the bare minimum index of correlation.

Azmul Fadhli Kamaruzaman, Ahmad Rasdan Ismail, Khairul Azhar Mat Daud

Design and Development of the E-Bonang Musical Instrument as an Integration of Music and Electronic Prototyping for Educational Purposes

Bonang is one of the instruments used in the gamelan orchestra, which is one of the most valuable cultural heritage of Malaysia. However, due to its high price and bulkiness of the traditional design, the Gamelan is beyond the reach of many schools and musicians in terms of affordability, space and mobility. Development of the E-Bonang is an innovative approach to solve these issues as well as sustaining and promoting this musical heritage through technology to a wider audience, especially the younger generation. The aim of this paper is to highlight the design and developmental process of the E-Bonang musical instrument and the potential of the device in integrating both music education and electronic prototyping education. One of the main contributions of this design approach is that the instrument’s weight will be reduced up to 60% and can be manufactured with much lower cost. The product has the potential of introducing students to traditional music education (gamelan) while emphasizing the D.I.Y feature of electronic prototyping as an experiential education which includes circuit building, microcontroller programming, sound experimentation and product assembly.

Azmul Fadhli Kamaruzaman, Raja Iskandar Raja Halid, Ezran Zainal Abdullah, Mohd Hilmi Harun, Hawari Berahim, Tan Tse Guan

Sustainability Implications of Additive Manufacturing

Additive manufacturing is the industrial production name for 3D printing, which is one of the advanced technologies in the fourth industrial revolution. 3D printing involves the production of a 3D product using a layer by layer technique. Complex structures can be produced through AM which was no possible using conventional method as it has the potential to assemble parts, consequently minimizing the production process. In addition, through the AM process, less waste is generated during manufacturing and lightweight components can be produced which makes it beneficial in terms of materials and costs. Therefore, additive manufacturing is seen to have an impact on sustainability. This paper will review the implications of AM on sustainability, which includes the environmental, economic and social aspects. Clear understanding of sustainability impacts of AM is crucial in order to assist companies and researchers to make the best decisions before switching to AM.

Nabila Afif Mohmd Arifin, Muhamad Zameri Mat Saman, Safian Sharif, Nor Hasrul Akhmal Ngadiman

Development of User Interface (UI) and User Experience (UX) for Smart Alcohol Detection System in Public Transportation

In 2019, Malaysia has become the third highest fatality rate from road accidents in Asia because of driving under the influence of alcohol. A person who consumed excessive amounts of alcoholic beverages, and is driving in a drunken state that causes death can be charged under penalty due to criminal action. Horrendous accidents involving drunk driving have been reported recently and the numbers keep increasing every year. Although enormous international laws have been drafted to control the alcohol influence among drivers, there are lesser numbers of readily-available methods to measure the alcohol consumption for public transport drivers. This intelligent device is aims to provide real-time monitoring of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and transfer the data to the cloud system. The algorithm was developed by integrating the sensor and the processor unit. The device also integrates with the biometric thumbprint that will capture the heart rate of the driver. By measuring the heart rate and alcohol level, the system will interpret the data and convert it into relevant information. The command center at the control room will monitor the fitness level of the drivers before performing their duties to ensure the safeness of other drivers and passengers. This invention will have novel applications not only for public transport but also involving other major sectors such as the manufacturing industry and public health organizations.

Mohd Amzar Azizan, Amirul Rohismadi, Nurhakimah Norhashim, Nurizzati Norizan

IoT Green-Bin: The Development of a Self-sorting Recycle Bin System

Recycling is a huge responsibility in preserving ecosystems. However, lack of motivation besides complexity in sorting and choosing a right-colored recycle bins in dumping the trashes have hindered many from recycling. To encounter these issues, the paper proposes to develop a smart, self-sorting recycle bin system that automatically segregate the trashes based on its materials. The segregation process will take place using one light sensor and one vibration sensor to differentiate the recyclable materials based on its opaqueness and vibrational characteristics. Based on the identification of the materials, a mechanical subsystem of the bin will automatically separate the waste into designated compartments. Using IoT, the information about the level of capacity of each compartment that contained the trashes in the recycle bin will be transferred to a database and a notification will be sent to authorities when the bin needs to be emptied. Results showed that the system able to segregate trashes made from plastic, glass, paper, and aluminum up to 83% correctly. Future research might include a persuasive subsystem that motivates people to recycle by introducing point-to-voucher concept based on the amount of trashes and frequency in using the bin.

Muhammad Aiman Ismail, Aimi Shazwani Ghazali

“Return-To-Work”: Application of New Materials to Develop the Durable and Low Cost of Solid Ankle Cushion Heel (SACH) Prosthetic Foot

This paper presents the conceptual design and development of an ergonomic and polymeric prosthetic foot. This study was done in two phases the prototype design and the selection of materials with fabrication. During the design stage, the inputs from the Certified Prosthetists and Orthotists (CPO) and literature review were discussed amongst four interested parties (UMP-ADTEC Jerantu-JasaMedik Enterprise-Hospital Pulau Pinang). In addition, the design was also developed based on the knowledge gathered during industrial training period with a prosthetic company, in which the company provides prosthetic and orthotic services. A series of discussions has been organized and in consensus with all interested parties, the prototype design was successfully developed. This design then simulates using Solidworks software to determine its stress, strain and displacement. The result show the von-mises stress for Solid Ankle Cushion Heel (SACH) foot was higher. In addition, the selection and analysis on material development has been carried out in one go. Finally, the prototype prosthetic foot known as Solid Ankle Cushion Heel (SACH) has been fabricated and the field test is to be carried out at a rehabilitation center. From this analysis, the prosthetic foot uses new materials which are polyurethane and neoprene, 99.4 and 0.6% because it gives good tensile strength and also young modulus for the designing process until the casting process. It also best production method that can be used.

Wan Syahira Wan Ramli, Mohd Isyraf Irfan Mat Zin, Mohd Shaiful Zaidi Mat Desa, Azizan Ramli

Holding, Grasping and Sensing of Prosthetic Robot Arm Like a Real Human Hand, a Journey Beyond Limits: An Extensive Review

This paper provides a comprehensive survey on the current state of prosthetic robotic arm; focusing on grasping strategy, sensing technologies, and control system. Numerous studies have been carried on prosthetic robotic arm field in improving its functionality. Mechanical/ prosthetic robotic arm is built to function as real—human-hand like for various fields like medical and industrial purposes. Starting from the design to details of every single compartment of the arm, up to providing the most needed function according to the purpose of the prosthetic robotic arm was built. The implementation method and system control/architecture used are with proven experimental results that indicate each study's outcome is the primary concern. Although each developed prosthetic robotic arm differed between each other based on their purpose and technology used, aiming for the optimal design similar to human’s hand proves challenging for researchers, especially when it comes to the issue of practicality in whether it can be used to accomplish regular tasks a standard arm are able to.

Devin Babu, Abdul Nasir, A. S. Jamaludin, Muhammad Hisyam Rosle

Container Fluid Detection Design in Generator Set

A vessel's liquid detector design is designed to keep fluid in a vessel. This design uses an ultrasonic sensor and is equipped with a warning indicator when there is a high, medium, and low level of liquid in the vessel. The ultrasonic sensor works here to measure the volume of the vessel’s liquid. The microcontroller is also used as the main component in this design to give orders and process ultrasonic sensor input data. This simulation tool design works to determine the fluid availability in the vessel. When the liquid in the vessel is at a predetermined level, the tool simulation design is also equipped with a warning indicator. That is, a high level with a green indicator of L.E.D., a medium level with a yellow indicator of L.E.D., a low level with a red indicator of L.E.D. A buzzer is used as the warning indicator used in the design of this simulation tool. The tool is expected to maintain the availability of fluid in the vessel with this simulation design. So that it will surely exist when the liquid in the vessel is to be used.

Y. Arnas, Rb. Budi Kartika, T. M. Raja Nasution, W. Hendro, Ika Endrawijaya, Irsyadi Yani

Simulating the Cycle Time Based on a Manpower Performance Through a System Dynamics Model: A Case Company in the Automotive Sector

The uncertainty of cycle time due to manpower performance could affect the efficiency of completion time at a production line. Ultimately, the challenges of manpower performance contribute to tardiness, which is the delay of a job’s due date from its completion time. Hence, the cycle time of a specific task must coordinate efficiently to ensure the smoothness of production operation. In this regards, a company facing the issue of uncertain cycle time due to manpower factor in producing an audio system for the automotive sector was considered. This study aims to determine the best-so-far cycle time to produce the audio system at a production based on manpower performance. To mimic a production line, a simulation model was developed based on a system dynamics (SD) approach. Subsequently, what-if analysis is conducted by adjusting the cycle time to observe the effect of schedule pressure and manpower fatigue on productivity. As a result, 5 s is the best cycle time to produce the product at the production of the selected company. Consequently, a policy on setting the cycle time at the production was proposed for the best completion time without tardiness.

Ahmad Afif Ahmarofi, Norhaslinda Zainal Abidin, Nurul Husna Mahadzir

Design and Implementation of Adaptive Cyanosis Baby Manikin for Medical Training Application

This paper explores the design principles for an adaptive cyanosis colour changing baby manikin by assembling all previous pieces of knowledge of cyanosis baby manikin. We attained the cyanosis colouration in an experimental setup during the previous study using a three-dimensional (3D) printed baby’s head in a black box with the Philips Hue bulb as an actuator. This paper’s motivation is to develop a working prototype of an adaptive cyanosis baby manikin, which aims to change colour from cyanosis to non-cyanosis with the real colouration, within the correct timing to be used for cyanosis recognition in medical training application. To attain this goal, we introduce the design and development of adaptive cyanosis colour changing baby manikin by employing smart lighting control, together with the Philips Hue LED bulb attached to the 3D printed baby’s head. In this paper, the cyanosis colour changing in a 3D printed baby’s head was simulated by controlling the Philips Hue bulb using the Processing software and IoT-based mechanism. The LDRs were embedded into the adaptive cyanosis baby manikin by monitoring the lux values of the room’s lighting condition. The colour change of the cyanosis can be visualised and verified both on the 3D printed baby’s head and in the trainer’s laptop in Processing software. We believe that the proposed adaptive cyanosis baby manikin will pave the way for a future practical cyanosis simulator to be used in real training.

Nur Fatihah Azmi, Loe Feijs

Ergonomics

Frontmatter

Investigation on Ergonomics Risk Factors at an Electronic Component Company

This study was conducted at a selected production line in an electronic company. Most of the processes were performed manually by the workers. Hence, they were exposed to risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) like repetitive motion and awkward postures while sitting for a long time while doing the job. The purpose of this study is to identify risk level related MSDs at each of the processes. This study used Body Discomfort Survey (BDS) and Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) for investigation. The assessment was analysed based on the actual working posture at each of the processes. Besides that, the evaluation also used recorded video and photos as secondary assessment. The preliminary result shows that winding and stripping (flat wire) scored at medium risk, needing further investigation and change soon. Similarly, BDS results show both processes winding and stripping were felt most discomfort by the workers. Then, existing process was simulated by using DELMIA software for analysing the suggestion option of human body postures. The analysis controlled the angular movement of the body parts and allowed the manikin to bend at a minimum angle of their body. These alternatives were able to reduce the final RULA score into an acceptable score. The outcome of this evaluation has given a message to the management to conduct further research for correct working posture.

Nur Yasmin Suhaimi, Ahmad Nasser Mohd Rose

A Review on Ergonomic Assessment Tool at Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) Industries

An ergonomic assessment is a foundation for designing a comfortable workplace, which is safer and healthier with less injuries, optimized well-being, and improved overall workplace performance. Previous studies showed that most of the ergonomic assessment tools assess physical risk factors related to Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD). It is interesting to investigate other ergonomic risk factors that are important to include in an ergonomic assessment tool that is related to workers’ productivity in SME industries. This study set out to review the ergonomic assessment tools that have been widely used in Small and Medium (SME) Industries. To achieve the study objective, the review was conducted by searching the Google Scholar and Science Direct database. About 83 articles were identified in the first process. However, only 25 articles are included in this study after the screening process. The review found that there is lacking assessment on other ergonomic risk factors, such as psychosocial and cognitive risk factors that would also contribute to workers’ productivity. Many ergonomic assessment tools that have been used in Small and Medium (SME) Industries only focused on assessing the physical risk factors that affect MSD. The knowledge and understanding of various ergonomic assessment tools will help the researchers plan the next step to improve the tool that will assess the significant ergonomic risk factors that affect worker's productivity. It might help to establish a common set of ergonomic assessment tools that are more effective, efficient, and user-friendly.

Zayyinul Hayati Zen, Mirta Widia, Ezrin Hani Sukadarin

A Short Review on Heat Stress and Heat Strain in Construction Industry: The Effect on Worker Performance, Associated Health Effect, It’s Measurement and Control Mechanism

Prolonged exposure to hot and humid environments increases the probability of heat load that may cause harm to an individual. It is estimated that 35% of individuals working in heat stress condition experience occupational heat strain and 30% experience productivity loss. Worker's start to experience heat stress when Web Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) is over 22 °C for intense work and WBGT over 25 °C for non-intense work. Furthermore, working at a temperature above 32.2 °C in a hot-humid environment and 33 °C in a hot-dry climate have shown to have an impact on workers mental performance. This include reduce in workers speed of response, reasoning ability, visual perception, associative learning, and mental alertness. Therefore, objective of this study is to identify heat stress and strain control mechanism that have been developed in order to maintain construction workers safety and health. The review was done by analyzing past journal and article related with heat stress control mechanism for construction workers. Preventive safeguard measures from heat stress includes providing drinking water or sports drinks, rescheduling non-essential work, work break cycles and providing shades. Furthermore, Middle East countries implement regulation that ban working from 12 noon to 3 p.m. In addition, employer need to be proactive by monitoring worker condition on site and promote ‘drink water’ culture. In conclusion, there are numerous heat stress control and mechanism implemented to protect construction worker safety and health. The control mechanisms reduce heat stress by hydrating the worker through drinking water or reducing worker contact with sunlight.

Che Mohammad Nizam, Ahmad Rasdan Ismail, Ezrin Hani Sukadrin, Nor Kamilah Mokhtar, Arham Abdullah, Norfadzilah Jusoh, Norlini Husshin

Ergonomics and Manual Handling Workplace Improvement: A Case Study of Firefighter at Pagoh

Firefighter are constantly at risk since they are directly exposed to various physical factors, harmful chemicals and mental stress during rescue and fire-fighting. In fire extinguishing, unstable posture is one of the possible hazardous factors and contribute to high ergonomic risk factor. Due to manual handling and lack of proper standard operation procedure, firefighter are at risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders problem such as awkward postures. This paper identify ergonomics risk factor that may cause harm to firefighter during rolling of fire hose. This study was conducted in Pagoh fire station. In order to achieve those aims, observational method was used by applying Ergonomic Risk Assessment (ERA).The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) method is used by calculating the severity, occurrence and failure detection which has rating score from one (1) to ten (10). Then, the risk priority number (RPN) was calculated to get the highest priority number which led to identification of ergonomic risk factor. A set of questionnaire was distributed to 20 firefighter located at Pagoh fire station for analyzing the ergonomic risk factor and compared to the FMEA result. The result of the analysis shows 56% of the respondent experienced awkward posture during handling of fire hose. The result of the questionnaire was compared to the highest RPN value from FMEA to obtain the solution on ergonomic workplace improvement at Pagoh fire station. In addition, a new tool that is expected to improve the ergonomic and manual handling of firefighter was proposed.

Salwa Mahmood, Siti Hana Nasir, Norashid Mamat, Ismail Abdul Rahman, Noorul Azreen Azis

Development of a Survey Instrument for Measuring Workers Satisfaction on Usability of Manual Handling Equipments at the Warehouse: A Pilot Study

Scientific evidence show that manual handling devices are one of the effectives controls that can lower the physical demands of manual material handling (MMH) activities. Incidence and severity of the musculoskeletal injuries might happen to workers while company’s productivity, product quality, and overall business competitiveness also will be affected. However, few studies had been done regarding on manual handling devices provided in the industries especially in term of user satisfaction on the usability of the devices when performing their job and task. The aim of this study is to develop a survey instrument for the evaluation of worker satisfaction on usability of manual handling device among warehouse worker in manufacturing industry. A set of questionnaires was developed which consist of three sections; demographic profile of respondent, work nature and discomfort survey and worker satisfaction on the usability of the manual handling devices. The content of the questionnaire was derived through extend literature reviews and expert’s opinions. A pilot study was conducted at four manufacturing companies in their warehouse’s operation. The reliability and validity of the instrument were determined through Cronbach’s Alpha, face validity and content validity. Cronbach’s Alpha values for each section of the questionnaire range from 0.937 and 0.961 while the value for Cronbach’s Alpha for all 35 standardized items is 0.921. The finding shows that the survey instrument has face and content validity at acceptable level. In conclusion, finding indicated that this instrument had acceptable and adequate reliability and validity to meet its objectives. The survey instrument now ready to be distributed in larger data sets.

Ismail Abdul Rahman, Noorul Azreen Azis, Salwa Mahmood, Jafri Mohd Rohani, Nor Amira Farhana Zaidi, Suhaimi Mohd Sukri, Mohd Arif Afzan Mohd Zain

Does Human Factor Contribute to Mining Accidents? A Systematic Literature Review Approach

Human factor always has been debated as the key factor contributes to industrial accidents such as manufacturing, construction and many more. However, there are lack of studies globally within this research to review and prove the human factor is a primary cause of accidents at mining industry. The objective of this systematic literature review (SLR) study is to investigate the dominant factor contributes to mining accidents by applying a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method. Three main themes and fifteen subthemes have been developed based on 25 selected articles from Scopus database. The findings showed the organizational factor is the most dominant contributor to mining accidents (53%) followed by human factor (27%) and situational factor (20%). In conclusion, this finding hopefully could facilitate mine owners to improve organizational safety concern and provide a healthy safety culture in reducing mining accidents in future.

Siti Noraishah Ismail, Azizan Ramli

A Study of Occupational Stress and Risk Factors Among Palm Oil Mill Workers

Occupational stress could damage the health of worker as it may affects their emotional and physical wellbeing. The aim of the study is to determine the relationship between depression, anxiety and stress level and risk factors (physical environment, conflict at work and job requirement) among palm oil mill workers. Fifty (50) workers from palm oil mill industries were participated as respondents. Questionnaires and interviewed sessions were used to determine the level of depression, anxiety and stress, risk factors and relationship between the variables. The result obtained reveal that majority of the palm oil mill workers have a normal level of depression, anxiety and stress. Conflict at work was reported as top risk factor that affect the worker’s psychological state followed by job requirement and physical condition of the workplace. Lastly, there is a significant relationship between depression level and physical environment and job requirement (p = 0.001, r = −0.511) (p = 0.000, r = 0.574). Anxiety level and job requirement also show a significant positive relationship (p = 0.004, r = 0.403). In conclusion, the result shows a positive and negative significant correlation between the variables. Besides normal and low depression, anxiety and stress level was detected among palm oil mill workers. Thus, the employer can continuously implement the control measure based on the nature of work to maintain workers’ psychological state.

Y. L. Ting, Nur Syafiqah Fauzan, M. N. I. Md. Yusuf

Effect of Mental Workload on Heart Rate Variability and Reaction Time of Aircraft Maintenance Personnel

Any employee’s mental workload can be assessed in a traditional maintenance-nature workplace by recording psychophysiological elements, job performance, and self-rating questionnaires/scales. This research focuses on mental workload, which is defined as the cognitive demand of a task that was previously studied (Galy et al. in Int J Psychophysiol 83:269–275, 2012 [1]). Measuring the workload response of personnel was used to assess mental workload using the Easy ECG Monitor Model PC-80A for heart rate variability (HRV) and an online RED LIGHT–GREEN LIGHT Reaction Time Test for reaction time (RT). 20 personnel (with approved pre-checked health conditions and consents) were selected for this experiment. The results showed that mental workload significantly affects HRV as the numbers indicate increased values of the powers in Low frequency (LF) band, high frequency (HF) band, and the ratio of LF to HF; which are sensitive indicators for mental and physical stress. The reaction time was also significantly affected as the task-completion period was increased by two hours in between trials.

Abdul Ghani Abdul Samad, Mohd Amzar Azizan, Md Hafis Khairuddin, Muhd Khudri Johari

A Review on the Mental Workload and Physical Workload for Aircraft Maintenance Personnel

This paper reviews the nature and differences of both mental workload and physical workload that exist in the maintenance working culture. From general point of view to aviation maintenance in specifics, it can be ascertained that both workloads are equally imperative to be balanced and distributed to ensure effectiveness of work completion and safety for working personnel. While physical workload is more apparent and noticeable by many, mental workload can actually become evident from emotions conveyed and physical interactions displayed. It is hoped that industry players can focus on both mental workload and physical workload issues equally when it comes to personnel’s welfare and wellbeing to ensure win–win environment for all. This review will be used as a main reference for a subsequent research focusing on the relationship of physical workload and mental workload toward aircraft maintenance personnel’s reaction time and heart rate variability.

Abdul Ghani Abdul Samad, Mohd Amzar Azizan, Md Hafis Khairuddin, Muhd Khudri Johari

Significance of Aircraft Maintenance Personnel’s Reaction Time During Physical Workload and Mental Workload

The paper examines the significance of reaction time recorded by aircraft maintenance personnel whilst undertaking both physical and mental workload in an aircraft maintenance hangar setting. The workloads included surface patch repair, implementing corrosion prevention on mating surface, calculating various rivet dimensions, verification of patched skin, and drilling necessary holes on the intended layout of the patched skin. Their reaction time was recorded using the online RED LIGHT—GREEN LIGHT Reaction Time Test. Both mean and standard deviation were analyzed; reaction time was measured in milliseconds (ms) for all the seen tasks types given. Results have shown a significant increase in reaction time between Trial 1 (two hours) and Trial 2 (four hours). It is hoped that future studies can focus more on personnel’s reaction time during work as an alternative for maintaining personnel’s safety and wellbeing.

Abdul Ghani Abdul Samad, Mohd Amzar Azizan, Md Hafis Khairuddin, Muhd Khudri Johari

Ergonomic Risk Assessment in a Sawmill Industry

Previous studies have shown that sawmill workers develop an enormous amount of physical workloads, such as the actions of bending, holding, cutting, and raising limbs awkwardly, which were common contributing factors of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). A cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the musculoskeletal complaints among sawmill workers. After the workers’ complaints have been identified, the significant ergonomics risk factors in manual handling tasks among sawmill workers were investigated. Data collection was done using two instruments: Cornell Musculoskeletal and Hand Discomfort Questionnaire (CMDQ) and initial Ergonomic Risk Assessment (iERA). The study results show that sawmill workers are highly exposed to ergonomic risk factors, such as awkward postures. Therefore, further research concerning WMSDs is required to explore this issue. This study’s findings can contribute significantly to the body of knowledge, especially in occupational safety and health in Malaysia’s manufacturing industry involved with wood-based products.

Balqis Syahirah Jamaludin, Balkis Haris Fadzilah, Ezrin Hani Sukadarin, Mirta Widia

A Systematic Review of Risk Factor Associate with Musculoskeletal Disorder: Biomechanical and Psychosocial Factor

Provide systematically graded evidence for possible associations between biomechanical and psychosocial development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) among workers by relating them to disease etiology. Penultimately, summarize the evidence that linking biomechanical and psychosocial risk factor that experience with disorder. Psycho-social work factors were specified as distraction elements of the work environment factors and biomechanical vibration have been well established in the literature as apparently to play a major role in the development of MSD merge it has reciprocally influence. Despite have been several systematic reviews of the literature published few years back. There is demand for an updated systematic review using the GRADE clinical practice recommendations. By means of computerized search must been meet the inclusion criteria. (i) English literature (ii) Quantified results describing the relationship of combination factor (at least one risk factor of studies investigation. (iii) In a prospective case–control study or/and emphasis on peer-reviewed report literature. (iv) Risk evaluation (working environment) and retrieve outcome (disease etiology). (v) Outcome must be related to MSD that can be more than one of disease etiology. Reliance on several publisher database, Spring CORE, Research Gate, Elsevier, and Science Direct. Fifteen scientific journals were included in this review. Based on spider web plots, in terms of biomechanical factor, substantial evidence (high grade) correlation with MSD, were an effect was a high vibration segmental, repetitive and prolonged activities and awkward work postures meanwhile on psychosocial for effort reward imbalance and low support. Insufficient proof (medium low grade) of biomechanical factor was revealed on localized contact stresses and forceful exertions. Concurrently in psychosocial inconsistency data was found on work method, social distractive and excessive working hours. There was no differential combination risk factor effect of adverse job conditions on MSD symptoms. Ultimately, that biomechanical risk factor contributes to a constituent of MSD. Along with that, it will inevitably come when combined with psychosocial factor indicate results of a distinctive. Many well-known syndromes from awful biomechanical experience and psychosocial risk factor that contributing to MSD has been scientifically shown. The results of the understanding and findings of the study can help the researcher to get the latest analysis on the combining risk factor aspect for seek to solve practical problems and disseminating the knowledge as value addition to society.

Khairulhafiy Muhammad Ruzairi, Balqis Syahirah Jamaludin, Ezrin Hani Sukadarin, Mirta Widia

Ergonomics Study in Quick Response Manufacturing (QRM) Automotive Workstation Environment to Overcome Employee Complaints

The assembly line is an important process in producing a complete car unit before the product is checked and delivered to the consumer. Assembly workers during working hours are affected by work position, workload, placement of components and aids during the process and equipment used in assisting heavy work processes. Work positions with non-ergonomic workloads impact the disability and musculoskeletal complaints (MSD) of workers. The purpose of this study is to identify the ergonomic risks of assembly workers. Analytical methods using the Nordic Body Map (NBM) and QRM principles were used in this study. The results of the analysis of the level of complaints of workers’ MSD during the work were obtained for the categories of not sick (NS) 27.94%, slightly sick (SS) 36.76%, sick (S) 29.69% and very sick (VS) 5.6%. The most dominant complaints about S and VS complaints were shoulders, arms, back, waist, buttocks, wrists and hands. MSD complaints that employees feel are in the middle category with an average score of 64 points which means immediate remedial action is needed. Using the time-focused QRM principle, improvements in work procedures and designing ergonomic tools are needed to minimize MSD complaints that impact working hours faster, and there is no overtime.

Nelfiyanti, Nik Mohamed, M. F. F. Ab. Rashid

Investigation of Ergonomics Risk Assessment Among Manual Assembly Manufacturing Workers in Medical Device Industry

Workers in manufacturing industry are exposed to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) due to ergonomics risk factors such as awkward postures, repetitive motion or workstation design. Aim of this paper is to identify work-related MSD among manual assembly manufacturing workers in multinational medical device industry in Malaysia. Medical device industry is currently a rising sector with great potential growth in Malaysia, thus available research on ergonomics risk assessment is scare. Data collection was carried out with adapted questionnaire from Guideline on Ergonomics Risk Assessment at Workplace 2017, developed by the Malaysia Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) in a company in Penang, Malaysia. The MSD assessment used under the guideline is Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire (CMDQ) for standing operation and hand symptoms. A total of 86 manual assembly workers participated in this study. The results show that the most frequent affected body parts with the highest MSD severity scores were lower back and right shoulder. For hand assessment, the most frequent affected hand areas with the highest MSD severity scores were right thumb, right index-middle-ring fingers and right thumb-middle palm. The outcome of the study can serve as initial ergonomic risk assessment for advance ergonomics risk assessment to develop hierarchy of improvement measures as per outline in the guideline for the medical device manufacturing occupational group.

M. S. Md. Noh, S. A. Che Ghani, M. H. Muhammad Sidik

The Effect of Thermal Towards Human Perception of Malaysian Construction Workers Through Structural Equation Modelling (SEM)

In tropical developing countries, the workers in the construction industries are facing with high risk of thermal stress. As global temperature is estimated to be increased year by years thus constituted significant negative impacts to the workers at construction industry in Malaysia. Therefore the objective of this research paper is to highlight the findings on the perceptions of Malaysian construction workers towards the significant impact of thermal to their life. Utilizing structured questionnaire survey, there were 292 respondents response were gathered throughout Malaysian construction sector. The method of data collection used in this study is through online surveys by using Google Forms. The data have been analyzed through Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) and by using SPSS software Version 24 as well as Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis techniques using the SmartPLS 3.0 software. The findings indicated that the variable heat stress, task performance, and behavior among construction workers’ could affect significantly the human performance.

Ahmad Rasdan Ismail, Nor Kamilah Makhtar, Raemy Md Zein, Muhamad Mat Noor, Hidayat Hamid, Nurul Husna Che Hassan, Darliana Mohamad, Nor Kamaliana Khamis

Optimization of Temperature and Relative Humidity with Maximum Oxygen Uptake (VO2max) and Heart Rate (HR) by Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

The purpose of this study is to optimize the temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions of the worker heat stress and human physiological performance namely as Maximum Oxygen Uptake (VO2max) and heart rate (HR) in the construction (outdoor environment) and manufacturing (indoor environment) environment. Heat stress assessment was conducted at the workplace with two parameters of heat and relative humidity for indoor and outdoor setting conditions. The response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized in this study to analyze the results and finally to optimization the relationship of both setting for indoor and outdoor. A total number of 26 experimental runs were carried out with three male of voluntary respondents. The experiments were conducted in a well design climatic chamber with capabilities to simulate the indoor, outdoor temperature and relative humidity parameter of environments. The analysis showed that, for the indoor activities the parameter of VO2max and heart rate, the temperature and relative humidity (RH) exposed to human body should be optimized at 24.2 °C and RH at 45.8%. Meanwhile, for the outdoor activities, the temperature and RH exposed to human body should be optimized at 24.6 °C and RH at 72.5%. Therefore, these findings are in line with the current setting of comfort under ICOP IAQ 2010, DOSH Malaysia.

Ahmad Rasdan Ismail, Norfadzilah Jusoh, Nor Kamilah Makhtar, Raemy Md Zein, Muhamad Mat Noor, Khairul Azhar Mat Daud

Risk Factors of Musculoskeletal Disorder at Accident and Emergency Department at Malaysian Hospital

Musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) is one of the rising health and safety issues at many industries including healthcare. The awareness on MSD can be seen by the rising numbers of studies conducted across areas of industries from construction to manufacturing. Load and postures are among risk factors that contribute to the MSD. This study is conducted with an objectives to determine whether loads and postures also contributed to the musculoskeletal disorder at accidents and emergency department of Malaysia Hospital. Ethical approval was obtained before conducting the study. Six tertiary hospitals were involved with respondents varied from nurses, medical assistants to medical officers. Questionnaire was used in the study and were distributed via post and collected during site visits at each of the participating hospitals. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to test the relationships between variables. Findings proved that P value for load is 0.04 and P value for posture is 0.00, indicating positive relationship between load and posture with risk of musculoskeletal at workplace. As a conclusion, load and postures both have a significant effect on the risk of work related musculoskeletal disorder among healthcare workers. Therefore, corrective action must be done in order to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal among the healthcare worker.

S. F. Abdull Wahab, R. Othman, A. R. Ismail
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