Skip to main content
main-content
Top

About this book

The four-volume set LNCS 11746–11749 constitutes the proceedings of the 17th IFIP TC 13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, INTERACT 2019, held in Paphos, Cyprus, in September 2019.

The total of 111 full papers presented together with 55 short papers and 48 other papers in these books was carefully reviewed and selected from 385 submissions. The contributions are organized in topical sections named:

Part I: accessibility design principles; assistive technology for cognition and neurodevelopment disorders; assistive technology for mobility and rehabilitation; assistive technology for visually impaired; co-design and design methods; crowdsourcing and collaborative work; cyber security and e-voting systems; design methods; design principles for safety/critical systems.

Part II: e-commerce; education and HCI curriculum I; education and HCI curriculum II; eye-gaze interaction; games and gamification; human-robot interaction and 3D interaction; information visualization; information visualization and augmented reality; interaction design for culture and development I.

Part III: interaction design for culture and development II; interaction design for culture and development III; interaction in public spaces; interaction techniques for writing and drawing; methods for user studies; mobile HCI; personalization and recommender systems; pointing, touch, gesture and speech-based interaction techniques; social networks and social media interaction.

Part IV: user modelling and user studies; user experience; users’ emotions, feelings and perception; virtual and augmented reality I; virtual and augmented reality II; wearable and tangible interaction; courses; demonstrations and installations; industry case studies; interactive posters; panels; workshops.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

E-commerce

Frontmatter

Discovering the Unfindable: The Tension Between Findability and Discoverability in a Bookshop Designed for Serendipity

Serendipity is a key aspect of user experience, particularly in the context of information acquisition - where it is known as information encountering. Unexpectedly encountering interesting or useful information can spark new insights while surprising and delighting. However, digital environments have been designed primarily for goal-directed seeking over loosely-directed exploration, searching over discovering. In this paper we examine a novel physical environment - a bookshop designed primarily for serendipity - for cues as to how information encountering might be helped or hindered by digital design. Naturalistic observations and interviews revealed it was almost impossible for participants to find specific books or topics other than by accident. But all unexpectedly encountered interesting books, highlighting a tension between findability and discoverability. While some of the bookshop’s design features enabled information encountering, others inhibited it. However, encountering was resilient, as it occurred despite participants finding it hard to understand the purpose of even those features that did enable it. Findings suggest the need to consider how transparent or opaque the purpose of design features should be and to balance structure and lack of it when designing digital environments for findability and discoverability.

Stephann Makri, Yi-Chun Chen, Dana McKay, George Buchanan, Melissa Ocepek

Does the Pop-Out Make an Effect in the Product Selection of Signage Vending Machine?

When people select a product, they often face problems that they spend too much time to make a choice or tend to pick only popular items. As a solution to this problem, we focused on visual characteristics called pop-out, assuming that presenting the pop-out can lead to shortening the selection time and a wider variety of choice. In this study, we implemented a signage vending machine which had a pop-out function and conducted a long-term experiment (half year) to investigate the effect of the pop-out method in a real environment. From 2826 sales, we revealed that the selection time was short when the purchased items were popped-out, and a popped-out product was more likely to be selected by 1.51 times than chance level during the cold-only period that sold cold products only. On the other hand, there was no effect of the pop-out during the hot/cold mixed period that sold both cold and hot products.

Mitsuki Hosoya, Hiroaki Yamaura, Satoshi Nakamura, Makoto Nakamura, Eiji Takamatsu, Yujiro Kitaide

Exploring Spatial Menu Representation and Apartment-Based Categorization for Online Shopping

This work aims to explore, design and implement better and intuitive categorization schemes and menu representations for online shops that enrich and improve the shopping experience. We utilize the Apartment metaphor, in which products are categorized into rooms and furniture representing departments and shelves. Furthermore, we developed a realistic and interactive map-based spatial menu representation based on prior research findings. In a comparative user study, we evaluated our new menu categorization and representation in comparison with the current standard in online shops, based on real data from a local retailer. The results show that our apartment-based categorization in combination with a spatial representation outperforms all other conditions regarding all tested variables of performance (success rate, task completion time) and preferences (user experience, usability, workload).

Marco Speicher, Nadja Rutsch, Antonio Krüger, Markus Löchtefeld

How to Improve the Interaction Design of NFC Payment Terminals?

Near field communication (NFC) payments also popularly known as contactless payments are increasingly used in retails shops like supermarkets and cafes nowadays. User studies on NFC payments show that NFC payments fail to provide users with the appropriate user experience. In this paper, we aimed to redesign the existing NFC payment experience design by altering 5 factors namely the audio feedback, the visual feedback, the haptic feedback, the screen design of the payment terminal and the NFC component. The results show that altering the aforementioned factors increase the usability of NFC payments and provides users with privacy and security-enhanced experience. We also framed 5 guidelines based on our evaluation results which will aid designers while designing or redesigning any system. We also believe that our research methods and guidelines contribute to the researches in the HCI community.

Poornigha Santhana Kumar, Michael Bechinie, Manfred Tscheligi

Places for News: A Situated Study of Context in News Consumption

This paper presents a qualitative study of contextual factors that affect news consumption on mobile devices. Participants reported their daily news consumption activities over a period of two weeks through a snippet-based diary and experience sampling study, followed by semi-structured exit interviews. Wunderlist, a commercially available task management application and note-taking software, was appropriated for data collection. Findings highlighted a range of contextual factors that are not accounted for in current ‘contextually-aware’ news delivery technologies, and could be developed to better adapt such technologies in the future. These contextual factors were segmented to four areas: triggers, positive/conducive factors, negative/distracting factors and barriers to use.

Yuval Cohen, Marios Constantinides, Paul Marshall

Education and HCI Curriculum I

Frontmatter

Balance Talking and Doing! Using Google Design Sprint to Enhance an Intensive UCD Course

Design, evaluation and enhancement of teaching activities in user-centred design (UCD) is characterized by limited research. This is particularly paradoxical as effective high-quality teaching is a key prerequisite for professional work in UCD. This paper reports the development of a two-week intensive UCD course for university-level students in an international setting. The first edition of the course ran during the summer of 2017. Based on both qualitative and quantitative data collected from students, the course was enhanced and a new edition that introduced Google Design Sprint (GDS) was conducted during the summer of 2018. Similar student feedback data was collected during both years (i.e., 2017 and 2018). In both editions, the course included lectures and hands-on use of UCD and interaction design methods in a design assignment. In this paper, we focus on the 2018 edition of the course and the students’ qualitative and quantitative feedback on that edition. The results illustrate that students liked the intensive teamwork, clear structure, and the international setting of the course. The main concerns from the students were on inefficient time management and the lack of user involvement in GDS. However, GDS was preferred to the traditional teaching methods, as the students saw the rapid development cycle to provide a good balance of talking and doing.

Marta Larusdottir, Virpi Roto, Jan Stage, Andrés Lucero, Ilja Šmorgun

Evaluating WELI: A Wrist-Worn Application to Assist Young Adults with Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Inclusive Classes

Numerous technologies have been explored to promote independence for neurodiverse individuals in their daily routines. Despite its importance, few applications though have focused on inclusive education for neurodiverse students following a postsecondary education program. Academic assistance for neurodiverse students still relies mainly on human intervention, leaving promising opportunities for wearable solutions to be explored. While some assistive wearable solutions exist, they have rarely been evaluated in field studies. It is unclear how neurodiverse students can benefit from the unobtrusiveness and consistency of wearable support in academic classes. To understand the effectiveness of assistive wearables for neurodiverse students in inclusive classes, we conducted a user study comprising 58 classes in a postsecondary inclusive setting. We developed and evaluated WELI (Wearable Life), an assistive wearable application that supports the communication between neurodiverse students and their assistants, providing interventions through smartwatches and smartphones. The results show that students are satisfied with WELI and that interventions should be primarily driven by context and events. Focus and Rewards stood out as the most helpful features implemented.

Hui Zheng, Vivian Genaro Motti, Kudirat Giwa-Lawal, Anna Evmenova, Heidi Graff

How Do Typically Developing Children and Children with ASD Play a Tangible Game?

A tangible user interface (TUI) brings a strong educational potential for both typically developing children and children with ASD, as it fosters tactile stimulation, development of cognitive skills and perceptual skills. However, no previous research has compared the commonalities and differences of using TUI for both groups in low-resource countries. This study examines the nature of using TUI in children with autism (ages 3–5; n = 14) compared to typically developing children (ages 3–5; n = 10) along with their performance in game-play. We used an iPad-based Picture to Object Mapping Activity (POMA) game that utilised tangible components using 30 interactive pretend play toys. We collected video recordings and logs of the POMA application to explore the commonalities and differences of using TUI among both groups of children. Results indicated that children with ASD performed lower than the typically developing children in group activities; however, both groups showed similar performance in individual activities. Furthermore, we observed children with ASD had difficulties in using TUI (e.g. placing the tangibles on the iPad) when compared to typically developing children. Based on our findings, we propose recommendations for developing low-cost TUI for children with ASD in Sri Lanka.

Amani Indunil Soysa, Abdullah Al Mahmud

StatPlayground: A Sandbox for Learning Practical Statistics

Inferential statistics is a frequent task in several fields such as HCI, Psychology, and Medicine. Research shows that inferential statistics is often used incorrectly because the underlying statistical concepts are misunderstood. From interviews with students in an HCI lab, we find that, in addition to theoretical knowledge of statistics, novice analysts require statistical know-how, i.e., practical knowledge of how various data characteristics are inter-related and how they influence significance test selection and statistics, to analyze data. However, current learning resources such as books and online searches are not adequate to help learn statistical know-how. As a possible solution, we present StatPlayground, an interactive web app that supports exploratory learning of statistical know-how. StatPlayground does this by allowing users to modify data via direct-manipulation of visualizations, to see how those changes affect other data characteristics such as the shape of the distribution and variance of the data, as well as the resulting significance test and statistics such as effect size and p-value. StatPlayground can be combined with traditional teaching methods and can help prepare students for real-world analysis. Our evaluation of StatPlayground with graduate students shows the potential of StatPlayground to help learn statistical know-how and design implications for simulation tools for learning statistics.

Krishna Subramanian, Jeanine Bonot, Radu A. Coanda, Jan Borchers

Training Non-designers in Co-design Methods Through an Active Assisted Living Interactive Workshop

In the era of participation, design and development teams are called to utilize co-design methods in their work and thus required to master the use and appropriate application of those types of methods. However, not all teams, and certainly not all team members, are learned or trained in co-design. This raises challenges not only to the use of co-design methods, but also to its skilful application. This paper reports on an interactive co-design workshop with seventeen EU-funded project coordinators, to investigate their perception on the extent to which the workshop activities impacted their level of empathy towards others, ease of communication, and openness to employ co-design methods. Considering the hands-on and playful nature of the methods, we also investigate participants’ perceptions on the methods’ ease of application in a real-world context as well as their effectiveness in increasing participants’ knowledge of co-design methods. Results indicate that the proposed activities positively contribute to all the dimensions investigated, with the highest effect being achieved in increasing participants’ openness to employ co-design methods and the playful nature of the activities being perceived as contributing more to the learning effectiveness than the hands-on approach of the activities.

Paula Alexandra Silva, Ana Dias Daniel

Education and HCI Curriculum II

Frontmatter

Embodied Interaction in Language Learning: Enhancing Students’ Collaboration and Emotional Engagement

Embodied interaction enriches conventional educational practice and provides ways of integrating the physical body and movement into the learning process. The Embodied theoretical framework via the use of emerging technologies has significantly changed the direction of teaching allowing learners to be more active and engage in collaborative learning activities. This study investigates students’ performance in a collaborative embodied learning environment using motion-based games within a real classroom language learning context. Participants were 52 elementary students (second and third graders) and five teachers. The analysis is based on a students’ questionnaire, direct classroom observations and semi-structured interviews with participating teachers. Findings indicate that embodied learning interactions enabled students to work more collaboratively engaging them in the learning activities, physically and emotionally. The paper contributes to the HCI community by providing a better and evidence-based understanding of the potential of using embodied technology in collaborative settings within a real classroom environment.

Panagiotis Kosmas, Panayiotis Zaphiris

Evaluation of a Massive Online Course Forum: Design Issues and Their Impact on Learners’ Support

Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are delivered through dedicated platforms that provide educational opportunities to a large number of learners around the globe. The discussion forum is a key part of a MOOC platform. Structured communication between learners or between learners and instructors can take place through the forum. This communication has been shown that can have strong learning impact. Teaching Assistants (TAs) have a crucial role coordinating and supporting learners within a MOOC forum. In this paper, we investigate the impact a forum design can have on the TA’s effectiveness while supporting the learners of a MOOC. Towards this objective, a mixed-methods study was performed on two MOOCs delivered through the OpenEdX platform. The goal was to reveal any design issues initially through a participatory ethnographic study and complementarily through a formal usability evaluation. Moreover, through interviews with the TAs, problems they faced while supporting learners were confirmed. The results of this study indicate that the OpenEdX forum design faces a variety of issues that need to be considered by course designers. Such issues cause various problems to teaching assistants, hindering effective support to learners and therefore affecting the learners’ experience. It is further expected that the findings of this study may contribute to effective re-design of MOOC platform forums, more effective and efficient TA interventions and ultimately to improved learning.

Anastasios Ntourmas, Nikolaos Avouris, Sophia Daskalaki, Yannis Dimitriadis

Kahaniyan - Designing for Acquisition of Urdu as a Second Language

This paper describes the design of Mobile Assisted Second Language Learning Application (MASLL) - Kahaniyan - created to assist non-native primary school children in learning Urdu. We explore the use of gamification to assist language learning within the context of interactive storytelling. The final design presented in this paper demonstrates how psychological and linguistic aspects coupled with contextual task analysis can be used to create a second language learning tool. The study also reports the results of the user study and the evaluation of the application which was conducted with 32 primary school students. Our results show a positive influence on learning outcomes, with findings that hold great significance for future work on designing MASLL for languages written in Arabic or Persian script.

Saad Hassan, Aiza Hasib, Suleman Shahid, Sana Asif, Arsalan Khan

On Making, Tinkering, Coding and Play for Learning: A Review of Current Research

Although a few researchers have recently focused on the value of making, tinkering, coding, and play in learning, a synthesis of this work is currently missing, creating an unclear path for future research in this area. Computational-making-enhanced activities, framed as activities promoting making, tinkering, coding and play in the learning process, have gained a lot of attention during the last decade. This study provides a review of the existing research in this area, published in academic journals, from 2009 to 2018. We examine learning gains linked to learners’ participation in computational making-enhanced activities in formal and non-formal education settings. We further overview the research methods, the educational level, and the context of the published studies. The review of selected studies has shown that most of the research has been conducted in non-formal and informal education settings, however a shift to formal education has appeared since 2016. Most studies have focused on programming and computer science with middle-school learners. Immediate action is needed to inform the design of computational-making-enhanced activities directly linked to curriculum goals. Given the lack of synthesis of work on computational-making, the review can have considerable value for researchers and practitioners in the field.

Stella Timotheou, Andri Ioannou

Rexy, A Configurable Application for Building Virtual Teaching Assistants

In recent years, virtual assistants gained a pervasive role in many domains and education was not different from others. However, although some implementation of conversational agents for supporting students have already been presented, they were ad hoc systems, built for specific courses and impossible to generalize. Also, there is a lack of research about the effects that the development of systems capable of interacting with both the students and the professors would have. In this paper, we introduce Rexy, a configurable application that can be used to build virtual teaching assistants for diverse courses, and present the results of a user study carried out using it as a virtual teaching assistant for an on-site course held at Politecnico di Milano. The qualitative analysis of the usage that was made of the assistant and the results of a post study questionnaire the students were asked to fill showed that they see conversational agents as useful tools for helping them in their studies.

Luca Benedetto, Paolo Cremonesi

Two-Way Gaze Sharing in Remote Teaching

On-line teaching situations where a tutor and their students are remote from each other mean that contact between them is reduced compared with teaching in a classroom. We report an initial study of two-way gaze sharing between a tutor and a group of students, who were in different locations. A 45-min class consisted of an introductory lecture followed by an exercise in using two software tools, one for building an experiment and the other for analysis of the data collected. The tutor went through an exercise step by step and the students followed. This was run twice with four students on each run. The tutor had a view of the students’ desktops with their gaze markers overlaid and each student had a view of the tutor’s desktop and gaze marker. Students found seeing the tutor’s gaze marker helpful during the exercise but distracting when reading the text on the lecture slides. The tutor found the view of the students’ gaze point helpful as an indicator of their current object of attention when giving assistance to individuals.

Oleg Špakov, Diederick Niehorster, Howell Istance, Kari-Jouko Räihä, Harri Siirtola

Eye-Gaze Interaction

Frontmatter

Designing Interactions with Intention-Aware Gaze-Enabled Artificial Agents

As it becomes more common for humans to work alongside artificial agents on everyday tasks, it is increasingly important to design artificial agents that can understand and interact with their human counterparts naturally. We posit that an effective way to do this is to harness nonverbal cues used in human-human interaction. We, therefore, leverage knowledge from existing work on gaze-based intention recognition, where the awareness of gaze can provide insights into the future actions of an observed human subject. In this paper, we design and evaluate the use of a proactive intention-aware gaze-enabled artificial agent that assists a human player engaged in an online strategy game. The agent assists by recognising and communicating the intentions of a human opponent in real-time, potentially improving situation awareness. Our first study identifies the language requirements for the artificial agent to communicate the opponent’s intentions to the assisted player, using an inverted Wizard of Oz method approach. Our second study compares the experience of playing an online strategy game with and without the assistance of the agent. Specifically, we conducted a within-subjects study with 30 participants to compare their experience of playing with (1) detailed AI predictions, (2) abstract AI predictions, and (3) no AI predictions but with a live visualisation of their opponent’s gaze. Our results show that the agent can facilitate awareness of another user’s intentions without adding visual distraction to the interface; however, the cognitive workload was similar across all three conditions, suggesting that the manner in which the agent communicates its predictions requires further exploration. Overall, our work contributes to the understanding of how to support human-agent teams in a dynamic collaboration scenario. We provide a positive account of humans interacting with an intention-aware artificial agent afforded by gaze input, which presents immediate opportunities for improving interactions between the counterparts.

Joshua Newn, Ronal Singh, Fraser Allison, Prashan Madumal, Eduardo Velloso, Frank Vetere

GazeLens: Guiding Attention to Improve Gaze Interpretation in Hub-Satellite Collaboration

In hub-satellite collaboration using video, interpreting gaze direction is critical for communication between hub coworkers sitting around a table and their remote satellite colleague. However, 2D video distorts images and makes this interpretation inaccurate. We present GazeLens, a video conferencing system that improves hub coworkers’ ability to interpret the satellite worker’s gaze. A $$360^{\circ }$$ 360 ∘ camera captures the hub coworkers and a ceiling camera captures artifacts on the hub table. The system combines these two video feeds in an interface. Lens widgets strategically guide the satellite worker’s attention toward specific areas of her/his screen allow hub coworkers to clearly interpret her/his gaze direction. Our evaluation shows that GazeLens (1) increases hub coworkers’ overall gaze interpretation accuracy by $$25.8\%$$ 25.8 % in comparison to a conventional video conferencing system, (2) especially for physical artifacts on the hub table, and (3) improves hub coworkers’ ability to distinguish between gazes toward people and artifacts. We discuss how screen space can be leveraged to improve gaze interpretation.

Khanh-Duy Le, Ignacio Avellino, Cédric Fleury, Morten Fjeld, Andreas Kunz

Influences of Mixed Reality and Human Cognition on Picture Passwords: An Eye Tracking Study

Recent research revealed that individual cognitive differences affect visual behavior and task performance of picture passwords within conventional interaction realms such as desktops and tablets. Bearing in mind that mixed reality environments necessitate from end-users to perceive, process and comprehend visually-enriched content, this paper further investigates whether this new interaction realm amplifies existing observed effects of individual cognitive differences towards user interactions in picture passwords. For this purpose, we conducted a comparative eye tracking study (N = 50) in which users performed a picture password composition task within a conventional interaction context vs. a mixed reality context. For interpreting the derived results, we adopted an accredited human cognition theory that highlights cognitive differences in visual perception and search. Analysis of results revealed that new technology realms like mixed reality extend and, in some cases, amplify the effect of human cognitive differences towards users’ visual and interaction behavior in picture passwords. Findings can be of value for improving future implementations of picture passwords by considering human cognitive differences as a personalization factor for the design of user-adaptive graphical passwords in mixed reality.

Christos Fidas, Marios Belk, George Hadjidemetriou, Andreas Pitsillides

ScaffoMapping: Assisting Concept Mapping for Video Learners

Previous research has shown that having learners construct concept maps can bring better learning outcome. However, in video learning scenario, there is not sufficient support for learners to create concept maps from educational videos. Through a preliminary study, we identified two main difficulties video learners face in creating concept maps: navigation difficulty and learning difficulty. To help users to overcome such difficulties, we design scaffolds to assist learners in concept mapping. We present ScaffoMapping, a system aiming for scaffolded concept map creation on educational videos through automatic concept extraction and timestamp generation. Our study, which compares ScaffoMapping with the baseline approach, shows that (1) Learners can create higher quality concept maps with ScaffoMapping. (2) ScaffoMapping enables better learning outcomes in video learning scenario.

Shan Zhang, Xiaojun Meng, Can Liu, Shengdong Zhao, Vibhor Sehgal, Morten Fjeld

Shared Gaze While Driving: How Drivers Can Be Supported by an LED-Visualization of the Front-Seat Passenger’s Gaze

The front-seat passenger in a vehicle may assist a driver in providing hints towards points of interest in a driving situation. In order to communicate spatial information efficiently, the so-called shared gaze approach has been introduced in previous research. Thereby, the gaze of the front-seat passenger is visualized for the driver. So far, this approach has been solely investigated in driving simulator environments. In this paper, we present a study on how well shared gaze works in a real driving situation (n = 8). We examine identification rates of different object types in the driving environment based on the visualization of the front-seat passenger’s gaze via glowing LEDs on an LED-strip. Our results show that this rate is dependent on object relevance for the driving task and movement of the object. We found that perceived visual distraction was low and that the usefulness of shared gaze for navigational tasks was considered high.

Sandra Trösterer, Benedikt Streitwieser, Alexander Meschtscherjakov, Manfred Tscheligi

TEXTile: Eyes-Free Text Input on Smart Glasses Using Touch Enabled Textile on the Forearm

Smart glasses are autonomous and efficient computers that can perform complex tasks through mobile applications. This paper focuses on text input for mobile context. We present a new connected fabric to smart glasses as a device for text entry. This device, integrated into clothing, provides a new interaction technique called TEXTile. It allows typing without requiring users to hold a device. Users can put fingers anywhere on the fabric surface and release them, without needing to look at the fabric or using markers on the fabric. The text entry technique is based on eight combinations of fingers in contact or released, identified as pleasant among 15 in a survey involving 74 participants. A first user’s study with 20 participants establishes that the eight combinations for TEXTile were significantly reliable (98.95% recognition rate). A second study with nine participants evaluates the learning curve of TEXTile. Users achieved a mean typing of 8.11 WPM at the end of ten 12-min sessions, which can be slow, but sufficient with short text compared to other advantages of the technique. Results show low error rates for tasks completed and good usability (76% in SUS questionnaire). The NASA-TLX questionnaire establishes there is no important mental or physical workload to accomplish the task.

Ilyasse Belkacem, Isabelle Pecci, Benoît Martin, Anthony Faiola

Games and Gamification

Frontmatter

“I Don’t Fit into a Single Type”: A Trait Model and Scale of Game Playing Preferences

Player typology models classify different player motivations and behaviours. These models are necessary to design personalized games or to target specific audiences. However, many models lack validation and standard measurement instruments. Additionally, they rely on type theories, which split players into separate categories. Yet, personality research has lately favoured trait theories, which recognize that people’s preferences are composed of a sum of different characteristics. Given these shortcomings of existing models, we developed a player traits model built on a detailed review and synthesis of the extant literature, which introduces five player traits: aesthetic orientation, narrative orientation, goal orientation, social orientation, and challenge orientation. Furthermore, we created and validated a 25-item measurement scale for the five player traits. This scale outputs a player profile, which describes participants’ preferences for different game elements and game playing styles. Finally, we demonstrate that this is the first validated player preferences model and how it serves as an actionable tool for personalized game design.

Gustavo F. Tondello, Karina Arrambide, Giovanni Ribeiro, Andrew Jian-lan Cen, Lennart E. Nacke

Comparing the Applicability of Pressure as a Game Metric to Self-assessment and Physiological Metrics

Recently, the amount of pressure that is exerted on an input device during a gaming session has been shown to correlate with several aspects of the game experience. While studies have used this metric in a game analysis perspective with promising results, there is still a lack of comparison between the performance of this metric compared to physiological metrics or self-assessment method. Therefore, we conduct an experiment in which we compare exerted pressure against the electrodermal activity (EDA), heart rate (HR) and self-assessment of a subject during a gaming session. Our results indicate that pressure can be used to assess the perceived game difficulty, possibly even better than EDA and HR.

Ea Ehrnberg Ustrup, Mads Mathiesen, Joakim Have Poulsen, Jesper Vang Christensen, Markus Löchtefeld

Fall-Prevention Exergames Using Balance Board Systems

The prevention of falls in older adults is an issue that can only be solved with regular exercises, sometimes with the supervision of therapists. This paper presents a game framework that uses devices such as the Wii Balance Board (WBB) to replicate fall-prevention programs, such as the Otago Exercise Programme. The objective is to increase the adherence of senior users to these exercises, while increasing their autonomy by enabling them to conduct unsupervised games. Two interactive games were developed and tested using the WBB and other available devices such as smartphones. The main contribution of this paper is the proposal of several metrics for exergames for the elderly and the combination of digital games with fall-prevention exercises and automatic balance measures based on Centre of Pressure (COP) tracking.

Miguel Brito, Rui Nóbrega, João Jacob, Rui Rodrigues, António Coelho

Mobile Mapmaking: A Field Study of Gamification and Cartographic Editing

Digital mapmaking has traditionally been a desktop computing activity with dedicated graphical (native or web) applications that strongly depend on the precision of mouse input. In addition, digital mapmaking also has a strong pillar on field observations, which have remained a separate task to the final mapmaking. In this work, we present to users a mobile application that combines the strengths of graphical mapmaking user interfaces with the actual geographical context into an integrated and collaborative user interface. In particular, the application implements three representative mobile mapmaking tasks (path recording, path editing and path reviewing) and includes gamification elements. A field experiment was conducted with thirty-six participants for two twenty-day periods during which they were asked to provide information about the pedestrian network of an urban region using the app. The results from questionnaire responses and contribution data showed that most users prefer recording their path, which is also the work with the lowest interaction. Moreover, gamification did not bring the expected results and the more difficult tasks were undertaken by few devoted users. Further research is needed to examine how interface design could better engage committed users in the aforementioned mapmaking task types.

Manousos Kamilakis, Konstantinos Chorianopoulos

Play and Learn with an Intelligent Robot: Enhancing the Therapy of Hearing-Impaired Children

This study suggests an innovative way of using an intelligent robot to support speech therapy for hearing impaired children through play. Although medical technology (e.g., hearing aid, cochlear implant) for children with hearing impairment has advanced significantly, the amplification itself does not provide optimal development of hearing and speaking; it must be combined with specialized therapy. The present study focuses on the use of the humanoid robot NAO in auditory-verbal therapy, an approach to the development of auditory and verbal skills, which does not allow lipreading or other non-verbal cues to facilitate communication. NAO does not have a human mouth and therefore children with hearing impairment cannot do lipreading; this unique characteristic of the technology has been successfully used in the study to create playful and engaging auditory-verbal therapy sessions for six kindergarten hearing impaired children, allowing them to improve their ability to follow instructions using the hearing aid/cochlear implant rather than visual clues in the environment. Our results, although preliminary, seem to encourage further research in supporting hearing-impaired children via play with intelligent robots.

Andri Ioannou, Anna Andreva

Understanding the Digital and Non-digital Participation by the Gaming Youth

It is important for the inclusiveness of society that the youth actively participate in its development. Even though the means of digital participation have advanced in the past decade, there is still lack of understanding of digital participation of the youth. In this paper, we present a study on how youth aged 16–25 years perceive social and societal participation and more specifically, how youth currently participate in non-digitally and digitally. We conducted a mixed method study in a large gaming event in Finland using a questionnaire (N = 277) and face-to-face interviews (N = 25). The findings reveal that the gaming youth consider digital participation to include discussions in different social media services or web discussion forums. Creating digital content (e.g. videos) and answering surveys were also emphasized. Perceived advantages to participate digitally include the freedom regarding location and time, ease and efficiency in sharing information, and inexpensiveness. Central disadvantages include lack of commitment, anonymity, misinformation and cheating. We also found that frequently playing gamers are more likely to participate online in social activities than those who play occasionally. Youth who reported that they play strategy games were more active in civic participation than those who do not play strategy games. We discuss the implications of our findings to the design of tools for digital participation.

Iikka Pietilä, Jari Varsaluoma, Kaisa Väänänen

Human-Robot Interaction and 3D Interaction

Frontmatter

DupRobo: Interactive Robotic Autocompletion of Physical Block-Based Repetitive Structure

In this paper, we present DupRobo, an interactive robotic platform for tangible block-based design and construction. DupRobo supported user-customizable exemplar, repetition control, and tangible autocompletion, through the computer-vision and the robotic techniques. With DupRobo, we aim to reduce users’ workload in repetitive block-based construction, yet preserve the direct manipulatability and the intuitiveness in tangible model design, such as product design and architecture design. Through a user study with 12 participants, we found that DupRobo significantly reduced participants’ perceived physical demand, overall efforts, and frustration in the process of block-based structure design and construction, compared to the situation without DupRobo. In addition, the participants rated DupRobo as easy to learn and use.

Taizhou Chen, Yi-Shiun Wu, Kening Zhu

Esquisse: Using 3D Models Staging to Facilitate the Creation of Vector-Based Trace Figures

Trace figures are contour drawings of people and objects that capture the essence of scenes without the visual noise of photos or other visual representations. Their focus and clarity make them ideal representations to illustrate designs or interaction techniques. In practice, creating those figures is a tedious task requiring advanced skills, even when creating the figures by tracing outlines based on photos. To mediate the process of creating trace figures, we introduce the open-source tool Esquisse. Informed by our taxonomy of 124 trace figures, Esquisse provides an innovative 3D model staging workflow, with specific interaction techniques that facilitate 3D staging through kinematic manipulation, anchor points and posture tracking. Our rendering algorithm (including stroboscopic rendering effects) creates vector-based trace figures of 3D scenes. We validated Esquisse with an experiment where participants created trace figures illustrating interaction techniques, and results show that participants quickly managed to use and appropriate the tool.

Axel Antoine, Sylvain Malacria, Nicolai Marquardt, Géry Casiez

Examining the Effects of Height, Velocity and Emotional Representation of a Social Transport Robot and Human Factors in Human-Robot Collaboration

In nowadays industrial facilities robots play a major part in assisting the human worker. To ensure an effective process not only safety aspects have to be considered. For increasing the acceptance of humans towards robots, social aspects are important as well. In this paper we examine how the behaviour of humans towards other humans can be adapted to the robots behaviour. Especially, the usage of social rules regarding the distance between people are studied with different robot characteristics for height, velocity and emotional expressions as well as human factors.

Jana Jost, Thomas Kirks, Stuart Chapman, Gerhard Rinkenauer

Towards Participatory Design of Social Robots

With an increase in research and development of social robotics and commercial robots entering the market, there is a need for design tools that enable non-experts to design, build and use customized social robots. Human Computer Interaction researchers have a rich evolving tool-set when it comes to user-centered design. To encourage the use of user-centered design techniques in early design iterations of social robots, we propose the use of Opsoro. We present a case study which exhibits participatory design sessions using a Do-It-Yourself platform to enable the creation of social robots with non-experts.

Aduén Darriba Frederiks, Johanna Renny Octavia, Cesar Vandevelde, Jelle Saldien

User Needs in Smart Homes: Changing Needs According to Life Cycles and the Impact on Designing Smart Home Solutions

Smart home solutions are gaining popularity but hold a large untapped potential. This paper presents smart home needs from a user point of view. Based on co-creation workshops with residents of different life cycles in Belgium, it draws conclusions about key issues related to user needs. Starting from these insights we can describe characteristics of inhabitants according to their life cycle. We conclude that their needs for smart solutions and the way they want to equip their homes differ. The younger generation looks for modular systems with possibilities to expand or move them. They are moment oriented and buy Internet of Things (IoT) appliances according to their current needs and budget. The older generation, by contrast, searches for quality and all-in-one solutions. They want a complete solution that does not require any updates or extras and is proof for their future needs. The results of this study in the form of eight guidelines can be considered when designing smart home solutions.

Olivia De Ruyck, Peter Conradie, Lieven De Marez, Jelle Saldien

Information Visualization

Frontmatter

A Formative Study of Interactive Bias Metrics in Visual Analytics Using Anchoring Bias

Interaction is the cornerstone of how people perform tasks and gain insight in visual analytics. However, people’s inherent cognitive biases impact their behavior and decision making during their interactive visual analytic process. Understanding how bias impacts the visual analytic process, how it can be measured, and how its negative effects can be mitigated is a complex problem space. Nonetheless, recent work has begun to approach this problem by proposing theoretical computational metrics that are applied to user interaction sequences to measure bias in real-time. In this paper, we implement and apply these computational metrics in the context of anchoring bias. We present the results of a formative study examining how the metrics can capture anchoring bias in real-time during a visual analytic task. We present lessons learned in the form of considerations for applying the metrics in a visual analytic tool. Our findings suggest that these computational metrics are a promising approach for characterizing bias in users’ interactive behaviors.

Emily Wall, Leslie Blaha, Celeste Paul, Alex Endert

Benefits and Trade-Offs of Different Model Representations in Decision Support Systems for Non-expert Users

Researchers have reported a lack of experience and low graph literacy as significant problems when making visual analytics applications available to a general audience. Therefore, it is fundamental to understand the strengths and weaknesses of different visualizations in the decision-making process. This paper explores the benefits and challenges of an intuitive, a compact, and a detailed visualization for supporting non-expert users. Using objective and subjective means proposed by earlier work, we determine the benefits and trade-offs of these visualizations for different task complexity levels. We found that while an intuitive visualization can be a good choice for easy level and medium level tasks, hard level tasks are best supported with a richer, yet visually more demanding visualization.

Francisco Gutiérrez, Xavier Ochoa, Karsten Seipp, Tom Broos, Katrien Verbert

Customizing Websites Through Automatic Web Search

The WorldWide Web has endured an incredible growth in the last decades. Nowadays, we can visit an unimaginable number of websites from different devices (laptops, mobiles, tablets...) in order to obtain immediate information. However, this information is separated in different resources and Web information search is unpleasant. The feeling of the users is frustrating when collecting information from different resources. Techniques such as Web personalization and Web customization have been an important research area during the last years. Web customization techniques have been widely used to develop website adaptation along the WorldWide Web. This customization is frequently performed by end-users that use the numerous tools available to carry out this assignment.This article presents Excore, a Web customization tool that permits end-users to customize their websites with automatic Web searches. The article presents the benefits introduced by Excore as a response to the drawbacks end-users experience while they perform their Web activities. Evaluation of the Web customization tool is also addressed in the paper. Evaluation is performed with stakeholders by means of tests and surveys. Results show that testers overcome the detected drawbacks with the use of Excore.

Iñigo Aldalur, Alain Perez, Felix Larrinaga

Influence of Color and Size of Particles on Their Perceived Speed in Node-Link Diagrams

Edges in networks often represent transfer relationships between vertices. When visualizing such networks as node-link diagrams, animated particles flowing along the links can effectively convey this notion of transfer. Variables that govern the motion of particles, their speed in particular, may be used to visually represent edge data attributes. Few guidelines exist to inform the design of these particle-based network visualizations, however. Empirical studies so far have only looked at the different motion variables in isolation, independently from other visual variables controlling the appearance of particles, such as their color or size. In this paper, we report on a study of the influence of several visual variables on users’ perception of the speed of particles. Our results show that particles’ luminance, chromaticity and width do not interfere with their perceived speed. But variations in their length make it more difficult for users to compare the relative speed of particles across edges.

Hugo Romat, Dylan Lebout, Emmanuel Pietriga, Caroline Appert

Information Visualization and Augmented Reality

Frontmatter

Augmented Reality Technology for Displaying Close-Proximity Sub-Surface Positions

When designing human-system collaboration to assist in strenuous manual tasks we need to develop methods of communication between the system and the human. In this paper we are evaluating augmented reality (AR) technologies for displaying task-relevant information when the target is on a work surface for a typically standing work operation. In this case we are testing AR interfaces for displaying sub-surface positions. To do this we compare four types of AR interfaces, a head-mounted see-through display, a mounted see-through display, top-down surface projection and graphical overlays on a static monitor. We performed the experiment with 48 participants. Data analyses show significant difference between the AR interfaces in terms of task completion times and user satisfaction with the projection-based display being the fastest and most satisfying to the participants.

Kasper Hald, Matthias Rehm, Thomas B. Moeslund

Bubble Margin: Motion Sickness Prevention While Reading on Smartphones in Vehicles

The shift towards autonomous driving will allow people to read and work while riding in such a vehicle. Some people suffer from motion sickness while being engaged in these activities in a moving vehicle since the signals of the visual and vestibular systems of the human body are mismatched. One approach to mitigate motion sickness is to provide visual cues for the affected person. We present Bubble Margin, a smartphone application to reduce motion sickness while reading in a moving vehicle. It is built as a stand-alone, semi-transparent overlay application that visualizes motion cues in form of bubbles at the margins of a smartphone while other applications may be used in the remaining area. Forces to move these bubbles are taken from smartphone sensors. An initial within-subject design study (N = 10) with participants performing a reading task in a real driving scenario showed mitigating effects on motion sickness symptoms.

Alexander Meschtscherjakov, Sebastian Strumegger, Sandra Trösterer

CyclAir: A Bike Mounted Prototype for Real-Time Visualization of CO Levels While Cycling

With the increased global focus on the environment, pollution, greenhouse gases, as well as carbon footprint, a multitude of initiatives have emerged in order to reduce air pollution and also increase awareness of air quality. In this paper, we developed CyclAir, a system enabling cyclists to monitor the traffic-related air pollution, measured in carbon dioxide (CO $$_2$$ 2 ) levels, both in real-time as well as retrospectively. Based on a first user study with seven test participants, we found that our participants were often confirmed about their preconceptions of the immediate CO $$_2$$ 2 level and air quality, but interestingly they were also sometimes surprised. 6 out of the 7 participants expressed willingness to change route choosing behavior when presented with new evidence about the air quality, even when this increased the route length.

Eike Schneiders, Mikael B. Skov

Dissecting Pie Charts

Pie charts can be regularly found both in the popular media and research publications. There is evidence that other forms of visualizations make it easier to evaluate the relative order of the data items. Doughnut charts have been suggested as a variation that has advantages over pie charts. We investigated how pie charts and doughnut charts are affected by the number of sectors in the chart, the difference in sector sizes, and the size of the hole. We carried out an eye tracking study to find out how the charts are read. Our study reveals the distribution of visual attention for each type of chart. The results indicate that doughnut charts with a medium size hole have a slight edge over the other chart types we studied. We also show that contrary to common claims, for information extraction also the area and length of sector arc are used in addition to the angles of the sectors.

Harri Siirtola, Kari-Jouko Räihä, Howell Istance, Oleg Špakov

Same Same but Different: Exploring the Effects of the Stroop Color Word Test in Virtual Reality

Virtual reality (VR) is used for different trainings e.g. for pilots, athletes, and surgeons. Dangerous and difficult situations are often focused in such simulations in VR, targeting to learn how to perform well under stress. However, there has been little work on understanding stress perception in VR compared to the real-world situation. In this paper we present an investigation of how users experience a stressful task in VR compared to in a classic office environment. Specifically, we investigate the subjective stress experience and physiological arousal with 15 participants performing the Stroop color word test either on a regular desktop screen, in VR, or in VR requiring head movements. Our findings suggest that stressful tasks are perceived less stressful when being performed in VR compared to the real environment as long as there is no additional stress factor, such as head movement involved. Our work indicates that it may be valuable to transfer stressful tasks, currently done in traditional office environments into VR.

Romina Poguntke, Markus Wirth, Stefan Gradl

Interaction Design for Culture and Development I

Frontmatter

“Why Would You Buy from a Stranger?” Understanding Saudi Citizens’ Motivations and Challenges in Social Commerce

Consumers in many countries like the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) are increasingly turning to social media platforms like Instagram and WhatsApp to buy and sell products and services. Commercial activities within these platforms are increasing in popularity because of important qualities they provide, such as convenience of use, social aspects, and the variety of the types of products available. Using social media in this way has become popular, even though social platforms lack support for conducting e-commerce. In our study, we aim to understand this new trend, to investigate the needs of social media consumers within KSA, and to investigate how social platforms can be better designed to meet those needs. Using data collected through interviews with 26 social media users, we discuss and propose design directions and trust mechanisms for supporting commercial activity within social media platforms with the aim of improving user experience and increasing user acceptance.

Aisha Ahmed AlArfaj, Ellis Solaiman, Lindsay Marshall

Denouncing Sexual Violence: A Cross-Language and Cross-Cultural Analysis of #MeToo and #BalanceTonPorc

#MeToo, a social media movement that denounced sexual violence against women was lauded as a global phenomenon. In this paper, we present a cross-language and cross-cultural quantitative examination of the English #MeToo and French #BalanceTonPorc. The goal of our study was to examine the global to local adoption and personalization of this social media movement. In part one of our study, we sought to understand linguistic differences by comparing #MeToo tweets in English and #BalanceTonPorc tweets in French. In the second part, we sought to understand cultural differences in the way #MeToo was adopted in the US and India. We found that the movement did not share a unified perspective, instead it was shaped by the culture and social reality of the posters; tweets in French were more aggressive and accusing than those in English, while English tweets from India involved more religion and society than those from the US.

Irene Lopez, Robin Quillivic, Hayley Evans, Rosa I. Arriaga

Dhana Labha: A Financial Management Application to Underbanked Communities in Rural Sri Lanka

This paper presents findings from field trial of a mobile application called ‘Dhana Labha’ in a rural Sri Lankan community. Dhana Labha was designed to be used by the community members to manage their personal finances, oversee their performance in managing multiple microfinance loans and assist in loan collection. We distributed the application among thirty eight microfinance clients and studied their use over a period of six months. Our findings show that the use of Dhana Labha had a positive impact on existing local practices and financial awareness while prompting the participants to develop unexpected new practices around microfinance workflows. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding existing sociocultural practices for designing applications, as they strongly affect and shape the use of technology in a constrained setting.

Thilina Halloluwa, Dhaval Vyas

Fostering Interaction Between Locals and Visitors by Designing a Community-Based Tourism Platform on a Touristic Island

More people are traveling than ever before. This intense and disproportionate growth in tourism may, however, generate negative environmental and social effects, especially on islands. In order to address this issue, this article presents the design and evaluation of Há-Vita, an interactive web platform, whose goal is to foster awareness of local nature and folk knowledge and create connections between locals and visitors. We explored these design goals through different research methods, such as user studies with tourists in hotel lobbies, as well as focus groups consisting of two different groups of local residents and a group of visitors. Theoretically, Há-Vita is grounded in the concept of “community-based tourism ventures,” which is concerned with environmental preservation via ecotourism practices and, at the same time, the empowerment of local communities. Furthermore, the design rationale of the platform is also inspired by the authenticity theory, which examines tourists’ pursuit of meaningful interactions with locals. Our results indicate that, despite time constraints (for visitors), locals and visitors were willing to interact with each other as they acknowledged authentic benefits in such interaction. Furthermore, our focus groups with locals have shown the potential to stimulate different levels of local empowerment based on the community-based tourism framework in the design iterations of Há-Vita.

Mara Dionisio, Cláudia Silva, Valentina Nisi

Ustaad: A Mobile Platform for Teaching Illiterates

According to a recent statistical analysis conducted in 2018, more than 40% of the population has no reading or writing skills especially in rural areas of Pakistan. On the contrary, the mobile phone users have grown at a very steep rate even with a stagnant literacy rate. We formed a user-driven approach to research, develop and test a prototype mobile application that could be used to teach illiterates basic reading, writing and counting skills without using traditional schooling techniques. This first of a kind application provided the user the ability to customize their own learning plan. Focusing on native language Urdu, the application teaches them the required skill they need for daily life activities such as writing their own name, scenario-based calculations, identifying commonly used words.

Syed Ali Umair Tirmizi, Yashfa Iftikhar, Sarah Ali, Ahmed Ehsan, Ali Ehsan, Suleman Shahid

Backmatter

Additional information