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About this book

This unique volume addresses the financial mechanisms that enable human trafficking - its actors, structures, and logistics. Viewing each stage of the market, human traffickers may need significant financial resources for recruitment, transportation, and exploitation.
Drawing upon cross-disciplinary research expertise in criminology, sociology, law and economics, this book offers insights from law enforcement officers, policy makers, NGOs, and traffickers and their victims. Using three European countries - Bulgaria, Italy and the United Kingdom - it provides an account on the sources of capital for initiating and sustaining a human trafficking scheme, discussing the involvement of criminal structures, legitimate businesses, financial institutions, and information and communication technologies in the running of these enterprises. It also addresses the ways in which entrepreneurs and customers settle payments, the costs of conducting business in human trafficking, and how profits from the business are spent and invested.
This important contribution to the transnational organized crime knowledge base will be of interest to researchers and academics, as well as law enforcement, regulatory agencies, and policy makers combating human trafficking.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

1. Human Trafficking and Its Financial Management in Bulgaria

Abstract
Trafficking in human beings for the purpose of sexual exploitation is considered one of the largest Bulgarian criminal markets since the beginning of the new millennium. After the lifting of Schengen visas for Bulgarian nationals in 2001, Bulgaria became a major country of origin for the trafficking in human beings exploited in the EU. The current analysis examines in-depth the financial underpinnings of the human trafficking for sexual exploitation in Bulgaria and discusses both the domestic market and the cross-border trafficking. It provides a general overview of the sources and mechanisms of the financing of trafficking in human beings, settlement of payments, access to financing in critical moments, costs of business, and the management of profits.
Georgios A. Antonopoulos, Andrea Di Nicola, Atanas Rusev, Fiamma Terenghi

2. Human Trafficking and Its Financial Management in Italy

Abstract
Trafficking in human beings for sexual and labour exploitation in Italy is a dynamic and highly profitable illicit market especially, although not exclusively, for foreign organised crime groups such as the Nigerians, Chinese and East Europeans. This results in part from the high numbers of migrants arriving to Italy from Africa, due to the key role of the Central Mediterranean route within the migration flows. The main focus of the chapter is an analysis of the financial mechanisms of trafficking in human beings for sexual and labour exploitation , which is a topic that remains under-investigated. The financing aspects taken into consideration are financiers and the source of capitals to start and sustain the trafficking operations, the methods of payment, the costs of doing business, profits made and investment schemes of revenues. The findings presented here underline the need of some start-up capital to run the business, the use of cash for most transactions, the low costs and high revenues of trafficking operations, as well as informal banking systems and money transfers for money laundering .
Georgios A. Antonopoulos, Andrea Di Nicola, Atanas Rusev, Fiamma Terenghi

3. Human Trafficking and Its Financial Management in the United Kingdom

Abstract
The UK is primarily a destination country for trafficking victims from central and southeastern Europe, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. There have also been cases in which the UK was a transit and source country for trafficking victims. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an account of the financial management of the human trafficking business in the UK. It provides a general overview of the human trafficking business and discusses existing relations between the legitimate sectors and human trafficking in the UK. Moreover, it offers an account of the social organisation of human trafficking in the UK and the key actors involved before describing the financial aspects of human trafficking in terms of sources of financing, settlement of payments, costs of business, as well as profits, profits spending and investment. Finally, it examines the role of the internet in the human trafficking business and its finances.
Georgios A. Antonopoulos, Andrea Di Nicola, Atanas Rusev, Fiamma Terenghi

Backmatter

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