Skip to main content
main-content
Top

2022 | Book

Hydrogen Assisted Direct Reduction of Iron Oxides

share
SHARE
insite
SEARCH

About this book

The book describes the main approaches to produce and synthesize iron and steel through hydrogen-based technologies. Depending on the processing route and on the energy demand, the best available techniques and the most forward-looking solutions are explained. The book is edited with the contribution representing a range of industries in order to evaluate the industrial feasibility of each selected technology. It presents the most efficient solutions applied by ironmaking and steelmaking factories all around the world.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
Hydrogen Revolution
Abstract
The industrial sector accounts for the largest share of global energy consumption. Given a continuously increasing demand for industrial products, the key for industrial decarbonization is decoupling its production from the produced CO2 emissions. The replacement of traditional energy production based on carbon sources with renewables is insufficient for the inversion of global warming. A major transformation and redesign of the global energy system is required toward decarbonization and to achieve the Paris Agreement targets. This Grand Transition is a complex pressing issue where global joint efforts and system solutions are essential with hydrogen being one of them. In this chapter, the hydrogen properties as crucial energy vector of the future are described. The present hydrogen production routes and utilization are indicated. Obviously, the largest attention is devoted at the so-called green hydrogen production route based on renewables or on carbon-free power sources. Among the main civil and industrial applications, the role of hydrogen for steel industry decarbonization is largely emphasized. At the end of the chapter, the main projects related to hydrogen-assisted steelmaking initiatives are highlighted.
Pasquale Cavaliere
Hydrogen as Energy Carrier
Abstract
Hydrogen will become a crucial energy vector and the other leg of the energy transition alongside renewable electricity by replacing coal, oil, gas, and conventional hydrogen across different segments of the economy. Hydrogen versatility as energy carrier is underlined as a key actor in decarbonization. His capability of storage energy during renewables production peaks is a crucial factor of its potential introduction in many civil and industrial sectors. Obviously, this depends on its “color” that influence the new acceptability because of the major or minor weight of traditional carbon sources. The chapter largely describes the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen as energy carrier. Hydrogen storage in innovative materials is reviewed as a great solution for large-scale production. In this chapter, the production routes based on hydrocarbons or clean sources are reviewed and compared. As a matter of fact, the role of temperature and pressure is deeply highlighted.
Pasquale Cavaliere
Hydrogen in Reduction Processes
Abstract
Given the decarbonization path, coking plants, sinter plants, blast furnaces, and basic oxygen furnaces would have to be replaced. In this view, hydrogen reduction is believed to be the most promising way to produce steel in the next and far future. The properties of hydrogen as energy carrier useful for efficient reduction of iron ores is described in this chapter. The basic mechanisms related to the direct reduction of iron ores through hydrogen are detailed and analyzed. The kinetic analysis of hydrogen metallurgy in a wide range of conditions is reviewed. The thermodynamic analysis in various conditions of gas mixtures employed during iron ores reduction are detailed. Large attention was devoted to the energy efficiency of the reduction processes as a function of the different employed reducing gases. All the previous factors are described from the macro to the atomic scale.
Pasquale Cavaliere
Hydrogen Production from Recycled Gases
Abstract
The hydrogen production from non-renewable sources continue to grow all around the world because of the continuous needing of such energetic vector in the modern industry. The decomposition of hydrocarbons basics for the hydrogen synthesis are described in this chapter. First of all, the coal gasification procedure and reactors are reviewed. Steam reforming and syngas production are largely described. The processes performances are analyzed and compared with those belonging to traditional conventional routes. All those issues related to carbon capture and utilization are described with particular emphasis to the steel industry. The chemical looping and the utilization in the conventional routes are highlighted.
Pasquale Cavaliere
Hydrogen Ironmaking
Abstract
Hydrogen is an excellent reducing agent to make steel from iron ores. Obviously, the hard path to total decarbonization depends on the deep employment of green hydrogen. Modern hydrogen metallurgy is the main subject of this chapter. The employment of hydrogen in the traditional integrated ironmaking and steelmaking route is reviewed. The various utilizations of hydrogen in the modern blast furnace are highlighted. The kinetic and thermodynamic issues related to the direct reduction processes in the blast furnaces are largely described. Power to hydrogen and power to syngas technologies for the application in the blast furnace are analyzed. The hydrogen employment in the modern DRI-EAF route is analyzed and described. The hydrogen employment in smelting is also reviewed. Finally, the nuclear hydrogen steelmaking is described.
Pasquale Cavaliere
Hydrogen from Electrolysis
Abstract
The decarbonization of human activities needs that hydrogen will be produced through sustainable routes. One of the most promising ways is the electrolysis of water with the energy sources provided by renewables. The main available technologies available for the hydrogen production through electrolysis are reviewed in this chapter. The fundamentals of water electrolysis are described. The problematics related to the desalinization and purification of sea water for its employment in water electrolyzers are described. The new decoupled electrochemical water splitting is highlighted. Obviously, the fundamental energy issues and the energy efficiency of the new route for the application in the steel industry is described. The fundamental aspects related to the choice of high-temperature or low-temperature technologies are analyzed. The key aspect of the integration of water electrolysis with renewable sources is discussed.
Pasquale Cavaliere
Hydrogen Direct Reduced Iron
Abstract
Direct reduced iron is considered the primary actor in the transition to a sustainable steelmaking route. In this chapter, all the developed direct reduced iron routes are described. The basic fundamentals, related to gas direct reduction, are analyzed. In order to produce carbon-free steel, hydrogen is fundamental. The iron ores reduction through hydrogen and the various available technology solutions are described. The fundamental kinetics and thermodynamic limits solutions of the various technological solutions are underlined. These issues related to different reducing gases compositions are analyzed. The advantages related to the employment of direct reduced iron in the blast furnace are evaluated. The problematics related to the direct reduced iron handling and usage are described. Electricity and energy issues are largely described. The new route of green hydrogen produced to reduce iron oxides finds large attention in the chapter. The energetic issues related to hydrogen produced via hot or cold water electrolysis are analyzed. The technological issues related to the employment of direct reduced iron in the electric arc furnaces are described. Also, the innovative DRI-open bath slag furnaces are presented.
Pasquale Cavaliere
Hydrogen Plasma Reduction
Abstract
Hydrogen plasma represents a promising alternative in the steelmaking world because vibrationally excited molecular, atomic, and ionic states of hydrogen are capable of reducing iron ores at low temperatures. The plasma basics are described in this chapter. The reduction of iron ores at ionic state is analyzed from the thermal and kinetic point of view. The reduction evolution of iron oxides in a plasma atmosphere is described. The available plasma reactors for hydrogen reduction of iron ores are described.
Pasquale Cavaliere
Flash Ironmaking
Abstract
The flash ironmaking technology is an innovative process that uses iron ore concentrate directly without further treatment. The fineness of the concentrate particles allows a very rapid reaction rate, thus requiring residence times measured in seconds instead of the minutes and hours it takes to reduce pellets and even iron ore fines. Obviously, the thermodynamic issues related to this very fast reduction process are analyzed in this chapter. The employed reactors are described. The questions related to different gases atmospheres that can be employed in the process are discussed. The energy consumption due to the reduction times reduction are highlighted. The open questions related to the time temperature of reduction are discussed in this chapter.
Pasquale Cavaliere
Hydrogen Economy
Abstract
Hydrogen production and storage are the main issues related to its large-scale utilization. Water electrolysis large-scale implementation for the production of green H2 has been hampered mainly by cost issues. In this chapter, the main costs issues related to the hydrogen economy transition are analyzed. This is a fundamental aspect for the steel-energy planning. The costs related to innovative steelmaking routes are compared with those belonging to the traditional integrated route. The fundamental aspects of hydrogen production costs by route are highlighted. The forecasts related to new energy solutions for hydrogen production are analyzed. Finally, the economic issues related to hydrogen production to direct reduction reactors are underlined.
Pasquale Cavaliere
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
Hydrogen Assisted Direct Reduction of Iron Oxides
Author
Prof. Dr. Pasquale Cavaliere
Copyright Year
2022
Electronic ISBN
978-3-030-98056-6
Print ISBN
978-3-030-98055-9
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-98056-6

Premium Partners